<ul><li>About neologisms </li></ul><ul><li>Translation </li></ul><ul><li>Occurrence in language </li></ul><ul><li>Sources </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul>
Neology is one of the many translation problems that have no standardized solutions. In journalism neologisms occur very often for their ability and power of information condensation and their expressive effect.
Translators have to render them in the target language by using quite complicated reasoning, which involves many factors, such as text type, creative traditions, literary norms and conventions that are familiar to the reader of a certain society.
Various theorists have addressed the problem of neology, although the focus of each of them is different. Some have attempted to explain the reasons that enable the occurrence of neologisms in a language system.
Aichison <ul><li>For Aichison (1991) their occurrence is justified by three causes: “fashion, foreign influence and social need”. </li></ul>
Wardhaugh <ul><li>Wardhaugh (2002:188), on the other hand, states that new lexicon can eventuate either by utilization of elements already present in the language (internal process) or by borrowing lexicon from another language (external process). </li></ul>
<ul><li>Other theorists, like Cabré, Newmark and Rey have been focusing on the classification of neologisms according to type or function as well as on the proposal of strategies for dealing with the problem. </li></ul>
The theorists who have addressed the problem have agreed on the skills that translators need to occupy when they are called to deal with neologisms (i.e. creativity, curiosity, intuition, ingenuity, reflection and resourcefulness), but they have not yet come to a common theory on what kind of strategies and solutions are appropriate for translating different types of neologisms.
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Examples are taken from the Independent (pre-2000) or Guardian (2000-) newspaper. According to the system, new words are those which have not occurred in previously processed newspaper text of the same type. They are therefore not all new coinages.
skullcrushing – зриває голову <ul><li>Their take on 70s hard rock tends more towards the Zeppelin end of things rather than the Sabbath: there are plenty of acoustic guitars alongside the cranked-up electrics, and even at its most skullcrushing there's a swagger and a swing a funkiness that, say, Kyuss never aspired to. </li></ul>
To brick <ul><li>(verb): to brick is when you kill a small animal by way of crushing its cute little skull (or whole body if its small enough) with a brick. Usually done as a mercy kill if a baby bird/squirrel/mouse/runt puppy/kitten is injured/falls out of a tree/or is sick. </li></ul>
re-included - повторно включено <ul><li>A new Argos catalogue, with 18,500 products, is published tomorrow with prices of re-included products down an average of 4%. </li></ul>
well-worth-it – те , що дійсно коштує чогось <ul><li> He's the manager of gallery and creative hub Café Pause, and the author of the smashing superfuture pdf guide to Tokyo (which cost a well-worth-it $20). </li></ul>
never-sold – те що ніколи не продасться <ul><li>The problem with the first is that each car-boot pirate DVD (which I deplore: seriously, don't encourage those people) does not equate to a "lost" DVD sale. It's a never-sold DVD. </li></ul>
enormo-dome – величезна будівля <ul><li>U2 celebrate their alpha-plus-male status with the traditional belligerent euphoria in this 3 D concert movie; it was evidently performed at an enormo-dome in Buenos Aires, but for the first 10 or 15 minutes or so the cameras are so tight into the stage and its hi-tech backdrop that the band appear to be performing in a stadium-sized television studio. </li></ul>
son-of-an-immigrant - син іммігранта <ul><li>Obama's son-of-an-immigrant story and tale of getting through education with the help of a scholarship resonate with Latinos. </li></ul>
dance-brat – погано вихована дитина, що любить танцювати <ul><li>The picture's stars are 21 year-old Hollywood dance-brat Briana Evigan, who unleashes Sims's moves in the lowest-slung pants you've ever seen, and former New Adventures principal Will Kemp, who does a hilarious turn as a ballet-school headmaster with a poster of himself as Matthew Bourne's Swan in his office. </li></ul>
laugh-crazed – смішний до безтями <ul><li>Lesson two: avoid heavy irony because it always rebounds. If you begin a review by saying "Anyone looking for a riotous, fun-filled, laugh-crazed extravaganza would do well to avoid the new musical version of Proust's A la recherche du temps perdu" is asking for trouble. Lesson three: don't report audience reactions. </li></ul>
Twenties-era – двадцятого віку <ul><li>Gary Edgley, menswear buyer for Selfridges Wide-leg trousers There have been a lot of wide-leg, pleat-front, Twenties-era trousers this season. </li></ul>