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Review 1 부분4


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Review 1 부분4

  1. 1. Traditional Security Issues and ModelsAnderson, R., Security Engineering: A Guide to Building Dependable Distributed Systems, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 2001.Traditional security models : Provide confidentiality, integrity, availability of information.1. Confidentiality • Ensuring that information is only shared or accessed by authorized parties under specific conditions • Authentication process of ensuring that the identity declared • enabling access to the right parties2. Integrity • The information can be trusted and has not been tampered • If the information has indeed been modified, what to do under such circumstances (e.g., trace the source of the modifications and take required action) • The senders/receivers of information cannot deny having sent/received the information.3. Availability • handling the information being accessible by authorized parties in the required circumstances • Denial-of-service, for example, is one form of attack on a system 상황인식 2010 가을 13 주차 61
  2. 2. Security PolicySecurity policy : • Traditional security is mainly based on the concept of roles and tasks affected to these roles Ex) An E-mail may be relevant to user a while it is considered as a junk email for user b. • Describes valuable (typically information-based) assets to be protected • Specifies security responsibilities • Be described informally or in a formal mathematical language.Assets for protects • Hardware, Software, Data, NetworksSecurity Mechanisms • Cryptography, Access control, Authentication & identification, Security Policy • Trust management Ross Anderson 홈페이지 applied Computer Security Associate 보안 협회 홈페이지 상황인식 2010 가을 13 주차 62
  3. 3. Context-Aware Security SystemsTowards a Conceptual and Software Framework for Integrating Context-based Security in Pervasive Environment, 2005, G. MostefaouiContext-based security definition : • Context-based security supports the reconfiguration of the security infrastructure according to the situation of use. This reconfiguration is governed by the current context, formally called a security context.Influences on Security ModelsInfluence ways of security models by Context-aware computing 1. Finer-grained security 2. Adaptable security levels 3. Increased traceability 상황인식 2010 가을 13 주차 63
  4. 4. Influences on Security ModelsFiner-grained security : • Grouped context for the purposes of security decisions • Context can be used to enhance existing security measures Ex) To unlock a door : Biometric Security (retina, eyeball, finger print,…) with additional context for access control as like a camera for recognition of the person, or weight sensors on the doormatAdaptable security levels : • Context Awareness : flexible security models can be achieved • Security levels can be increased or decreased based on the situation they are currently in (time, place, situation …) Ex) Access the same information - one set of contexts and credentials • Driver License – O.K. or not : depending on the situation • Combination of the right location, time, people nearby, & device identifiers • Use of context : partial information access or full discourse based on situations 상황인식 2010 가을 13 주차 64
  5. 5. Influences on Security ModelsIncreased Traceability : • Without the full credentials, provide the permission, with the context of location, time, & witness of the event recorded. • Contexts improve traceability and enrich auditing, which can be traded for changes in required credentials or security levels상황인식 2010 가을 13 주차 65
  6. 6. Security ContextAdaptive Context Aware Security - Adapt and Survive ?, 2004, Dr Naranker DulaySecurity Context : the information collected about the user’s environment that is applicable to the security system at hand • Many types of context information be useful in security applications • CHANGES in context, TRIGGER changes in SECURITY & Ability to UPDATE/EVOLVE security policies • Current state : the user’s current location, time, activity, people nearby, physiological state, available services, network connectivity, etc. • User preferences and relationships : including recommendations • it involves invoking personal, social information in making security decisions Ex) Emergency situations : an authenticated family member may access the information regarding an injured person, or access vital information • History : Readings and outcomes, accumulated wisdom • use in relation to trust based on previous outcomes 상황인식 2010 가을 13 주차 66
  7. 7. Context-Aware Security : Examples Proximity-based Authentication on HospitalContext-Aware User Authentication — Supporting Proximity-Based Login in Pervasive Computing , 2003, Jakob E. BardramProximity-Based User Authentication : context-aware user authentication protocols • login by approaching the computer physically (with an authentication token) Physical token (e.g., smart card) for gesturing and as the cryptographic basis for authentication. Context-aware system - verify the location of the person and logs the person out when he or she leaves Fallback mechanism : if the positioning infrastructure fails to determine the user’s location, then the user is requested to enter his or her password to log in.EPR (Electronic patient Record) access of a nurse • A nurse without log-out after using and go-out & easy password • Pervasive environment such as a wall, a bed, … 상황인식 2010 가을 13 주차 67
  8. 8. Proximity-based Authentication on HospitalContext ; additional security to smart card & alternative security for a password • Security policy coupled with a context-awareness infrastructure • User (has/ know/ is) cards + password + user’s trait + location 1. uses a JavaCard (physical token used for active gesturing basis) for identification and cryptographic calculations, 2. uses a context-awareness system for verifying the user’s location, 3. implements a security fall-back strategy • Location context • Passive RFID tags : for location information • WLAN monitors : tell the cell-based location of networked devices • Location errors handling : Estimated location of the person by probability – Below a specified threshold values - entering id/passwordActivity-based computing • Allows users to carry with them, and restore, their work on heterogeneous devices in a pervasive computing environment. • Users need to be authenticated on every device they want to use, and easy login is hence a core challenge in the concept of activity-based computing 상황인식 2010 가을 13 주차 68
  9. 9. From Context-aware Security to Context-Aware SafetySecurity : “freedom from risk or danger; safety”, 보안, 보장Safety : “the condition of being safe; freedom from danger, risk, or injury” “a device designed to prevent accidents, as a lock on a firearm preventing accidental firing.” 안전, 안전한 곳  Different but similar meaning KitchenEx) At Smart home - Kitchen Appliances can only be activated in the presence of an adult The child cannot turn-on the stove without an adult The stove turn-off automatically on higher temperature, & smoke alarmInstead of mapping security levels  security actionsIt is possible to map context to safety levels  safety-related actions상황인식 2010 가을 13 주차 69
  10. 10. Context-Awareness and Mirror-world models 윤 용운 2010.12.02상황인식 2010 가을 70
  11. 11. Gelernter‘s Mirror WorldsGelernter, D., Mirror Worlds: or the Day Software Puts the Universe in a Shoebox - How It Will Happen and What It Will Mean, Oxford University Press, U.K., 1993.Building Space in the Machine: Digital Tool Kits for Mirror Worlds, AndrewA mirror world • A virtual model or counterpart of some part of the physical world with detailed descriptions such as city (Map), Hospital, University, Company, … • Browse deeply within mirror worlds to different levels of detail, which aim to reflect the physical reality in real-time … you flip channels until you find the Mirror World of your choice, and then you see a picture. Capturing the structure and present status of an entire company, university, hospital, city,or whatever in a single (obviously elliptical, high level) sketch is a hard but solvable research problem. The picture changes subtly as you watch, mirroring changes in the world outside. • Interact with software agents in mirror worlds or with other visitors (perhaps real people in the physical world), or insert new agents • Oceans of information from data-gathering , monitoring equipment with some combination of sensors, and sensor data filtering and processing • Many mirror worlds are constructed by different people and integrated into a whole, and accessed by many people via different computers simultaneously 상황인식 2010 가을 14 주차 71
  12. 12. Web vs Mirror worldsWEB : Manually update (very tedious work) • Reflects the physical world (such as personal home pages, university home pages, business with their own home pages…)Mirror worlds • idea of feeding data streams into a computational structure so that the data coming in is reflected in changes • A high-level model for helping interpret the data, making it more comprehensible as like a context-aware system • a context-aware system would aggregate or process sensory data into high-level context meaningful to an application 상황인식 2010 가을 14 주차 72
  13. 13. NEXUSMaking the World Wide Space happen- New challenges for the Nexus context platform, 2009, Lange, StuttgartNEXUS : Spatial world model for mobile Context-Aware application (2003 ~ 2010) • Attempt at constructing mirror worldsWorld Wide Space : the framework for integrating and sharing context models • Federating spatial context models - technological fundamentals for such usage of context information to be shared by a wide variety of applications at a global scale.three layers of abstraction: • Physical world, • Augmented-world model : Mirrors aspects of the physical world  Contains virtual objects that “augment” the physical world • Information spaces 상황인식 2010 가을 14 주차 73
  14. 14. NEXUSEXTENDED NEXUS ARCHITECTUREContext Information Layer : • consists of context data servers from arbitrary providers (CP). • CPs provide context data at different levels of detail ranging from sensor data over static context to data histories and constitute the World Wide SpaceFederation Layer : • Distributed platform for context services provided by federation nodes (FN). • Platform Services : Context services typically used by applications, such as Context Reasoning, Context Cast, and Distributed Query Processing. • Core Services : Functionality on which the Nexus Platform Services rely. • Context Broker discovers relevant CPs for query processing and context reasoning. • Situation Template generates a logical execution plan, a directed graph describing the data flow and the steps of the algorithm. using Classic Logic and Bayesian Networks as reasoning algorithms.Applications & Middleware Layer • middleware services (MWS) • Parts of the application logic can be outsourced into the MWS as Context-aware Workflows enabling the users to orchestrate repeating service usage 상황인식 2010 가을 14 주차 74
  15. 15. NEXUSOn building location aware applications using an open platform based on the NEXUS Augmented World Model, 2004, NicklasAugmented World Modeling Language (AWML)Augmented World Query Language (AWQL)Describe objects and relations between objectsin an augmented world model • objects corresponding to real-world objects & have position and extent(크기) • virtual informational objects : augment the physical world such as objects situated on Web servers, or containing navigational informationSensors : • Real sensors : modeled as special spatial objects • Virtual sensors : combine several real sensors & provide synthesized or processed informationAssociations : between augmented-world objects and real-world objects Ex) associating Web pages with particular real-world objects such as exhibits of a museumRelations : “part of”, “sticks on”, “belongs to”, “held by”Applications : Museum Guide, Navigation Tool, Virtual Scavenger Hunt, Smart Factory 상황인식 2010 가을 14 주차 75
  16. 16. NEXUSStructure of the Augmented World Model • Spatial Object : the super class for all objects that are situated in space. • With a position, an extent for geographical attributes, and several representations. • Mobile Object & Static Objects • Web situated Objects : no position and extension • situated on web servers and can be addressed by a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI), like images, sounds, web pages or applications • Navigational Objects, Event ObjectsRelationships between Nexus Objects. • Nexus Object Locator (NOL) : Area-ID, Object-ID, URI of the Spatial Model Server • Nexus Relation Class 상황인식 2010 가을 14 주차 76
  17. 17. Virtual Worlds, Virtual EnvironmentsVirtual worlds : employed in many computer games, social interaction, entertainment applications Ex) MUD (Multi-User Dimension) comprise 3_D worlds Persons or their representatives called avatars might dwell and meet other avatars • Such virtual worlds typically have no correspondence to real-world places, but are constructed with spatial relationships and objects so as to provide adequate engaging realismVirtual worlds Vs Mirror worlds • mirror worlds do attempt to correspond to some real-world place, even if augmenting it with virtual objects, • virtual worlds for games and entertainment applications generally do not • Create sophisticated virtual worlds that mirror physical worlds in the spirit of the Nexus’ augmented-world models Ex) real world movements of people through physical spaces can be mirrored in the virtual world by the movement of their corresponding avatars in virtual spaces 상황인식 2010 가을 14 주차 77
  18. 18. Aura, Focus, and Nimbus: Virtual Objects and Real-World ObjectsMASSIVE: A Collaborative Virtual Environment for Teleconferencing , 1995, GreenhalghCommunication : controlled by a spatial model of interaction • one user’s perception of another user is sensitive to their relative positions and orientations • Key concept in the spatial model is the Quantitative Awareness which one object has to another Aura : total region within which object interacts Focus : observing object’s attention Nimbus : observed object’s visibility, observabilityMutual Awareness of devices or physical artifacts • Mutual levels of awareness may not be identical , may be negotiated between objects auraMASSIVE : allows multiple users & simultaneousmeetings to communicate using any combinations ofaudio, graphics, and text media over networksSpatial Mediation: governed by spatial factors suchas their relative positions and orientations 상황인식 2010 가을 14 주차 78
  19. 19. Awareness & InteractionAura : • (Benford , 1994) : A subspace which effectively bounds the presence of an object within a given medium which acts as an enabler of potential interaction. • (Ferscha , 2004) : A subtle sensory stimulus of “attraction” that transmits “signals of attraction” governed by the “laws of attraction.” • 어떤 object가 주변에 있는 다른 object와 information exchange를 할 수 있 는 territory of virtual space • size or shape of these auras varies independently as each object has its own criteria to meet • Objects themselves now being responsible for controlling these interactionsThis process of controlling the interaction is achievable by having degrees in the level of awareness between these objects.상황인식 2010 가을 14 주차 79
  20. 20. Digital AuraDigital Aura, 2004, A. FerschaAura : A subtle sensory stimulus of ―attraction‖ that transmits ―signals of attraction‖ governed by the ―laws of attraction.‖ • Smart space and smart appliances with invisible support, wireless data Links, & context-aware services have started to populate the real world and our daily lives • Spontaneous interaction: in which things start to interact once they reach physical proximity to each otherDigital aura : built on technologies • If an object detects the proximity (e.g. radio signal strength) of another object, then it starts exchanging and comparing profile data, • If sufficient “similarity” of the two profiles, starts to interact with that object. • Dense in the center of the object, , Thins out towards its surrounding until it is no longer sensible by others humans and humans (left), humans and things (center), things and things (right) 상황인식 2010 가을 14 주차 80