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An introduction to storage provisioning with tivoli provisioning manager and total storage productivity center redp3900

  1. 1. Front coverAn Introduction to StorageProvisioningwith Tivoli Provisioning Managerand TotalStorage Productivity CenterAutomate provisioning of SAN FileSystemSimplify infrastructuremanagementEliminate human errors Steve Redpaper
  2. 2. International Technical Support OrganizationAn Introduction to Storage Provisioning with TivoliProvisioning Manager and TotalStorage ProductivityCenterJuly 2005
  3. 3. Note: Before using this information and the product it supports, read the information in “Notices” on page v.First Edition (July 2005)This edition applies to Version 3, Release 1 of IBM Tivoli Provisioning Manager (product number 5724-I15),Version 2 of IBM TotalStorage Productivity Center with Advanced Provisioning (product number 5608-UC0),and Version 2, Release 2 Modification level 1 of IBM TotalStorage SAN File System (product number5765-FS2).© Copyright International Business Machines Corporation 2005. All rights reserved.Note to U.S. Government Users Restricted Rights -- Use, duplication or disclosure restricted by GSA ADP ScheduleContract with IBM Corp.
  4. 4. Contents Notices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .v Trademarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi Chapter 1. An introduction to storage provisioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.1 Problems caused by human error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.2 Storage provisioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.2.1 Automating complex tasks with Tivoli Provisioning Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.2.2 Tivoli Provisioning Manager and TotalStorage Productivity Center . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Chapter 2. Tivoli Provisioning Manager support for storage provisioning . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.1 Data center model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.1.1 Logical operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2.1.2 Storage templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2.1.3 Administrative interface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 2.2 Representing the storage environment on TPM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 2.2.1 Representing Storage Managers in TPM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 2.2.2 Representing SAN Fabrics in TPM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 2.2.3 Representing Storage subsystems in TPM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 2.3 Specifying a server’s storage needs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 2.3.1 Volume Container Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 2.3.2 Logical Volume Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 2.3.3 Disk Partition Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 2.3.4 File System Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 2.3.5 File system mount settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 2.3.6 Physical Volume Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 2.3.7 Multipath settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 2.4 Storage Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 2.4.1 Storage Manager operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 2.4.2 SAN Fabric operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 2.4.3 Storage Pool operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 2.4.4 Storage Subsystem operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 2.4.5 Operating system operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 2.4.6 End-to-end storage provisioning operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Chapter 3. Provisioning Storage with Tivoli Provisioning Manager. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 3.1 Storage visualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 3.2 Performing storage operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 3.2.1 Add Storage To Host operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 3.2.2 Add Storage Volume To Host operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 3.2.3 Implicit execution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 3.3 Creating storage templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 3.4 Controlling user access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Chapter 4. TotalStorage Productivity Center with Advanced Provisioning . . . . . . . . . 57 4.1 Value of TotalStorage Productivity Center with TPM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 4.2 TotalStorage Productivity Center logical operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 4.3 Storage configuration discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 4.4 Tracking environment changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60© Copyright IBM Corp. 2005. All rights reserved. iii
  5. 5. Chapter 5. A storage provisioning solution for SAN File System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 5.1 An on demand storage environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 5.2 The SAN File System solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 5.2.1 SAN File System physical environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 5.2.2 Storage usage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 5.3 Storage provisioning to simplify volume management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 5.3.1 SAN File System automation tasks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 5.3.2 Modelling of SAN File System in TPM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67iv An Introduction to Storage Provisioning with Tivoli Provisioning Manager and TotalStorage Productivity Center
  6. 6. NoticesThis information was developed for products and services offered in the U.S.A.IBM may not offer the products, services, or features discussed in this document in other countries. Consultyour local IBM representative for information on the products and services currently available in your area. Anyreference to an IBM product, program, or service is not intended to state or imply that only that IBM product,program, or service may be used. Any functionally equivalent product, program, or service that does notinfringe any IBM intellectual property right may be used instead. However, it is the users responsibility toevaluate and verify the operation of any non-IBM product, program, or service.IBM may have patents or pending patent applications covering subject matter described in this document. Thefurnishing of this document does not give you any license to these patents. You can send license inquiries, inwriting, to:IBM Director of Licensing, IBM Corporation, North Castle Drive Armonk, NY 10504-1785 U.S.A.The following paragraph does not apply to the United Kingdom or any other country where such provisions areinconsistent with local law: INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION PROVIDES THISPUBLICATION "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED,INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF NON-INFRINGEMENT,MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Some states do not allow disclaimer ofexpress or implied warranties in certain transactions, therefore, this statement may not apply to you.This information could include technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. Changes are periodically madeto the information herein; these changes will be incorporated in new editions of the publication. IBM may makeimprovements and/or changes in the product(s) and/or the program(s) described in this publication at any timewithout notice.Any references in this information to non-IBM Web sites are provided for convenience only and do not in anymanner serve as an endorsement of those Web sites. The materials at those Web sites are not part of thematerials for this IBM product and use of those Web sites is at your own risk.IBM may use or distribute any of the information you supply in any way it believes appropriate without incurringany obligation to you.Information concerning non-IBM products was obtained from the suppliers of those products, their publishedannouncements or other publicly available sources. IBM has not tested those products and cannot confirm theaccuracy of performance, compatibility or any other claims related to non-IBM products. Questions on thecapabilities of non-IBM products should be addressed to the suppliers of those products.This information contains examples of data and reports used in daily business operations. To illustrate themas completely as possible, the examples include the names of individuals, companies, brands, and products.All of these names are fictitious and any similarity to the names and addresses used by an actual businessenterprise is entirely coincidental.COPYRIGHT LICENSE:This information contains sample application programs in source language, which illustrates programmingtechniques on various operating platforms. You may copy, modify, and distribute these sample programs inany form without payment to IBM, for the purposes of developing, using, marketing or distributing applicationprograms conforming to the application programming interface for the operating platform for which the sampleprograms are written. These examples have not been thoroughly tested under all conditions. IBM, therefore,cannot guarantee or imply reliability, serviceability, or function of these programs. You may copy, modify, anddistribute these sample programs in any form without payment to IBM for the purposes of developing, using,marketing, or distributing application programs conforming to IBMs application programming interfaces.© Copyright IBM Corp. 2005. All rights reserved. v
  7. 7. TrademarksThe following terms are trademarks of the International Business Machines Corporation in the United States,other countries, or both: AIX® Eserver® Redbooks (logo) ™ BladeCenter™ HACMP™ Redbooks™ Enterprise Storage Server®® Tivoli® Eserver® IBM® TotalStorage®The following terms are trademarks of other companies:Java and all Java-based trademarks and logos are trademarks or registered trademarks of SunMicrosystems, Inc. in the United States, other countries, or both.Microsoft, Windows, Windows NT, and the Windows logo are trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in theUnited States, other countries, or both.Intel, Intel Inside (logos), MMX, and Pentium are trademarks of Intel Corporation in the United States, othercountries, or both.UNIX is a registered trademark of The Open Group in the United States and other countries.Linux is a trademark of Linus Torvalds in the United States, other countries, or both.Other company, product, and service names may be trademarks or service marks of An Introduction to Storage Provisioning with Tivoli Provisioning Manager and TotalStorage Productivity Center
  8. 8. 1 Chapter 1. An introduction to storage provisioning This paper is intended as an introduction to the subject of storage provisioning and is written for anyone who needs to understand IBM®’s automated storage provisioning tools. IBM storage provisioning solutions are based on Tivoli® Provisioning Manager (TPM) and IBM TotalStorage® Productivity Center (TPC). This paper examines TPM’s support for storage provisioning in detail and describes how it can be used standalone or combined with TPC to create a comprehensive storage infrastructure management and provisioning solution. It is assumed that the reader already has some familiarity with configuring SAN storage, so the details of how to configure storage manually are not covered here. Much has already been written about TPM, and the reader is directed to these materials for an in-depth introduction to provisioning and orchestration. For more information see the IBM Redbooks™ Exploring Storage Management Efficiencies and Provisioning - Understanding IBM TotalStorage Productivity Center and IBM TotalStorage Productivity Center with Advanced Provisioning, SG24-6373, and Provisioning On Demand Introducing IBM Tivoli Intelligent ThinkDynamic Orchestrator, SG24-8888. To illustrate the power of automated storage provisioning, an example of a storage provisioning solution written to manage an IBM TotalStorage SAN File System is used. This shows how automated storage provisioning can simplify tasks, eliminate the chance of human error, and reduce the time taken to provision servers with SAN attached storage.© Copyright IBM Corp. 2005. All rights reserved. 1
  9. 9. 1.1 Problems caused by human error During December 2004, a large European commercial bank suffered two major server outages during their busiest pre Christmas trading period due to human error while configuring storage capacity. The problem was traced back to the bank’s documented practices around configuring storage devices not being followed by an administrator. Had the documented practices been followed while configuring the additional storage capacity, the failures would not have occurred. SAN storage environments are complex and require many skills and a good understanding of the task being performed. Many storage arrays have limitations around the number of hosts per adapter or LUNs per adapter. Additionally there are accepted rules around SAN zoning of not mixing UNIX® and Windows® hosts in the same zones. As a consequence, over a number of years, many organizations have developed policies and best practices that have been adopted to avoid misconfiguration of storage subsystems and storage networks. These should ensure that environments are configured correctly and avoid problems, but the occasional human error can still occur. In addition, manual storage provisioning can introduce undesirable delays and corresponding dropoffs in service. The typical storage administrator has many demands on their time and may not be able to immediately respond to an urgent (in the perspective of the client) storage provisioning request. Automated storage provisioning addresses these issues by enabling best practices to be implemented through the idea of storage workflows. Workflows are reusable elements that capture IT expert know-how, and represent the steps that must be followed in order to carry out a particular operation. These are repeatable and eliminate the human element of the process. This removes the possibility for error and allows for prompt and reliable execution, as the workflows will consistently implement the rules and policies time after time.1.2 Storage provisioning Storage provisioning is the name given to all the tasks around the configuration of storage, performed manually or via automation, as discussed here. Typically, storage provisioning of SAN attached storage involves administrators in a significant number of relatively complex tasks with little support from the devices and individual management tools. The assumption is that the administrators are trained in each device and understand how to configure it. Also, each storage device is configured in isolation, and several interfaces must be used to perform the end-to-end task of, for example, adding a new file system on SAN attached storage to a host. The three areas of servers, SAN switches, and subsystems that must be configured and the generic tasks that have to be performed are shown in Figure 1-1 on page 3.2 An Introduction to Storage Provisioning with Tivoli Provisioning Manager and TotalStorage Productivity Center
  10. 10. Server requiring SAN attached storage Volume Manager And File system updates Host OS LUN mapping updates SAN SAN SAN Zone configuration change LUN masking assignments for volumes SAN Volume Controller volumesFigure 1-1 Storage provisioning tasksThe following list gives more details on the tasks that a storage administrator might have toperform to add additional storage: Add a volume (storage subsystem). – Select storage subsystem. – Select or create new volume. – Select host HBA ports (WWNs). – Select subsystem controller ports (WWNs). – Map volume to controller ports. – Map volume to host HBA ports. Set paths (SAN fabric switches). – Determine if multiple paths are required. – Create or update zones. – Get active zone set. – Add zone to zone set. – Activate zone set. Set up replication (if necessary). Map the HBA LUNs to the operating system and file system. Update volume group and file system (host server). – Add physical volume to volume group. – Add physical volume to logical volume. – Create or extend file system. Extend application to use additional space. Reconfigure backup.As well as the task itself, input values are needed, which require a detailed knowledge of thestorage environment, such as the WWNs of HBAs in the hosts and subsystems, existingzones, etc. Reference to additional tools or documentation detailing the last known Chapter 1. An introduction to storage provisioning 3
  11. 11. configuration of the environment might be necessary to determine these values. Best practice rules for maintaining the environment must be applied consistently; this is complex and requires a significant amount of skill to ensure any documentation of the environment is kept up to date. On the positive side, each of these tasks is well defined and usually can be quite simply automated through scripting. However, scripting the end-to-end operation is barely feasible due to the number of input values and the number of tasks. Also, the script would be host, switch, and subsystem specific, requiring rewrites if changes occur in the environment, and also requiring different scripts for each variation. A solution to this problem is to automate the process using workflow automation.1.2.1 Automating complex tasks with Tivoli Provisioning Manager IBM Tivoli Provisioning Manager (TPM) provides an environment on which IT tasks can be automated, such as the provisioning and configuring of servers, operating systems, middleware, applications, storage, and network devices. This is an end-to-end approach to provisioning. When a server is installed in a data center, applications must be installed on it, along with its required network connectivity to access other resources, as well as the storage the applications will use. This comprehensive approach to provisioning is shown in Figure 1-2. Applications Security Middleware Configure Attach Storage Operating Systems Networking Hardware Layer Server Provisioning Management Management Applications Applications Security Virtualization Virtualization Security Storage Routers, Fabric / Network Switches, etc. Devices Fabric Protocols Storage Provisioning Network Provisioning Figure 1-2 End-to-end provisioning This ability to perform and coordinate provisioning tasks across a range of components and management disciplines makes TPM an ideal automation tool for performing file system and volume management tasks and for the provisioning of SAN attached storage in general. A clear benefit of using TPM to provision storage is that these tasks can be incorporated into the wider server and application provisioning scenarios, significantly reducing the time and administrative effort in delivering new applications and servers. TPM’s storage provisioning capabilities utilize its workflow engine to automate and manage the tasks associated with configuring storage. Provisioning of Network File System (NFS),4 An Introduction to Storage Provisioning with Tivoli Provisioning Manager and TotalStorage Productivity Center
  12. 12. direct attached, and SAN attached storage is supported, along with management of volume managers and file systems.1.2.2 Tivoli Provisioning Manager and TotalStorage Productivity Center Although TPM provides storage provisioning capabilities, it is not a storage management solution. The IBM solution for storage management is IBM TotalStorage Productivity Center (TPC), which is a comprehensive storage infrastructure management solution. TPC provides heterogeneous device, fabric, and data management and reporting capabilities with additional storage provisioning capabilities. These additional capabilities are provided by combining TPM and TPC into a complete storage management and provisioning solution, usually refered to as TPC with Advanced Provisioning. Table 1-1 shows the different roles in which TPM and TPC might be used.Table 1-1 Comparison of TPM and TPC Attribute Tivoli Provisioning Manager TotalStorage Productivity Center Product description Data center solution with Complete storage management automated storage provisioning solution with additional automated capabilities. storage provisioning capabilities (through TPM) Positioning (ITILa) Release Managementb. Availability Managementc Capacity Managementd User Server administrator (typically) Data center storage administrator deploying a new server. Device management Basic—TPM automation packages Advanced—complete, (workflows) comprise a tool kit that comprehensive out-of-the-box can be customized to meet client solution for storage management requirements. Device interfaces Interfaces directly to supported Exploits multiple standards-based storage (Cisco, Brocade, McData) interfaces to provide using CLIs. comprehensive management (reporting and control) across many vendors Platform support Limited to only platforms supported Heterogeneous—supports multiple with TPM automation packages. devices and vendorsa. IT Infrastructure Library: A process-based methodology that is used by IT departments to ensure that they can deliver ITservices to end users in a controlled and disciplined way.b. Release Management: The process of managing the rollout of new applications, servers, and infrastructure.c. Availability Management: Includes planning, implementation, management, and optimization of IT services so that they canbe used where and when the business requires.d. Ensures that sufficient IT infrastructure resources are available cost-effectively when needed. TPM and TPC are targeted at different user groups within the data center. TPM’s audience is IT infrastructure and server administrators who need to manage the roll-out of new applications, servers, and infrastructure. TPC is aimed at storage administrators who manage storage capacity. In their own areas they deliver best-of-breed functionality, integrating into a single solution that addresses a broad range of management requirements while retaining their own unique differentiating features. TPM is a comprehensive storage provisioning solution, providing the infrastructure and facilities to provision storage capacity. However, its out-of-the-box device and platform support is limited in comparison with TPC. TPC extends TPM’s storage provisioning capabilities to provide broad standards-based device support, with a richer set of device Chapter 1. An introduction to storage provisioning 5
  13. 13. management capabilities and with the potential to make intelligent choices based on other metrics such as subsystem and fabric performance. These differences become more significant with the introduction of new storage arrays such as the IBM TotalStorage DS6000 and DS8000, where there is much greater choice over volume selection criteria, including RAID array sizes, underlying disk volume sizes, etc. Later in this paper the use of TPC to enhance the basic device management capabilities of TPM is looked at in more detail.6 An Introduction to Storage Provisioning with Tivoli Provisioning Manager and TotalStorage Productivity Center
  14. 14. 2 Chapter 2. Tivoli Provisioning Manager support for storage provisioning The use of TPM for server and application provisioning is dealt with in detail in other documents and its functionality will only be looked at briefly here. Our focus is on storage provisioning, and only the elements relevant to this are covered. TPM supports the provisioning of storage in a number of ways: Via its representation of the storage environment, its storage-related device operations, the use of templates to provide a policy-based approach to provisioning, and its administrative interface for provisioning storage. Representing the data center’s resources and assets in TPM as an environment model is the first step towards automation of the environment using workflows and device operations. The environment model and device operations work together to enable TPM to manage all aspects of a data center IT environment from servers and networks, to firewalls and storage. An example of a simple physical storage environment represented in TPM is shown in Figure 2-1 on page 8.© Copyright IBM Corp. 2005. All rights reserved. 7
  15. 15. Figure 2-1 View of a simple storage environment on TPM This figure shows the physical connections from a number of storage hosts via a Cisco 9509 switch to an IBM TotalStorage SAN Volume Controller (SVC). The model is a direct representation of the physical environment, which is kept in synchronization with the real environment. Some benefits of this approach are that it allows TPM to track the usage state of resources and determine whether resources are reserved to meet future requirements or currently available for use. It also allows the logical grouping of resources together into pools, enabling automation to select the most appropriate resource to fulfil a requirement. In a later section we show how TPC can be used to automatically populate the TPM model with storage information.8 An Introduction to Storage Provisioning with Tivoli Provisioning Manager and TotalStorage Productivity Center
  16. 16. 2.1 Data center model Representing the physical data center environment as a model within TPM enables it to manage different types of devices from many vendors by abstracting the physical devices, assets, and resources in the data center into generic classes of devices. The resulting data center model (DCM) contains all the assets and resources of the data center, both physical and logical, and their relationships and state. In TPM terminology these are logical devices, which it understands how to manipulate. The IBM TotalStorage SAN Volume Controller (SVC) and IBM TotalStorage Enterprise Storage Server® (ESS) are examples of storage subsystems, of which the logical device in TPM is a storage subsystem. Operations are performed against these logical devices (for example, a storage subsystem), and workflows are written to use logical devices and hence are device independent. The same workflows can be used against different devices of the same logical device type and do not require rewriting if the environment changes or contains more than one device type. Each device represented in the DCM is one of a number of logical device types modelled by TPM (for example, storage subsystems, routers, firewalls, etc.). Logical assets and resources comprised of a number of physical and logical components, such as monitoring applications and SAN fabrics, are also represented by logical devices. TPM defines four different logical device types for storage that represent the elements of a storage environment. There are three device types related to the elements of a storage environment that can be directly configured: SAN fabrics, storage subsystems, and host-based volume managers and file systems (in TPM terminology, storage managers). The fourth device type is a storage pool, which provides a logical grouping of storage subsystem volumes. These logical devices and their relationships to the physical environment are shown in Figure 2-2. Storage Storage environment Logical Devices File system, Storage Volume Manager Manager SAN Fabric, SAN SAN SAN switches, SAN Fabric Connectivity Fibre Adapters Storage Subsystem Storage Subsystem Volumes Storage Pool Figure 2-2 TPM logical storage devices Chapter 2. Tivoli Provisioning Manager support for storage provisioning 9
  17. 17. The storage pool logical device is a grouping of storage subsystem volumes from one or more subsystems. Rather than directing an operation to get a new storage volume at a single specific subsystem, the operation can be performed against a pool of pre-existing storage volumes from multiple subsystems. The use of pools also enables the concept of tiered storage to be modelled in TPM. The next section looks at how TPM uses these logical devices to manage real devices.2.1.1 Logical operations For each Logical Device type, TPM defines a number of Logical Device Operations (LDOs) that can be performed against that type of idealized device. Using an example of a Storage Subsystem, some of the defined operations are Create Storage Volume, Mask Volume to Host, and Remove Storage Volume. Associated with each device or resource modelled in the DCM by a logical device is a Device Driver, which is a package of workflows that implement the LDOs for a specific vendors device. Figure 2-3 shows the approach that TPM takes to supporting devices and resources through the use of logical devices, and how these translate to the device-specific operations. Data Centre Model contains devices Logical Operations are actions ‘Logical’ devices provide that can be executed on the abstraction from physical logical device devices - Create Storage Volume - Storage Subsystem - Remove Storage Volume Devices Logical Devices Logical Operations Workflows deliver sequential transitions Device Driver Transitions can be Java Workflows plugins, other workflows, A device, represented by a simple commands etc.. A package of workflows to logical device in the DCM is implement Logical Operations Transitions associated with a Device Driver for a device is a Device Driver to provide a set of capabilities - e.g. ESS Device Driver Workflow Simple Command Java Plugin Figure 2-3 The TPM approach to device-specific support Associated with TPM’s representation of a physical device or resource in the DCM as a logical device is a Device Driver (also called a TPM automation package), which enables TPM to perform device-specific actions against the real device or resource. As in the figure, operations against an ESS storage subsystem represented as a logical device would execute ESS-specific workflows from the ESS Device Driver. The workflows themselves are comprised of transitions or steps. These can be other workflows, simple commands issued to a device, or a Java™ plug-in to call a device API. Figure 2-4 on page 11 represents how an LDO could be implemented and the flow.10 An Introduction to Storage Provisioning with Tivoli Provisioning Manager and TotalStorage Productivity Center
  18. 18. Execute Logical Operation Logical Workflow Transition Transition Transition Operation Device Driver Workflow Simple Command Logical Transition Transition Operation Device Driver Java PlugIn Simple Workflow Command Transition Transition Java PlugIn Data Centre Simple CommandFigure 2-4 Logical Device Operation implementationA combination of the operation being executed and the Device Driver associated with thelogical device determines which device-specific workflow will be called to perform theoperation. This then unfolds into transition steps. Conditional branching can occur dependingon input parameters or information retrieved from the DCM about the environment. Actions onthe physical devices are performed through Java plug-ins, which act on device APIs or simplecommands executed on a host or a device using Telnet or SSH1.Interaction with devices is only handled through the device-specific workflows in the DeviceDriver or automation packages, which must be implemented for each specific device or OSplatform that requires configuration in the storage environment. Interaction with a device is viaany of the external interfaces it supports, such as an API or command line interface.At the host server, the Storage Manager LDOs provide support for configuration of thestorage via volume managers and file systems. On the storage network, SAN Fabric LDOsmanage the zone configuration to ensure secure access between the host and storagesubsystem. At the subsystem, Storage Subsystem LDOs create new volumes and configureLUN masking to provide secure data access to storage volumes. Figure 2-5 on page 12illustrates the implementation of the storage device drivers using command line interfaces.1 SSH: Secure Shell, provides secure encrypted communications between two untrusted hosts over an insecurenetwork Chapter 2. Tivoli Provisioning Manager support for storage provisioning 11
  19. 19. Logical Operation execution File system And OS configuration TPM Server Telnet/SSH Device Drivers Workflows Zone TPM Storage Configuration Simple Device Drivers Command SAN SAN Telnet Telnet/SSH Subsystem Configuration Figure 2-5 TPM storage logical operation implementation Changes made to the physical environment by the operations, such as the mapping of storage volumes to hosts, are reflected in the DCM to ensure that the DCM is an accurate representation of the physical environment for input to future operations.2.1.2 Storage templates TPM implements a policy-based approach to storage provisioning. Rather than specifying the input parameters to every operation, TPM uses templates of storage settings. Templates can be defined once, and each operation will take its input values from the currently selected template. Storage templates are specific to TPM’s support for storage and are used to define the input parameters to the logical operations to perform operations against the physical storage environment. This is represented in Figure 2-6 on page 13.12 An Introduction to Storage Provisioning with Tivoli Provisioning Manager and TotalStorage Productivity Center
  20. 20. Storage Template Logical Operation Environment information Environment Changes SAN SAN Physical Environment Updates Data Centre Model Figure 2-6 Storage templates Policy information from the storage template and environment information from the DCM is provided as input to operations. As changes are made to the physical environment, the environment model is updated by the operation to reflect the new state. Storage templates provide input parameters for all aspects of configuring storage for a host server. These extend from the file system type and mount point, through to the volume size on the subsystem and the adapter ports on the subsystem, through which a volume is accessible. Templates can specify input parameters down to the last detail, such as volume names and zone names, or it can be used to provide a template for a workflow to use as a starting point, combining it with information retrieved from the DCM about the devices being configured.2.1.3 Administrative interface To support the provisioning of storage capacity, the TPM user interface provides the ability to visualize the storage configuration and perform provisioning actions. The data center model is a live representation of the storage environment and can be visualized using the TPM inventory view. Information can be presented in two ways, either via a detailed tabular listing or a topology view. Users can initiate storage provisioning actions from these views. The detailed view of storage components shows HBA configuration, volumes, file systems, fibre connectivity, etc. The TPM inventory view, showing the detailed view of a server, is shown in Figure 2-7 on page 14. Chapter 2. Tivoli Provisioning Manager support for storage provisioning 13
  21. 21. Figure 2-7 TPM administrative interface showing a host’s storage resources The TPM inventory view is selected in the left hand pane, using the View tab. This gives access to the inventory of all the devices represented in TPM. When a device is selected it is shown in the right-hand pane, in a number of formats. For storage there are two representations of the storage environment. The previous figure shows a detailed view, where all the device components are displayed along with detailed configuration information. Alternatively, there is a topology view or icon view, which shows the physical and logical associations between components. Figure 2-8 on page 15 shows the storage icon view for the same host server and its storage components, while Figure 2-1 on page 8 is an icon view of the SAN topology.14 An Introduction to Storage Provisioning with Tivoli Provisioning Manager and TotalStorage Productivity Center
  22. 22. Figure 2-8 Host storage topology view When using TPM, there are two ways of initiating storage provisioning actions. Actions can be initiated manually via the administrative interface by users, or initiated automatically as steps in server or application provisioning workflows. Individual granular provisioning steps or more complex end-to-end tasks can be initiated. Individual actions, such as masking a volume to a host, can be invoked from the inventory views of each device, or end-to-end storage provisioning actions can be initiated from the server inventory view, as shown in Figure 2-9.Figure 2-9 TPM administrative interface showing storage provisioning operations From a server’s Edit menu tab, several storage provisioning actions can be initiated, as well as server provisioning tasks. These perform end-to-end provisioning tasks of adding and Chapter 2. Tivoli Provisioning Manager support for storage provisioning 15
  23. 23. removing storage to and from a host. The Add Storage Volume to Host performs all the tasks to make the volume visible at a host: Select a volume, mask it to a host, configure SAN zoning, and OS configuration. The Add Storage to Host extends this to configure volume managers and file systems to make the storage usable at the host without human intervention. The Remove Storage/Storage Volume tasks deconfigure the file systems and volume managers, and remove the storage. These end-to-end tasks are discussed in more detail later in the paper. Other storage provisioning tasks can be performed from the inventory views of servers, volumes, SAN fabrics, volume groups, and file systems.2.2 Representing the storage environment on TPM The four storage logical devices that enable a storage environment to be represented by TPM. These are: Storage Managers SAN Fabrics Storage Subsystems Storage Pools Using these four devices, the physical and logical components of a storage environment can be represented in the DCM, and hence managed by TPM. Figure 2-10 describes the relationship between the TPM storage devices and most of the physical and logical attributes of the storage components that are modelled by them. A small number of attributes are excluded to improve clarity. This model is very flexible for describing many variants of volume managers, file systems, and storage subsystems. TPM Object S1 Host Server Volume VC1 VC2 Containers Mount Points Storage FS2 FS1 FS3 File systems Manager LV2 LV1 LV3 Logical Volumes PV3 PV2 PV1 PV4 Physical Volumes SAN Connections Fabric SAN Switches Storage On Port Storage Storage Volumes Subsystem SV3 SV2 SV1 SV4 Storage Pool Figure 2-10 TPM storage modelling using logical devices The storage model is used to represent the current state of the real data center environment within TPM. TPM can use this information directly without having to query the environment16 An Introduction to Storage Provisioning with Tivoli Provisioning Manager and TotalStorage Productivity Center
  24. 24. every time to understand what resources are available and the connectivity between components. As TPM operations make changes to the physical storage configuration and the use state of volumes (available, reserved, in-use), TPM updates its model to reflect the latest configuration. This saves TPM from having to query the environment each time it performs an operation. The storage devices defined to TPM are accessible via the TPM inventory view, under the Storage heading, as shown in Figure 2-11.Figure 2-11 Storage logical devices in the TPM inventory view This TPM inventory view in the above figure shows the expanded Storage heading, showing the four storage logical device types in the left-hand window pane, with the Storage Subsystems inventory view selected. To display the relevant devices defined to TPM, select the entry in the inventory view. This view also shows a fifth storage construct, Storage Templates, from where the inventory of Storage Templates can be listed. We will now look at each of the four logical devices in detail.2.2.1 Representing Storage Managers in TPM The Storage Manager logical device in TPM is used to model file systems and volume managers and their constituent components such as volume groups, logical volumes, physical volumes, and relationships on a host server. Figure 2-12 on page 18 shows a detailed view of the Storage Manager device. Chapter 2. Tivoli Provisioning Manager support for storage provisioning 17
  25. 25. TPM Object S1 Host Server Volume VC1 Container S3 S2 Access Servers Storage Mount Points Manager FS2 File systems LV2 Logical Volumes PV3 PV2 Physical Volumes Figure 2-12 Detailed view of the Storage Manager logical device The Storage Manager represents both the file system manager and volume manager components on a host (these are not represented separately in TPM). Within the Storage Manager are defined the TPM Volume Containers; in a file system such as JFS on AIX®, these are the Volume Groups. Within the Volume Container, the Physical Volumes are defined into that container (group) and the Logical Volumes built from the Physical Volumes using the volume manager software. Then the file systems are layered on top of the Logical Volumes by the file system software. The model also includes the concept of Access Servers. These allow TPM to represent other servers, which might also be configured for access to the same file system, and logical and physical volumes. This would be the case with clustered file systems or a file system configured for failover with MSCS on Windows or HACMP™ on AIX. Figure 2-13 shows the TPM inventory view of all the Storage Managers defined for servers managed by TPM. There is one entry here for each host with a volume manager/file system managed by TPM.Figure 2-13 Storage Manager inventory view The figure shows the volume group defined for this server, vg1. The name used for the Storage Manager definition on a server is the same for each host with the same type of file18 An Introduction to Storage Provisioning with Tivoli Provisioning Manager and TotalStorage Productivity Center
  26. 26. system and volume manager, for example, AIX_LVM for all AIX hosts. This facilitates the use of Storage Templates to provide policy-based provisioning. When provisioning actions are performed, the Storage Manager name is used to select only the templates that are appropriate to a host and specify the same Storage Manager. Figure 2-14 shows the corresponding host view of a Storage Manager for host ibmp660-1.Figure 2-14 Host view of a Storage Manager definition Selecting a Storage Manager shows the volume containers (volume groups) defined under it, as in Figure 2-15.Figure 2-15 Volume Containers defined under a Storage Manager Chapter 2. Tivoli Provisioning Manager support for storage provisioning 19
  27. 27. Under each Storage Manager is the list of Volume Containers (Volume Groups) that are managed by TPM. Drilling down into a Volume Container shows the Logical and Physical Volumes, and File Systems on the host server managed in this volume container. An example is shown in Figure 2-16.Figure 2-16 Host view of a Volume Container The Logical Volumes represented here are created by TPM logical operations against the Volume Manager on a host. Physical Volumes are created on a host when a storage volume is masked from the storage subsystem to the host server and the OS device mapping has been completed. The Physical Volume must be associated with a Volume Container before it is shown by TPM in the Volume Container (volume group), as in Figure 2-26 on page Representing SAN Fabrics in TPM TPM provides comprehensive support for representing SAN fabrics. Each item in the SAN has effective coverage. The essential point is that this directly represents the physical environment and the fibre connectivity between hosts, storage devices, and SAN switches. The model is shown in Figure 2-17 on page 21. There are four physical elements: Servers, SAN switches, storage subsystems, and the connections between them. The logical configuration of zone sets and zones is also represented.20 An Introduction to Storage Provisioning with Tivoli Provisioning Manager and TotalStorage Productivity Center
  28. 28. TPM Object Server Interface Cards (HBAs) Ports Physical Connections ZoneSet Zones WWNS 1 2 3 4 Ports 5 6 7 8 Interface Cards SAN Switches SAN Fabrics SAN SV3 SV2 SV1 Storage SubsystemFigure 2-17 SAN Fabric model in TPMThe figure shows all the elements of TPM’s SAN Fabric model with a single SAN containingtwo fabrics. The server and storage subsystem have ports connected to both fabrics in a dualpath configuration.ServersHost Bus Adapters (HBAs) in a server are modelled as interface cards, with a number ofports. Figure 2-18 on page 22 is an example of the TPM representation of a host with oneHBA with two ports. On a port, the WWN of the port is defined, along with its physicalconnection to a switch and any zones that the port is defined in. The information recordedabout host SAN connectivity is essential for automatically performing SAN zoning operations,as it enables the SAN Fabrics the host is connected to, to be determined. Furthermore, itdetermines the SAN Fabrics at which zoning operations need to be directed for this host. Chapter 2. Tivoli Provisioning Manager support for storage provisioning 21
  29. 29. Figure 2-18 Host fibre adapters Storage subsystems SAN connectivity for storage subsystems is represented similarly to host servers with interface cards and ports. Figure 2-19 on page 23 shows an SVC with four HBAs connected to two Cisco 9509 switches.22 An Introduction to Storage Provisioning with Tivoli Provisioning Manager and TotalStorage Productivity Center
  30. 30. Figure 2-19 Storage subsystem view, HBA definitions Switches To support modelling of different types of SAN switches, a switch contains a number of interface cards, with each card containing a number of ports. This enables TPM to model both switches with a fixed number of ports (single card), as well as director class switches, which have a number of card bays containing cards with varying numbers of ports. Figure 2-20 shows a typical SAN fabric defined in TPM. The core of this fabric is a Cisco 9509 director, with a Cisco 9140 edge switch.Figure 2-20 SAN Fabric view of switches and storage subsystems The left-hand pane shows that two fabrics were defined: Fabric1 and Fabric2. These represent the two fabrics that provide a fully redundant dual path configuration for disk access. Chapter 2. Tivoli Provisioning Manager support for storage provisioning 23
  31. 31. In the properties for Fabric1, the World Wide Name field is used by TPM to identify the principal switch in the fabric through which it will perform zoning operations. The same WWN must also be defined on the principal switch. This name is largely symbolic within TPM—it is only used to locate the principal switch in the fabric through which zoning operations are performed, and does not have to be the real fabric WWN. A detailed view of a switch is shown in Figure 2-21—its World Wide Name attribute being the same as for the SAN fabric.Figure 2-21 SAN switch view Back in Figure 2-20 on page 23, Active Zone Set is the name of the Active Zone Set in this fabric. With the TPM workflows for switch management from the Orchestration and Provisioning Automation Library (OPAL2), this is the Zone Set against which zoning actions are performed. When using TPC for switch management, TPC can automatically determine and update the currently active zoneset. Visualizing SAN Fabric connectivity As well as the detailed switch device views showing the switch ports, the overall fabric connectivity can be visualized. Select the View menu item to show the switch environment on a topology icon view, showing the connections between hosts, the switch, and connected subsystems. The icon view is shown in Figure 2-22 on page 25. 2 OPAL Web site: An Introduction to Storage Provisioning with Tivoli Provisioning Manager and TotalStorage Productivity Center
  32. 32. Figure 2-22 SAN switch icon view The icon view is currently in effect, as this menu item is grayed out on the View tab. This shows all the hosts and storage devices connect to the switch 9509- Representing Storage subsystems in TPM Physical storage in storage arrays in TPM is represented by two logical devices: Storage Subsystems, and also a logical grouping of storage volumes by type and capability into Storage Pools. The two devices are shown in Figure 2-23. Ports Interface Cards Storage On Port Storage Subsystem Storage Volumes SV3 SV2 SV1 SV4 Storage Pools Pool 1 Pool 2 Pool 3 SV5 SV6 SV7 SV4 Figure 2-23 Storage Subsystem and Storage Pool logical devices Storage Subsystems Storage Subsystems are modelled similarly to servers with interface cards and ports defining the HBAs on the subsystem. An example is shown in Figure 2-24 on page 26. Chapter 2. Tivoli Provisioning Manager support for storage provisioning 25
  33. 33. Figure 2-24 A Storage Subsystem represented in TPM The volumes created on the subsystem are shown. Within TPM these are known as Storage Volumes. When a volume is mapped to a host port, this association is represented in the Fibre Channel Port field. Some array types require that storage volumes are mapped to specific adapters on the subsystem for access by host servers. This mapping is known as the Fibre Adapter Port mapping (sometimes abbreviated to FA Port in TPM). The TPM terminology for this is Storage On Port and is used to support arrays that map volumes to specific subsystem adapters (for example, EMC and HP arrays). During workflow execution, this mapping can be used to determine which subsystem adapter should be zoned to a host to give it access to a storage volume. This mapping is also represented in this view by an entry in the Fibre Channel Port field. This is not shown in the figure, as the array represented does not require it. In the figure, there is a field for the ANSI T10 ID. This can be used to uniquely identify a storage subsystem. T10 is the definition of the SCSI standard by the America National Standards Institute (ANSI) and is the serial number of the storage subsystem. Specification of this is not required in TPM. Storage Pools Storage Pools are used to group volumes of a similar type, that is, all RAID5 volumes, or all RAID1 volumes or pools of tiered storage. The use of pools makes it easier to select volumes of a particular type without having to specify all the detailed parameters such as RAID level or volume type. Another use for storage pools is to implement the concept of volume reservation. When there is a known future requirement for significant quantities of storage, the volumes could be temporarily allocated to a reservation pool or pools until they are required. When a volume is created in TPM on the storage subsystem, it can also be assigned to a storage pool. Alternatively, if volumes on the storage subsystem are pre-created outside of TPM, they can be defined into the pools to make volume selection a simpler task in a workflow.26 An Introduction to Storage Provisioning with Tivoli Provisioning Manager and TotalStorage Productivity Center
  34. 34. Storage Pools in TPM can also be referred to as Storage Allocation Pools. Similarly, the volumes within a pool are sometimes referred to as Storage Allocation Pool Elements (SAPEs). The TPM Storage Pool inventory list is shown in Figure 2-25. In this example the pool names used are the SVC managed disk group names. The naming convention includes the RAID level and the volume size of the managed disks.Figure 2-25 Storage Pool inventory Figure 2-26 shows a list of volumes in Storage Pool F1_36_R5. A volume’s capabilities are also shown, indicating RAID level and the subsystem it exists in. The State/Assignment field indicates if a volume is Available for use, In Use (mapped to a host), Assigned (LUN masked to a host, but not yet mapped), Reserved (being used by an executing workflow), or Unknown. The use of volume states helps to determine the availability of volumes to satisfy requests for additional volumes.Figure 2-26 Volumes in a Storage Pool The pool name reflects the type of disk storage in the pool; as this is a pool of SVC volumes, the name reflects that the backing storage is 36-GB volumes in a RAID 5 configuration.2.3 Specifying a server’s storage needs TPM uses a policy-based approach to storage provisioning. Instead of an administrator specifying the input parameters to every operation, TPM uses Storage Templates that can be reused. A single template can be defined for a group of application servers and the same storage configuration will automatically be used for each server. This approach of using templates ensures that a consistent naming convention is enforced and that all server components of an application are configured the same. Chapter 2. Tivoli Provisioning Manager support for storage provisioning 27
  35. 35. Within a storage template TPM implements settings for: Volume Containers (Volume Group) Physical Volumes Disk Partitions Logical Volumes File Systems File System Mount Points Data Paths Multipath Software The settings are used as input to the Logical Device Operations and the workflows that implement them. Though the settings define values, the workflow implementations are free to use the values passed, modify them, or determine their own based on best practices coded into the workflows. A typical usage might be to pass the prefix for a SAN fabric zone name, and the workflow determines the unique full name of the zone based on the host being zoned and the prefix. Figure 2-27 is an example of the different storage settings that can be specified.Figure 2-27 An example storage template The logical and physical volume names to be used and the volume sizes and types can be defined. Using templates in this fashion ensures that all servers added to the cluster are configured by TPM with the same storage configuration. Settings form a hierarchical structure under the Volume Container settings, dividing into settings related to the physical storage and the logical storage environments. Physical environment settings, including volume size, type, and storage subsystem are grouped under the Physical Volume settings. Logical storage settings, such as file system type, capacity, and block sizes are grouped under the Logical Volume settings. We will look at each of these settings in more detail.2.3.1 Volume Container Settings The Volume Container settings are used as a template to create new Volume Containers (Volume Groups) for servers in the application cluster. An example is shown in Figure 2-28 on page 29.28 An Introduction to Storage Provisioning with Tivoli Provisioning Manager and TotalStorage Productivity Center
  36. 36. Figure 2-28 Volume Container Settings The Storage Manager field in the Volume Container settings defines which Storage Managers the volume container is eligible to be created under, and hence which hosts this template can be used on, based on a host’s Storage Manager definition. The field also defines the Physical Partition size to be used by the volume manager for the volumes. The settings for the Physical and Logical Volumes, and File Systems that will be created within the container are under each Volume Container Settings object.2.3.2 Logical Volume Settings The Logical Volume Settings are provided as input for the volume manager on the host to create new logical volumes. An example is shown in Figure 2-29.Figure 2-29 Logical Volume Settings Chapter 2. Tivoli Provisioning Manager support for storage provisioning 29
  37. 37. At a logical level, these define how the volume manager will configure and carve up physical volumes to make logical volumes. If the volume manager supports capabilities such as software RAID, they can be specified here, though typically the volume type is more likely to be of type simple or spanned. Simple implies that the logical volume exists on a single physical volume only and spanned that it is made up of one or more physical volumes.2.3.3 Disk Partition Settings Disk partition settings, shown in Figure 2-30, are used to make the association between a physical volume and the logical volumes that will be created on it. They also define how physical volumes can be partitioned into smaller volumes for Intel®-based servers.Figure 2-30 Disk Partition Settings2.3.4 File System Settings File system settings determine the type of file system to be created. Figure 2-31 on page 31 shows an example.30 An Introduction to Storage Provisioning with Tivoli Provisioning Manager and TotalStorage Productivity Center
  38. 38. Figure 2-31 File System Settings All the required attributes of the file system are defined here.2.3.5 File system mount settings File system mount settings, shown in Figure 2-32, determine where the created file system will be mounted.Figure 2-32 File system mount settings Chapter 2. Tivoli Provisioning Manager support for storage provisioning 31
  39. 39. 2.3.6 Physical Volume Settings The physical volume settings are used by the Storage Subsystem and Storage Pool logical operations as a template to select or create new Storage Volumes on a subsystem or in a storage pool. An example is shown in Figure 2-33.Figure 2-33 Physical Volume Settings These policy parameters allow TPM to automatically select a volume from a storage pool, or create a new volume on a subsystem meeting the specified RAID Level, Function Type, and Consumable (minimum) size requirements. The Function Type is used for subsystems where volumes are predefined and their usage is configured, such as EMC BCVs (Business Continuance Volumes). The consumable size is the smallest size of volume that TPM will use. When a volume is required it will either create a volume of the requested size or select the smallest existing volume larger than the consumable size, which has the correct attributes.2.3.7 Multipath settings The multipath settings enable use of the powerful concept of datapaths. These define the explicit routes or paths between a host’s ports and a storage subsystems’ ports in the SAN fabric. The settings contain all the attributes that allow zoning to be automatically set up between a host and the storage subsystem, providing secure storage access. Figure 2-34 on page 33 shows an example of multipath settings.32 An Introduction to Storage Provisioning with Tivoli Provisioning Manager and TotalStorage Productivity Center
  40. 40. Figure 2-34 Multipath settings When fully specified, multipath settings can be used to determine the LUN ID at the host, the zone t be used, and the subsystem fibre ports and the host HBA ports to be included in the zone. All parameters relating to connectivity between the host and the storage subsystem are defined in one place, taking an end-to-end view of this operation, rather than looking at it from the perspective of each device that needs configuring (that is, the hosts, SAN switch, and storage subsystem). The parameters passed can be used directly by the zoning workflows, or if a workflow determines, more appropriate values can take precedence.2.4 Storage Operations As well as modelling the storage environment and a server’s storage needs, TPM implements a set of storage-related Logical Device Operations, which act on the physical storage environment and update the model within TPM to reflect these changes. These operations are grouped by the Logical Device type they operate on: Storage Manager Add/remove file system, logical volume, physical volume, volume container. Storage Subsystem Create/delete storage volume, mask/unmask storage volume. Chapter 2. Tivoli Provisioning Manager support for storage provisioning 33
  41. 41. Storage Pool Create/delete storage volume in pool, mask/unmask storage volume. SAN Switch Create/delete zone, add/remove WWN/Port To/from Zone. Operating System Create physical disk, create SAN disk, delete physical disk. Before these operations can be used, the device drivers or automation packages that implement them have to be created for the specific switch, subsystem, volume manager, and file system. A number of examples of TPM and TPC device drivers that implement these operations for different platforms, switches, and storage subsystems can be found on OPAL. Most operations are extremely granular and perform only a single specific task, such as creating a storage volume or adding a SAN zone member. Usable workflows are then built up from these smaller building block elements. This provides great flexibility and enables TPM to be customized to meet a wide variety of requirements, and implement the best practices related to specific environments; however, building a storage provisioning solution from scratch using just these basic building blocks would be extremely time consuming. In addition to providing the basic building blocks, TPM also provides operations that represent end-to-end storage provisioning tasks such as creating file systems from scratch, adding volumes to hosts, and extending file systems. These encapsulate all the sub-operations required to perform the request task, such as creating a volume, then mapping it to the host, and finally creating a file system on the new volume. These operations also exploit the Storage Template approach to policy-based provisioning. The templates provide all the necessary parameters required to perform the end-to-end operations. An example of one of these operations is looked at in more detail later.2.4.1 Storage Manager operations Figure 2-35 on page 35 shows the Storage Manager operations that can be performed in TPM. These relate to file system and Volume Manager tasks. The function of most operations is evident from their names, although a few require further explanation.34 An Introduction to Storage Provisioning with Tivoli Provisioning Manager and TotalStorage Productivity Center
  42. 42. Figure 2-35 Storage Manager operations Most operations are extremely granular and perform only the single specific task as implied by the Logical Device Operation’s (LDO’s) name. The AddStorageToHost and RemoveStorageFromHost operations are examples of more complex operations discussed previously, which can perform end-to-end configuration of storage to and from hosts. This includes zoning, creation of storage volumes on the subsystem, LUN masking, volume manager, and file system operations. An implementation of the AddStorageToHost operation is looked at in 2.4.6, “End-to-end storage provisioning operations” on page SAN Fabric operations Figure 2-36 shows the SAN Fabric operations that can be performed in TPM.Figure 2-36 SAN Fabric operations These include creating and deleting new zones, and adding and removing members from zones. Here the capabilities of TPM as a provisioning tool are focusing on the routine Chapter 2. Tivoli Provisioning Manager support for storage provisioning 35
  43. 43. day-to-day tasks performed in a storage environment to provision storage. Tools such as TPC are required to provide in-depth management functionality.2.4.3 Storage Pool operations Storage Pools offer a way to pool storage capacity. This can be within a single storage subsystem or across several storage subsystems, and enables volume selection from any of the subsystems that have volumes in the pool. This enables volumes to be grouped by type, and also the creation of larger volume pools than would be possible by grouping volumes from a single storage subsystem. Storage Pools do not implement operations against specific volumes, such as masking and mapping, as these are performed on the subsystem where the volume resides. Supported operations relate to volume selection from the pool, and creation and deletion of volumes in the pool. These operations are interchangeable with the same Storage Subsystem operations. The three pool-specific operations are shown in Figure 2-37.Figure 2-37 Storage Pool operations The use of storage pools makes it easier to model tiered storage within TPM and also accommodate the concept of volume reservation for specific future requirements. The Storage Pool GetStorageVolumes LDO can search the entire pool for a volume meeting the requirements rather than a single subsystem, as is the case for the Storage Subsystem implementation of the GetStorageVolumes LDO. Once a volume has been created and selected, subsequent operations are performed by the Storage Subsystem LDOs.2.4.4 Storage Subsystem operations Figure 2-38 on page 37 shows the Storage Subsystem operations that can be performed in TPM.36 An Introduction to Storage Provisioning with Tivoli Provisioning Manager and TotalStorage Productivity Center
  44. 44. Figure 2-38 Storage Subsystem operations These operations include the same three operations supported for Storage Pools: GetStorageVolume, CreateStorageVolume, and RemoveStorageVolume, and they can be used interchangeably with the Storage Pool operations in workflows. The operations provide effective management of many types and vendors of storage subsystems, and include operations to support management of EMC arrays.2.4.5 Operating system operations In addition to the configuration of storage devices and file systems, a hosts operating system must also be configured to recognize that new storage volumes have been mapped to it. Each operating system has its own methods and commands for discovering new devices and assigning device names. Operating System Logical Operations therefore provide TPM with the mechanism to support multiple OSs. The TPM operating system operations are shown in Figure 2-39.Figure 2-39 Operating System operations Three of these operations relate to storage: CreateDASDPhysicalVolume, CreateSANPhysicalVolume, and RemovePhysicalVolume. The first two relate to mapping of internal disk and SAN disk to OS device names, and the latter allows removal of either type of disk. Chapter 2. Tivoli Provisioning Manager support for storage provisioning 37
  45. 45. Where the OS supports it, implementation of these operations allows storage to be mapped to a host while the host is online, without requiring a reboot. This reduces the time taken to provision new storage and avoids having to schedule a system outage to attach additional storage capacity.2.4.6 End-to-end storage provisioning operations Most of the operations looked at so far can be considered as building blocks to create an end-to-end storage provisioning solution. TPM also provides a number of Storage Manager logical operations that allow workflows that implement end-to-end operations to be invoked. These are: AddStorageToHost RemoveStorageFromHost AddStorageVolumetoHost RemoveStorageVolumeFromHost ExtendFileSystem ExtendLogicalVolume These operations form the basis for a complete storage provisioning solution for standard file systems and devices. Alternatively, custom storage provisioning solutions can be developed using the building blocks provided by TPM. Chapter 5, “A storage provisioning solution for SAN File System” on page 61, presents a custom storage provisioning solution developed to manage an IBM TotalStorage SAN File System. As an example of a complete end-to-end provisioning task, Example 2-1 shows a simplified version of the AddStorageToHost operation. Example 2-1 AddStorageToHost operation StorageManager.AddStorageToHost (xx) { StorageManager.createVolumeContainter (xx) StorageManager.addServerToVolumeContainer (xx) for each PhysicalVolumeSettings in VolumeContainerSettings { find MultiPathSettings find StorageSubsystem/StoragePool from MultiPathSettings StorageVolume = StorageSubsystem.getStorageVolume (xx) or StoragePool.getStorageVolume (xx) get MultiPathSettings install StorageManager.addStorageVolumeToHost (xx) { for each DathPathSettings in MultiPathSettings { find faPortId find hbaPortId by find fabricId find zoneSetId find zoneId if (zoneId = null) { fabric.createZone (fabricId, zoneName, cPortId[]) } StorageSubsystem.mapStorageVolumeToFA (xx) StorageSubsystem.lunMasking (xx) OperatingSystem.createSANPhysicalVolume (xx) } } for each PhysicalVolume { StorageManager.addPhysicalVolumeToVolumeContainer }38 An Introduction to Storage Provisioning with Tivoli Provisioning Manager and TotalStorage Productivity Center
  46. 46. }for each LogicalVolumeSetting in VolumeContainerSettings { StorageManager.createLogicalVolume (xx) for each PhysicalVolume { StorageManager.addPVToLV (xx) } }}StorageManager.createFS (xx)}The inputs to the workflow are the name of the server and the name of the storage templateto be used to create the volumes and file systems. A key subcomponent of this workflow isthe AddStorageVolumeToHost operation. This performs the volume-related tasks required,and the AddStoragetoHost operation wraps this around with the file system and volumemanager tasks to create usable storage.After creating the Volume Group on the host and the corresponding Volume Container objectin TPM, the Physical Volume Settings are used to determine the size and type of StorageVolumes required. The AddStorageVolumeToHost operation is invoked to perform all thetasks of creating and mapping the volume to the host. After creating the volume and mappingit to the host OS, the physical volumes, logical volumes, and file system are created. Chapter 2. Tivoli Provisioning Manager support for storage provisioning 39
  47. 47. 40 An Introduction to Storage Provisioning with Tivoli Provisioning Manager and TotalStorage Productivity Center
  48. 48. 3 Chapter 3. Provisioning Storage with Tivoli Provisioning Manager TPM provides a comprehensive environment within which users can provision storage. From a single point, storage resources managed by TPM can be viewed and configured. This is all controlled by role-based security, which provides a high level of control over what individual administrators can see and do. Users are also assisted in performing storage operations by a wizard-based approach to creating storage templates. These features are now looked at in more detail.© Copyright IBM Corp. 2005. All rights reserved. 41
  49. 49. 3.1 Storage visualization From the TPM inventory view, a host’s storage resources can be visualized in two ways: Either as a detailed tabular style of storage components, or as a topology style icon view. Figure 3-1 is an example of the icon view of a hosts storage assets.Figure 3-1 Icon view of host storage assets This figure shows the logical and physical storage resources for host ibmp660-1. A single HBA connects via two ports to port 2 on SAN switches 9509-1 and 9509-2. The physical volumes on the host as well as the storage volumes mapped to the host are shown. Note that, as the storage volumes are not explicitly mapped via an HBA on the subsystem, the connectivity to the switch is not shown. The logical associations between the Storage Volumes and Physical Volumes are also hidden in this view to improve clarity. Hover the mouse over a physical volume or storage volume to show the logical relationships between the resources, as shown in Figure 3-2 on page 43.42 An Introduction to Storage Provisioning with Tivoli Provisioning Manager and TotalStorage Productivity Center