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International migration of nurses in the philippines

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International migration of nurses in the Philippines. A presentation to describe the push and pull factors of nurse migration in the Philippines.

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International migration of nurses in the philippines

  1. 1. International Migration of Nurses In the Philippines Globalization and Social Change TAKAHASHI, Kimiaki Prof. Rico BURAGAGraduate School of International Development, NagoyaUniversity
  2. 2. Purpose To describe the push and pull factors of nurse migration in the Philippines.Organizing Construct Review of literature on Filipino nurse migration, and examination of effects on sending country health sector.
  3. 3. Topic OutlineI. INTRODUCTION A. Current Economic Condition B. Philippine MigrationII. NURSE MIGRATION SITUATIONIII. DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF NURSE MIGRANTSIV. REASONS FOR MIGRATION A. Push Factors B. Pull FactorsV. PHENOMENON OF DOCTORS BECOME NURSE MEDICSVI. REASONS FOR RETURNINGVII. IMPACT OF NURSE MIGRATIONVII. CONCLUSIONIX. POLICY RECOMMENDATIONSX. REFFERENCES
  4. 4. INTRODUCTIONBackground on Current Economic Situation • Rapidly growing population projected population: 89,468,677 (July 2006 est.) •Unemployment rates around 8.1% (2006 est.) •Job opportunities have not increased correspondingly with population increase •Every year about 600,000 young people begin looking for work in a various economic sectors
  5. 5. Background on Philippine Migration More than 10 million overseas Filipinos worldwide, about 11% of the total population of the PhilippinesThe amount total annual remittance represents 13.5% ofthe countrys GDP Remittance by OFWs back to the Philippines is a major factor in the countrys economy, amounting to more than US$10 billion in 2005.
  6. 6. Figure 1. Trend in Deployment of Filipino Nurses Abroad, 1992- 2003 13536 Number of Filipino Nurses 11911 8968 7584 7683 6744 6699 5747 5413 4734 4242 4591 Yr Yr Yr Yr Yr Yr Yr Yr Yr Yr Yr Yr 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003Source: Philippine Overseas Employment Administration. URL: www.poea.gov.ph
  7. 7. Table 1. Number of Filipino Nurses Deployed Abroad Per Year, 1992-2003 1992 5747 1993 6744 1994 6699 1995 7584 1996 4734 1997 4242 1998 4591 1999 5413 2000 7683 2001 13536 2002 11911 2003 8968 Total 87852Source: Philippine Overseas Employment Administration. URL: www.poea.gov.ph
  8. 8. Figure 2. Trend of Deployment of Health Workers Abroad, 1992-2003 20000 18000 DENTISTS 16000 DIETITIANS AND PUBLIC 14000 HEALTH NUTRITIONISTS 12000 DOCTORS MEDICAL Population 10000 MIDWIVES PROFESSIONAL 8000 NURSES PROFESSIONAL 6000 OPTOMETRISTS AND 4000 OPTICIANS PHARMACISTS 2000 PHYSIOTHERAPISTS AND 0 OCCUPATIONAL THERAPISTS TECHNICIANS MEDICAL X- 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 19 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 19 19 20 20 RAYSource: Philippine Overseas Employment Administration. URL: www.poea.gov.ph
  9. 9. Total Number of Nurses in the Country• Total Registered Nurses (1960-2003) = 333, 581• Estimated Deaths = 1, 375.20• Estimated Current Stock of Nurses = 332, 206SUPPLY AND DEMAND:• Supply = 332, 206• Demand = 193, 223• Oversupply = 138, 983
  10. 10. Table 3a. Deployment of Filipino Nurses by Major Country of Destination, Philippines 1992- 2003 Yea United United Arab Saudi Arabia United States Libya r Kingdom Emirates   Num % Num % Num % Num % Num % 1992 3279 57.06% 1767 30.75% 0 0.00% 269 4.68% 271 4.72% 1993 4202 62.31% 1987 29.46% 0 0.00% 721 10.69% 47 0.70% 1994 3332 49.74% 2853 42.59% 0 0.00% 15 0.22% 270 4.03% 1995 3249 42.84% 3690 48.66% 1 0.01% 380 5.01% 94 1.24% 1996 3071 64.87% 270 5.70% 0 0.00% 809 17.09% 137 2.89% 1997 3794 89.44% 11 0.26% 0 0.00% 175 4.13% 209 4.93% 1998 4098 89.26% 5 0.11% 63 1.37% 89 1.94% 279 6.08% 1999 4031 74.47% 53 0.98% 367 6.78% 18 0.33% 378 6.98% 2000 4386 57.09% 91 1.18% 295 3.84% 17 0.22% 305 3.97% 2001 5045 37.27% 304 2.25% 5383 39.77% 9 0.07% 243 1.80% 2002 5704 47.89% 320 2.69% 3105 26.07% 414 3.48% 405 3.40% 2003 5740 64.01% 196 2.19% 1544 17.22% 52 0.58% 226 2.52% Total 49931 56.84% 11547 13.14% 10758 12.25% 2968 3.38% 2864 3.26%Source: Philippine Overseas Employment Administration. URL: www.poea.gov.ph
  11. 11. Table 3b. Deployment of Filipino Nurses by Major Country of Destination, Philippines 1992- 2003 Year Ireland Singapore Kuwait Qatar Brunei   Num % Num % Num % Num % Num % 1992 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 320 5.57% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 1993 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 139 2.06% 0 0.00% 6 0.09% 1994 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 455 6.79% 6 0.09% 5 0.07% 1995 0 0.00% 79 1.04% 59 0.78% 10 0.13% 7 0.09% 1996 0 0.00% 264 5.58% 269 5.68% 6 0.13% 5 0.11% 1997 0 0.00% 228 5.37% 25 0.59% 14 0.33% 32 0.75% 1998 0 0.00% 224 4.88% 143 3.11% 21 0.46% 2 0.04% 1999 0 0.00% 154 2.85% 53 0.98% 12 0.22% 1 0.02% 2000 126 1.64% 292 3.80% 133 1.73% 7 0.09% 0 0.00% 2001 1529 11.30% 413 3.05% 182 1.34% 143 1.06% 1 0.01% 2002 915 7.68% 337 2.83% 108 0.91% 213 1.79% 9 0.08% 2003 207 2.31% 326 3.64% 51 0.57% 242 2.70% 2 0.02% Total 2777 3.16% 2317 2.64% 1937 2.20% 674 0.77% 70 0.08%Source: Philippine Overseas Employment Administration. URL: www.poea.gov.ph
  12. 12. Country of DestinationsTraditional Markets: Middle East, North AmericaNew Markets: Europe especially UK, Netherlands, High Income Asia Emerging Markets: Japan and Nurse Education abroad
  13. 13. Demographic Profile of Filipino Nurse MigrantsPredominantly femaleYoung - 20’s -30’sFrom Middle Class Family Mostly with basic professional education ;some with masters’ degrees Specialized in Critical Care nursing, OR and ER, and rendered 1-10 years of service before migration
  14. 14. Reasons Why Filipino Nurses Leave the CountryPush Factors• Economic: low salary at home, no overtime and hazard pay, low coverage of health insurance•Job-related: work overload or stressful working environment, slow promotion• Socio-political and economic environment: limited opportunities for employment, decreased health budget
  15. 15. Reasons Why Filipino Nurses Leave the CountryPull FactorsEconomic: higher income, better benefits and compensation packageJob-related: Lower nurse to patient ratio, more options in working hoursIndividual/Family-related: Chance to upgrade nursing skills, acquisition of immigrant visa and opportunity for family to migrate, opportunity to travel and learn other cultures, influence from peers and relatives Socio-political and Economic environment: Advanced technology, better peace and order situation
  16. 16. The Phenomenon of Doctors Become Nurse PUSH FACTORS Medics•very low compensation and salaries• feeling of hopelessness about the Philippine economic situation•political instability•poor working conditions•the threat of malpractice law PULL FACTORS•more socio-politico- economic security abroad•more job opportunities and career growth• high salaries, benefits, compensation
  17. 17. Reasons Why Filipino Nurses Return:Personal Reasons To get married To raise children in homeland To take a vacation Homesickness and depression To retire To get familyProfessional Reasons To share expertise learned abroad
  18. 18. Reasons Why Filipino Nurses Return Financial Reasons -Nurse has saved enough money -To set up a business at home Job-related Reasons -To buy a house or a car Social Reasons -Contract has expired -Plans to retire back home
  19. 19. Impact of Nurse MigrationEffect On Family Positive: Increase family Income Better quality of life for family Negative: Loss of family values Social cost
  20. 20. Impact of Nurse MigrationEffect On Health Care System •Positive Transfer of technology Negative Loss of senior, competent staff Compromised health care due to inadequate pool of skilled workers The HR becomes more expensive Some hospitals have closed down because there are not enough nurses and no applicants for various residency programs Increased patients to nurse ratio
  21. 21. Impact of Nurse MigrationEffect on the Nursing as a Profession Positive Encourages Filipinos to take up health courses Exposure to different culture, work ethics, technology transfer if they return Career advancement because of better technology in host countries Top students go into nursing Negative repercussions of other professionals moving into nursing (incompetent and unproductive nurses)
  22. 22. Social Net BenefitsWinnersNurse migrants and their families- (increasedhousehold income)Economy – remittances, raise hours worked in self-employment and lead to relatively capital-intensiveenterprises by migrants’ households
  23. 23. Social Net BenefitsLosers Health Care System Loss of skilled trained health staff Rendered health system fragile Extended Families Family members will be far apart (may lead to psychological or social problems) Philippine Nursing Ability to renew and further nursing development is hampered
  24. 24. CONCLUSION - Nurses migrate to seek better wages and working conditions abroad. - Migration is predicted to continue until hosting countries address the underlying causes of nurse shortages and the Philippines address conditions that cause nurses to leave. - Given the current conditions, workers migration in general have a positive impact in Philippine economy.
  25. 25. POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS
  26. 26. REFFERENCES:Battistella, Graziano and Anthony Paganoni, eds. 1992. Philippine Labor Migration: Impact and Policy. Quezon City: Scalabrini Migration Center. Cariño, Benjamin V., ed. 1998. Filipinos on the Move: Trends, Dilemmas and Policy Options. Quezon City: Philippine Migration Research Network. Donna, Kline Push and Pull Factors in International Nurse Migration. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/links/doi/10.1111/j.1547-5069.2003.00107.x/enhancedabs/ Dooley, K. (2002, July 13). Hospital imports nurses from the Philippines to alleviate shortage. Lexington Herald-Leader, A1. Gonzales, Joaquin III. 1998. Philippine Labour Migration: Critical Dimensions of Public Policy. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. Martin, Philip. Best Practices to Manage Migration: The Philippines. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1747-7379.2004.tb00247.x Philippine Overseas Employment Administration. http://www.poea.gov.ph/ Philippine National Statistics Office. http://www.nso.gov.ph/ United States Central Intelligence Agency Fact Book. URL://https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/print/rp.htmlWikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/migrant/download/imp/imp64.pdf http://www.unesco.org/most/apmrnw11.htm http://www.pmrw.org/ http://www.migrationinformation.org/Profiles/display.cfm?ID=364 http://www.icmc.net/pdf/phillipines_may_2006.pdf http://www.academyhealth.org/international/nursemigration/lorenzo.ppt http://www.osce.org/publications/eea/2006/05/19187_625_en.pdf http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/natlex_browse.details?p_lang=en&p_country=PHL&p_classification=17&p_origin=SUBJECT
  27. 27. thank you very much…!

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