International migration of nurses in the philippines
International Migration of Nurses In the Philippines Globalization and Social Change TAKAHASHI, Kimiaki Prof. Rico BURAGAGraduate School of International Development, NagoyaUniversity
Purpose To describe the push and pull factors of nurse migration in the Philippines.Organizing Construct Review of literature on Filipino nurse migration, and examination of effects on sending country health sector.
Topic OutlineI. INTRODUCTION A. Current Economic Condition B. Philippine MigrationII. NURSE MIGRATION SITUATIONIII. DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF NURSE MIGRANTSIV. REASONS FOR MIGRATION A. Push Factors B. Pull FactorsV. PHENOMENON OF DOCTORS BECOME NURSE MEDICSVI. REASONS FOR RETURNINGVII. IMPACT OF NURSE MIGRATIONVII. CONCLUSIONIX. POLICY RECOMMENDATIONSX. REFFERENCES
INTRODUCTIONBackground on Current Economic Situation • Rapidly growing population projected population: 89,468,677 (July 2006 est.) •Unemployment rates around 8.1% (2006 est.) •Job opportunities have not increased correspondingly with population increase •Every year about 600,000 young people begin looking for work in a various economic sectors
Background on Philippine Migration More than 10 million overseas Filipinos worldwide, about 11% of the total population of the PhilippinesThe amount total annual remittance represents 13.5% ofthe countrys GDP Remittance by OFWs back to the Philippines is a major factor in the countrys economy, amounting to more than US$10 billion in 2005.
Figure 1. Trend in Deployment of Filipino Nurses Abroad, 1992- 2003 13536 Number of Filipino Nurses 11911 8968 7584 7683 6744 6699 5747 5413 4734 4242 4591 Yr Yr Yr Yr Yr Yr Yr Yr Yr Yr Yr Yr 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003Source: Philippine Overseas Employment Administration. URL: www.poea.gov.ph
Figure 2. Trend of Deployment of Health Workers Abroad, 1992-2003 20000 18000 DENTISTS 16000 DIETITIANS AND PUBLIC 14000 HEALTH NUTRITIONISTS 12000 DOCTORS MEDICAL Population 10000 MIDWIVES PROFESSIONAL 8000 NURSES PROFESSIONAL 6000 OPTOMETRISTS AND 4000 OPTICIANS PHARMACISTS 2000 PHYSIOTHERAPISTS AND 0 OCCUPATIONAL THERAPISTS TECHNICIANS MEDICAL X- 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 19 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 19 19 20 20 RAYSource: Philippine Overseas Employment Administration. URL: www.poea.gov.ph
Total Number of Nurses in the Country• Total Registered Nurses (1960-2003) = 333, 581• Estimated Deaths = 1, 375.20• Estimated Current Stock of Nurses = 332, 206SUPPLY AND DEMAND:• Supply = 332, 206• Demand = 193, 223• Oversupply = 138, 983
Country of DestinationsTraditional Markets: Middle East, North AmericaNew Markets: Europe especially UK, Netherlands, High Income Asia Emerging Markets: Japan and Nurse Education abroad
Demographic Profile of Filipino Nurse MigrantsPredominantly femaleYoung - 20’s -30’sFrom Middle Class Family Mostly with basic professional education ;some with masters’ degrees Specialized in Critical Care nursing, OR and ER, and rendered 1-10 years of service before migration
Reasons Why Filipino Nurses Leave the CountryPush Factors• Economic: low salary at home, no overtime and hazard pay, low coverage of health insurance•Job-related: work overload or stressful working environment, slow promotion• Socio-political and economic environment: limited opportunities for employment, decreased health budget
Reasons Why Filipino Nurses Leave the CountryPull FactorsEconomic: higher income, better benefits and compensation packageJob-related: Lower nurse to patient ratio, more options in working hoursIndividual/Family-related: Chance to upgrade nursing skills, acquisition of immigrant visa and opportunity for family to migrate, opportunity to travel and learn other cultures, influence from peers and relatives Socio-political and Economic environment: Advanced technology, better peace and order situation
The Phenomenon of Doctors Become Nurse PUSH FACTORS Medics•very low compensation and salaries• feeling of hopelessness about the Philippine economic situation•political instability•poor working conditions•the threat of malpractice law PULL FACTORS•more socio-politico- economic security abroad•more job opportunities and career growth• high salaries, benefits, compensation
Reasons Why Filipino Nurses Return:Personal Reasons To get married To raise children in homeland To take a vacation Homesickness and depression To retire To get familyProfessional Reasons To share expertise learned abroad
Reasons Why Filipino Nurses Return Financial Reasons -Nurse has saved enough money -To set up a business at home Job-related Reasons -To buy a house or a car Social Reasons -Contract has expired -Plans to retire back home
Impact of Nurse MigrationEffect On Family Positive: Increase family Income Better quality of life for family Negative: Loss of family values Social cost
Impact of Nurse MigrationEffect On Health Care System •Positive Transfer of technology Negative Loss of senior, competent staff Compromised health care due to inadequate pool of skilled workers The HR becomes more expensive Some hospitals have closed down because there are not enough nurses and no applicants for various residency programs Increased patients to nurse ratio
Impact of Nurse MigrationEffect on the Nursing as a Profession Positive Encourages Filipinos to take up health courses Exposure to different culture, work ethics, technology transfer if they return Career advancement because of better technology in host countries Top students go into nursing Negative repercussions of other professionals moving into nursing (incompetent and unproductive nurses)
Social Net BenefitsWinnersNurse migrants and their families- (increasedhousehold income)Economy – remittances, raise hours worked in self-employment and lead to relatively capital-intensiveenterprises by migrants’ households
Social Net BenefitsLosers Health Care System Loss of skilled trained health staff Rendered health system fragile Extended Families Family members will be far apart (may lead to psychological or social problems) Philippine Nursing Ability to renew and further nursing development is hampered
CONCLUSION - Nurses migrate to seek better wages and working conditions abroad. - Migration is predicted to continue until hosting countries address the underlying causes of nurse shortages and the Philippines address conditions that cause nurses to leave. - Given the current conditions, workers migration in general have a positive impact in Philippine economy.
REFFERENCES:Battistella, Graziano and Anthony Paganoni, eds. 1992. Philippine Labor Migration: Impact and Policy. Quezon City: Scalabrini Migration Center. Cariño, Benjamin V., ed. 1998. Filipinos on the Move: Trends, Dilemmas and Policy Options. Quezon City: Philippine Migration Research Network. Donna, Kline Push and Pull Factors in International Nurse Migration. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/links/doi/10.1111/j.1547-5069.2003.00107.x/enhancedabs/ Dooley, K. (2002, July 13). Hospital imports nurses from the Philippines to alleviate shortage. Lexington Herald-Leader, A1. Gonzales, Joaquin III. 1998. Philippine Labour Migration: Critical Dimensions of Public Policy. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. Martin, Philip. Best Practices to Manage Migration: The Philippines. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1747-7379.2004.tb00247.x Philippine Overseas Employment Administration. http://www.poea.gov.ph/ Philippine National Statistics Office. http://www.nso.gov.ph/ United States Central Intelligence Agency Fact Book. URL://https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/print/rp.htmlWikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/migrant/download/imp/imp64.pdf http://www.unesco.org/most/apmrnw11.htm http://www.pmrw.org/ http://www.migrationinformation.org/Profiles/display.cfm?ID=364 http://www.icmc.net/pdf/phillipines_may_2006.pdf http://www.academyhealth.org/international/nursemigration/lorenzo.ppt http://www.osce.org/publications/eea/2006/05/19187_625_en.pdf http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/natlex_browse.details?p_lang=en&p_country=PHL&p_classification=17&p_origin=SUBJECT