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Intigrated circuit

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Intigrated circuit

  1. 2. INTEGRATED CIRCUITS by KHURRAM IMTIAZ 03F-EE-39
  2. 3. CONTENTS <ul><li>SCALE OF INTEGRATION </li></ul><ul><li>CLASSIFICATION </li></ul><ul><li>MONOLITHIC IC </li></ul><ul><li>THICK & THIN FILM IC </li></ul><ul><li>MULTICHIP IC </li></ul><ul><li>LINEAR IC </li></ul><ul><li>DIGITAL IC </li></ul><ul><li>ADVANTAGES & AND DISADVANTAGES </li></ul>
  3. 4. WHAT IS AN INTEGRATED CIRCUIT? <ul><li>An IC is complete electronic circuit in which both the active & passive components are fabricated on a tiny single chip of SLICON . </li></ul><ul><li>Active components are those components which are able to produce gain. </li></ul><ul><li>Passive components are those components which do not have this ability. </li></ul>
  4. 5. HISTORY <ul><li>Tremendous changes in Electronic circuitry starts after the invention of Triode by L.D Forest in 1907. </li></ul><ul><li>Invention of Transistor in 1948 by W.H Bardeen & I.Bardeen electronic circuit became reduced in size. </li></ul><ul><li>In early 1960 field of microelectronic born to meet the requirement of Military. </li></ul>
  5. 6. CONTD… <ul><li>J.S Kilby was first person who develop IC. </li></ul><ul><li>Soon after Robert Noyce fabricate a complete IC including interconnection on single chip. </li></ul>
  6. 7. SCALE OF INTEGRATION <ul><li>SSI – small scale integration </li></ul><ul><li>MSI – medium scale integration </li></ul><ul><li>LSI – large scale integration </li></ul><ul><li>VLSI – very large scale integration </li></ul><ul><li>ULSI – ultra large scale integration </li></ul><ul><li>GSI – giga scale integration </li></ul>
  7. 8. CIRCUITS PER CHIP <ul><li>SSI < 12 (No. of comp.less than 50) </li></ul><ul><li>MSI 12 – 99 (No. of comp. 50 – 5000) </li></ul><ul><li>LSI 100 – 9999 (No. of comp. 5000 – 100000) </li></ul><ul><li>VLSI 10000 – 99999 (No. of comp. 100000 – 1000000) </li></ul><ul><li>ULSI 100000 – 999999 (No. of comp. 1000000 – 10000000) </li></ul><ul><li>GSI >1000000 (No. of comp. 100000000) </li></ul>
  8. 9. CLASSIFICATION OF IC’s <ul><li>On structure basis </li></ul><ul><li>On function basis </li></ul>
  9. 10. ON STRUCTURE BASIS <ul><li>MONOLITHIC INTEGRATED CIRCUITS </li></ul><ul><li>THICK & THIN FILM INTEGRATED CIRCUITS </li></ul><ul><li>HYBRID / MULTICHIP INTEGRATED CIRCUITS </li></ul>
  10. 11. MONOLLITHIC IC <ul><li>The word monolithic means “SINGLE STONE” or more appropriately “Single solid structure’. </li></ul><ul><li>In this all circuit all components are fabricated within single continuous piece of silicon crystalline material called “WAFER” or “SUBSTRATE” </li></ul>
  11. 12. ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES OF MONOLITHIC IC’s <ul><li>These have advantage of lower cost and high reliability. </li></ul><ul><li>However they have poor isolation between the components, short range of passive components, no flexibility of circuit design. </li></ul><ul><li>INDUCTORS cannot be fabricated. </li></ul>
  12. 13. THICK & THIN FILM IC <ul><li>The difference between between thick & thin film are not their relative thickness but method of depositing film. </li></ul><ul><li>These IC’s are not formed within single silicon wafer but surface of an insulating substrate such as glass or ceramic materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Only passive components are formed through thick or thin film. </li></ul>
  13. 14. THIN FILM IC <ul><li>Such circuits are constructed by depositing film of conducting material through a mask on the surface of substrate made of glass or ceramic. </li></ul><ul><li>Following methods are used to produce thin film. </li></ul><ul><li>VACUUME EVAPORATION </li></ul><ul><li>CATHODE SPRUTTERING </li></ul>
  14. 15. THICK FILM IC <ul><li>These are printed thin film circuits. </li></ul><ul><li>Silk screen printing techniques are employed to create the desired circuit pattern on the surface of substrate </li></ul>
  15. 16. ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES OF FILM IC’s <ul><li>These have advantages of forming passive components of broader range. </li></ul><ul><li>High tolerance </li></ul><ul><li>Isolation is better </li></ul><ul><li>Better high frequency performance. </li></ul>
  16. 17. CONTD… <ul><li>Not able to fabricate active components </li></ul><ul><li>Comparatively higher cost </li></ul><ul><li>Larger physical size </li></ul>
  17. 18. HYBRID IC <ul><li>These IC’s are formed either by interconnecting a number of individual chips or by combination of film & monolithic ICs </li></ul><ul><li>They have chief advantage high flexibility but too much expensive for mass production and least reliability. </li></ul>
  18. 19. ON FUNCTION BASIS <ul><li>LINEAR </li></ul><ul><li>DIGITAL </li></ul>
  19. 20. LINEAR IC’s (LICs) <ul><li>These also referred as “Analog IC”. </li></ul><ul><li>They possess much high reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Their use is much less as compared to digital and mostly used in military and industrial application </li></ul>
  20. 21. USE OF LIC’s <ul><li>Operational amp. </li></ul><ul><li>Power amp. </li></ul><ul><li>Microwave amp. </li></ul><ul><li>Voltage comparators </li></ul><ul><li>Small – signal amp. </li></ul><ul><li>RF & IF amp. </li></ul><ul><li>Multipliers </li></ul><ul><li>Voltage regulators </li></ul>
  21. 22. DIGITAL IC’s <ul><li>About 80% of IC market has been captured by digital IC which is mostly used in computer IC </li></ul><ul><li>Digital IC contain circuits whose input and output voltages are limited to 2 possible level – high and low </li></ul>
  22. 23. USES OF DIGITAL IC’s <ul><li>Digital circuits </li></ul><ul><li>Flip – flops </li></ul><ul><li>Counters </li></ul><ul><li>Clock chips </li></ul><ul><li>Calculator chips </li></ul><ul><li>Memory chips </li></ul><ul><li>Microprocessors </li></ul>
  23. 24. ADVANTAGES OF IC’s <ul><li>Extremely small physical size </li></ul><ul><li>Very small weight </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced cost </li></ul><ul><li>Extremely high reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Increased response time & speed </li></ul><ul><li>Low power consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Easy replacement </li></ul><ul><li>Higher yield </li></ul>
  24. 25. DRAWBACK OF IC’s <ul><li>Coils & inductors cannot be fabricated </li></ul><ul><li>IC’s function are fairly low voltage </li></ul><ul><li>They handle only limited amount of power </li></ul><ul><li>They are quite delicate and cannot withstand rough handling or excessive heat </li></ul>
  25. 26. THANK YOU

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