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Birra Lezione AIS Primo Livello sommelier

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Birra Lezione AIS Primo Livello sommelier

  1. 1. Birra : produzione e stili <ul><li>Somm. Prof. Andrea Gori </li></ul>
  2. 2. Perchè la birra? <ul><li>Articolo 3 statuto AIS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“(...) Essa pertanto svolgerà ogni attività, di carattere culturale, didattico ed editoriale, per propagandare la conoscenza e il consumo dei vini e di altre bevande alcoliche (...)” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quota di mercato considerevole </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acqua 182 litri/anno </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vino 50 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Birra 30 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soft drinks 68 </li></ul></ul>Fonte dati: Associazione degli Industriali della Birra e del Malto 2004
  3. 3. Diffusione birra: numeri e tendenze <ul><li>23 lt/procapite di birra contro 4 lt/procapite di vino </li></ul><ul><li>Consumo per paese (lt/procapite): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Europa: Rep.Ceca 81, Germania 69, Danimarca 66 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non UE: Venezuela 67, AUS 66, USA 62, NZ 54 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Italia “solo” 30 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Produzione di tipo industriale </li></ul><ul><li>Microbirrifici e homebrewing </li></ul>Fonte: The Economist, Il Mondo in Cifre, 2006
  4. 4. Top 20 Birre “mondiali”
  5. 5. Ingredienti <ul><li>Acqua </li></ul><ul><li>Orzo </li></ul><ul><li>Luppolo </li></ul><ul><li>Lievito </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinheitsgebot (1516) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Acqua <ul><li>Durezza e Morbidezza (Ca, Mg, CaCO3, SO4) gradi francesi </li></ul><ul><li>Acque “famose” (Burton on Trent ) e caratterizzanti </li></ul><ul><li>Dal rubinetto? Agenti salificanti </li></ul>
  7. 7. Orzo <ul><li>Two rows ( d istico) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poco N e pochi enzimi e proteine, meno produttivo </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Six rows (esastico) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alta conc. Proteine, enzimi, per birre con aggiunte </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Si usano anche: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mais </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>frumento </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>segale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>avena </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>riso </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Luppolo <ul><li>Bilancia il dolce del malto </li></ul><ul><li>Solo dal XIII secolo </li></ul><ul><li>Infiorescenze femminili </li></ul><ul><li>Pallets </li></ul><ul><li>Varie specie </li></ul><ul><ul><li>varietà locali famose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AAU, IBU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Da amaro o da aroma </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Lieviti: Alta e Bassa Fermentazione <ul><li>Saccaromices Cerevisae </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Il più antico (anche per pane!) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lavora a 12-23° </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Si sedimenta in alto nel tino </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce esteri e altre sostanze aromatiche </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Saccaromices Carlsbergiensis o Uvarum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Da scoperta refrigerazione </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lavora a 7-8° </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sedimentazione sul fondo del tino </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gusto più pulito </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Altri ingredienti <ul><li>Spezie </li></ul><ul><li>Miele </li></ul><ul><li>Caramello </li></ul><ul><li>Affumicature </li></ul><ul><li>Frutta (scorze di agrumi...) </li></ul><ul><li>Muffe e altri organismi ( E. coli ) non controllati con fermentazione spontanea ( Brettanomices nel Lambic ) </li></ul><ul><li>Lactobacillus delbruecki (Berliner Weisse ) </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Tecnica di Produzione </li></ul><ul><li>Maltazione e tostatura </li></ul><ul><li>Ammostamento </li></ul><ul><li>Cottura e luppolatura </li></ul><ul><li>Prima fermentazione </li></ul><ul><li>Maturazione </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eventuale seconda fermentazione </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eventuale pastorizzazione </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Imbottigliamento </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eventuale rifermentazione in bottiglia </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Dal cereale al bicchiere </li></ul><ul><li>Dall'orzo al malto </li></ul><ul><li>Dal malto al mosto </li></ul><ul><li>Dal mosto alla birra </li></ul><ul><li>Dalla birra al contenitore finale </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eventuale pastorizzazione </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spillatura </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Dall'orzo al Malto </li></ul><ul><li>Macerazione: in acqua per 48 ore a 10-15° </li></ul><ul><li>Germinazione: 6 gg a 14-16°, sviluppo radichette </li></ul><ul><li>Modificazione: enzimi e proteine si attivano </li></ul><ul><li>Asciugatura </li></ul><ul><ul><li>essiccazione </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>torrefazione </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Macinatura --> farina </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Effetti tostatura sul malto </li></ul>Malto chiaro 60-80° (Vienna, Pale) Scuro 100-150° (Dortmund, Monaco) Caramellato 170-180° (Crystal) Colorante 210-220° (Chocolate)
  15. 15. <ul><li>Dal Malto al Mosto </li></ul><ul><li>Miscelazione in acqua ( 2-3 litri per kg farina) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Riscaldamento e mescolamento (65-68°) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ammostamento con azione enzimatica e saccarificazione </li></ul><ul><ul><li>dalle 2 alle 4 ore </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infusione </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decozione </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Filtrazione a 76-78° con utilizzo delle trebbie </li></ul><ul><li>Dall'amido agli zuccheri fermentabili: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glucosio fruttosio mannosio galattosio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maltosio, saccarosio, lattosio </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Cottura del mosto </li></ul><ul><li>Bollitura sterilizzante (1-2h) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In caldaie di rame “cuore” della birreria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ferma attività enzimatica </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stabilizza sali per ph </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vaporizza oli indesiderati </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formazione sost aromatiche </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aggiusta densità mosto </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Luppolatura </li></ul><ul><li>Aggiunte di spezie o altro </li></ul>
  17. 17. Grado saccarometrico <ul><li>% di estratto nel mosto prima della fermentazione </li></ul><ul><li>Grado Plato: l'equivalente della densità misurata in percentuale peso/peso di una soluzione di saccarosio diluita in acqua </li></ul><ul><li>Grado Saccarometrico x 0,4 = grado alcolico </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DoppelBock Eku 28°P = 11% alc. vol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lager Heineken 12,5°P = 5% alc. vol </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Classificazione per grado saccarometrico <ul><li>Birra analcolica - alcol 0,8% </li></ul><ul><li>Birra light - 5-10°P; alcol 2-4% </li></ul><ul><li>Birra - 10,5-14,5°P; alcol 4,2-5,8% </li></ul><ul><li>Birra speciale - 12,5-14,5°P; alcol 5-5,8% </li></ul><ul><li>Birra doppio malto - 15°P≤; alcol > 6% </li></ul>
  19. 19. Dal mosto alla birra (1) <ul><li>Raffreddamento </li></ul><ul><li>Aggiunta lieviti e altro </li></ul><ul><li>Fermentazione </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alta (15-20° S. Cerevisiae) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bassa (4-6° S. Carlsbergiensis) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spillatura </li></ul>
  20. 20. Dal mosto alla birra (2) <ul><li>Maturazione </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eventuale seconda fermentazione con altri lieviti </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eventuale altra luppolatura (dry-hop) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tra 0 e 2° per 4-5 settimane ma anche mesi </li></ul><ul><li>Saturazione di CO2 e carbonazione </li></ul><ul><li>Chiarificazione da residui di lievito e altro </li></ul><ul><li>Armonizzazione gusto </li></ul>
  21. 21. Dalla birra alla bottiglia o fustino <ul><li>Filtrazione </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eventuale pastorizzazione a 60° </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Imbottigliamento </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eventuale aggiunta di lievito </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rifermentazione in bottiglia --> più alcol, gusto alterato </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Distribuzione </li></ul><ul><li>Spillatura e consumo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problemi di servizio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difetti non evidenti ma molto comuni </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Durata fusti di birra </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Classificazione, stili e tipologie <ul><li>Alta fermentazione (Lieviti Ale) 10% </li></ul><ul><li>Ale (ale inglesi, Birre d'abbazia, Trappiste, BarleyWine, Kölsch) </li></ul><ul><li>Stout (es: Guinnes) </li></ul><ul><li>Porter (es: RePorter) </li></ul><ul><li>Weizen (Weissbier, Bière Blanche) </li></ul><ul><li>Bassa fermentazione (Lieviti Lager) 89% </li></ul><ul><li>Lager Kellerbier, Strong Lager, Münchner, Dunkel (es: Heineken, Miller) </li></ul><ul><li>Rauchbier , Schwarzbier </li></ul><ul><li>Pils , Pilsner, Pilsener, Light Pils (es. Jever, Pilsener Urquell) </li></ul><ul><li>Bock Doppelbock, Maibock, Eisbock, Ice Beer </li></ul><ul><li>Fermentazione spontanea 1% </li></ul><ul><li>Lambic, alcune trappiste </li></ul>
  23. 23. Bicchieri <ul><li>Ogni birra ha il suo bicchiere </li></ul><ul><li>Tentativi di standardizzazione </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rastal </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Cosa degustiamo stasera <ul><li>Lager chiara o pils </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pilsener urquell, helles bavarese o lager stile heineken </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ReAle Birrificio del Borgo o Bass Pale Ale inglese (rossa) </li></ul><ul><li>Stout “alternativa” come la RePorter o guinness in lattina </li></ul><ul><li>Barleywine Foghorn USA o Trappista </li></ul>
  25. 25. Temperatura di servizio <ul><li>6 - 7 ° C: Lager Leggere </li></ul><ul><li>7 – 8°C: Weizen </li></ul><ul><li>8 – 10°C: Pilsener, Lager, Lambic </li></ul><ul><li>10 – 12°C: Golden Ale, Doppelbock (Doppio Malto), Alt </li></ul><ul><li>12 – 15°C: Ale inglesi, Trappiste e Abbazia </li></ul><ul><li>15 – 18°C: Irish Stout, Porter </li></ul>
  26. 26. Come degustare una birra <ul><li>ANALISI ORGANOLETTICA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Esame visivo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Esame olfattivo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Esame gusto-olfattivo </li></ul></ul><ul><li>I DIFETTI NELLA BIRRA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Luce (cotto, cavolo) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ossigeno (cartone bagnato) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sapore metallico </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Odore di cotto (cavolo = dimetil solfuro) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gusto di vecchio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uova marce (idrogeno solforato) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Burro (diacetile) </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Scheda sensoriale </li></ul>
  28. 28. Tipi bicchieri (1)
  29. 29. Tipi bicchieri (2)
  30. 30. Breve Storia <ul><li>Mesopotamia </li></ul><ul><li>Egitto (hekt) – mito di Ra e Hathor </li></ul><ul><li>Codice di Hammurabi (1750 a.C. ca.) </li></ul><ul><li>Grecia: Eschilo, Aristotele </li></ul><ul><li>Roma: Plinio Il Vecchio, Tacito </li></ul><ul><li>Il Medioevo: i monasteri </li></ul><ul><li>Guglielmo II (1516): Reinheitsgebot </li></ul><ul><li>W. Shakespeare: “A quart of Ale is a dish for a king!” (Winter’s Tale IV 3) </li></ul>
  31. 31. Abbinamenti (1) <ul><li>Questione “pizza” </li></ul><ul><li>Con che cosa abbinereste... </li></ul><ul><li>Anguille affumicate norvegesi (Aal)? </li></ul><ul><li>Grun Kuhl con Bratwurst? </li></ul><ul><li>Pizza acciughe e capperi? </li></ul><ul><li>Stinco di maiale alla bavarese? </li></ul><ul><li>Parmigiano reggiano stravecchio? </li></ul>
  32. 32. Abbinamenti (2) <ul><li>        </li></ul><ul><li>Formaggi (dolci) --> Gueze, Old Ale, Porter, Trappista     </li></ul><ul><li>Formaggi ( saporiti) --> Barley Wine, Bière de garde, Porter, Rauchbier, Gieze, Old Ale, Stout, trappista.     </li></ul><ul><li>        </li></ul><ul><li>Primi Piatti       </li></ul><ul><li>Pasta al sugo di carne --> ale dorata Munich 9 °C </li></ul><ul><li>Risotto funghi -->lager, pils Stella Artois 9 °C </li></ul>
  33. 33. Abbinamenti (3) <ul><li>Carni rosse --> bock Splugen Bock 9 °C </li></ul><ul><li>Carni rosse --> ale Biére du Demon 8 °C </li></ul><ul><li>Carni rosse alla brace --> trappista Orval - Chimay 14 °C </li></ul><ul><li>Selvaggina --> Bock o Doppelbock, lambic alla frutta   </li></ul><ul><li>Agnello --> Ale chiara, Brown Ale     </li></ul><ul><li>Maiale--> Wiener, Ale chiara, trappista, Maibock, Weizen     </li></ul><ul><li>Hamburger --> Ale chiara, Lager chiara     </li></ul><ul><li>Salsiccia --> Weizen chiara tedesca, Wiener, Rauchbier, Marzen </li></ul><ul><li>Carni bianche arrosto --> lager o pilsner Warsteiner 5-7 °C </li></ul>
  34. 34. Abbinamenti (4) <ul><li>       </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dessert cremosi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Barlet Wine, Doppelbock, Porter, Eisbock, Imperial Stout, trappista </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dessert alla frutta </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>lambic alla frutta, stout, Witbier, Porter, Weizen, Ale invernale o speziata     </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>        </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digestivo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Barley Wine, Doppelbock   </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Curiosità <ul><li>Forse non sapete che... </li></ul><ul><ul><li>La birra è consumata da due italiani su tre </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gli appassionati sono soprattutto uomini informati che vivono </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in città di età compresa tra i 30 e i 40 anni </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>La birra è ormai considerata un alimento vero e proprio. Si beve sempre di più a tavola durante i pasti. Sulla quantità prevalgono gusto e qualità </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metà degli italiani vorrebbe trovare una carta delle birre quando mangia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negli ultimi dieci anni il consumo di birra è passato da 24 a oltre 29 litri a testa mentre la produzione è salita di oltre il 15%. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ogni anno nel nostro Paese beviamo oltre 17 milioni di ettolitri di birra contro 30 milioni di ettolitri di vino. Cioè 28 litri pro capite contro 51. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dal punto di vista produttivo l'Italia occupa la nona posizione al mondo con una produzione di oltre 13 mila ettolitri. </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Trappiste

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