FUNDAMENTALS OF IV THERAPY

                 A&P of veins

       Peripheral Veins and Central Veins


               Tuni...
IV fluids which can be administered via veins

     CRYSTALLOIDS

            HYPOTONIC SOLUTIONS

                ISOTONI...
NOSOCOMIAL INFECTION

             BACTERIA      VIRUSES


              FUNGI        YEASTS


        POTENTIAL SITES FOR...
Common IV equipment


            IV CANNULE PERIPHERAL

            CENTRAL LINES

            NORMAL IV SET

           ...
KEY NURSING MEASURES TO PROMOTE ASEPSIS
      HAND WASHING - DRYING - ALCOHOL RUBS




VES 02/03                          ...
KEY NURSING MEASURES TO PROMOTE ASEPSIS.. cont.


  ASEPTIC TECHNIQUE DURING INSERTION OF CANNULA

  HAND WASHING - DRYING...
FACTORS NESSESITATING NURSES TO
      REGULARLY CHECK INFUSION RATES

    HEIGHT OF FLUID

    SITE OF CANNULA INSERTION
 ...
Criteria used in selecting a peripheral
         line as a means of IV therapy

            MAINTAIN OR CORRECT FLUID
    ...
Information required before IV drug administration



                        NAME
                                      I...
IHC Guidelines on Infection
 Control 14th Dec 2006

 Hand Hygiene

 • Alcohol hand rubs are the recommended
 method to dec...
General
  Principles
  Sharps Container

  All items which have a sharp point
  must be discarded in Sharps Box.
  This in...
Clinical Waste

   One must keep in mind the heavy
   environmental risks from unnecessary
   incineration. Hence, items w...
Domestic Waste
  These items should be discarded in
  domestic waste:

  • All packaging
  • Tissues for hand drying
  • U...
Particular situations:

   • Nappies from patients who have
     gastroenteritis

   • N95 masks worn when in close
     p...
PREVENTING ERRORS IN IV THERAPY



             THE FIVE RIGHTS


            RIGHT PATIENT

               RIGHT DRUG

  ...
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Fundamentals Of Iv Therapy

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Fundamentals Of Iv Therapy

  1. 1. FUNDAMENTALS OF IV THERAPY A&P of veins Peripheral Veins and Central Veins Tunica Adventitia Tunica Media Tunica Intima VES 02/03 1
  2. 2. IV fluids which can be administered via veins CRYSTALLOIDS HYPOTONIC SOLUTIONS ISOTONIC SOLUTIONS HYPERTONIC SOLUTIONS COLLOIDS BLOOD PLASMA HUMAN ALBUMIN BLOOD PRODUCTS (CRYOPRECIPITATES & PLATELETS) BLOOD PRODUCT SYNTHETICS (GELAFUSIN OR GELAFUNDIN) VES 02/03 2
  3. 3. NOSOCOMIAL INFECTION BACTERIA VIRUSES FUNGI YEASTS POTENTIAL SITES FOR ORGANISMS ENTERING IV INFUSION SYSTEMS INTRINSIC BEFORE START OF INFUSION EXTRINSIC DURING INFUSION VES 02/03 3
  4. 4. Common IV equipment IV CANNULE PERIPHERAL CENTRAL LINES NORMAL IV SET BLOOD GIVING SET (RAPID) IV CANNULA DRESSINGS INFUSION BAGS DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A PERIPHERAL AND A CENTRAL VEIN PHLEBITIS WHY?? VES 02/03 4
  5. 5. KEY NURSING MEASURES TO PROMOTE ASEPSIS HAND WASHING - DRYING - ALCOHOL RUBS VES 02/03 5
  6. 6. KEY NURSING MEASURES TO PROMOTE ASEPSIS.. cont. ASEPTIC TECHNIQUE DURING INSERTION OF CANNULA HAND WASHING - DRYING - ALCOHOL RUBS INJECTION BUNGS ASEPTIC TECHNIQUE DURING CHANGING OF INFUSION BAGS INSPECTION OF IV CANNULA DRESSING IVI SETS CHANGED EVERY 48 HRS IV CANNULAE CHANGED EVERY 48 TO 72 HRS CENTRAL LINES - DEPENDS IMPORTANCE OF DOCUMENTATION INVASIVE PROCEDURE LIST INSPECTION OF FLUIDS FOR CONTAMINATION AND EXPIRY DATES USE OF SMALLEST CANNULAE AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE TO MINIMIZE DISRUPTION OF LAMINAR FLOW OF BLOOD VES 02/03 6
  7. 7. FACTORS NESSESITATING NURSES TO REGULARLY CHECK INFUSION RATES HEIGHT OF FLUID SITE OF CANNULA INSERTION ESPECIALLY CLOSE TO JOINTS KINKS, LEAKS OR DISLODGEMENT RATE OF INFUSION TO PRVENT SPEED SHOCK FLOW CONTROL CLAMP THE PRESENCE OF AN IN-LINE FILTER OCCLUSION OF CANNULA DUE TO CLOT FORMATION PHLEBITIS MANIPULATION BY PATIENT FLOW RATES SHOULD BE CHECKED FREQUENTLY WHEN A NEW OR DANGEROUS DRUG IS BEING INFUSED VES 02/03 7
  8. 8. Criteria used in selecting a peripheral line as a means of IV therapy MAINTAIN OR CORRECT FLUID AND ELECTROLYTE BALANCE TRANSFUSE BLOOD OR BLOOD PRODUCTS ADMINISTER CONTINUOUS OR INTERMITTENT MEDICATIONS ADMINISTER A BOLUS PREPARATION OF DRUGS FACILITATE IMMEDIATE VENOUS ACCESS IN CASE OF EMERGENCY ADMINISTRATION OF ANAESTHESIA VES 02/03 8
  9. 9. Information required before IV drug administration NAME ID TAG PATIENT ALLERGIES TREATMENT CHART NAME DOSE THE DRUG EXPIRY DATE SIDE EFFECTS DOUBLE CHECKING SAFETY POLICIES INFECTION CONTROL SHARPS DISPOSAL VES 02/03 9
  10. 10. IHC Guidelines on Infection Control 14th Dec 2006 Hand Hygiene • Alcohol hand rubs are the recommended method to decontaminate hands when they are visibly clean. • Hand rubs are portable and can be carried around. • Hands must be washed after removing powdered gloves. • Gloves should be removed when they are heavily soiled with blood. VES 02/03 10
  11. 11. General Principles Sharps Container All items which have a sharp point must be discarded in Sharps Box. This includes all needles, guidewires, intravenous giving set spikes, trocars. VES 02/03 11
  12. 12. Clinical Waste One must keep in mind the heavy environmental risks from unnecessary incineration. Hence, items which are heavily soiled with blood, serous body fluids like csf, pleural, peritoneal and pericardial fluids, should be discarded in Clinical Waste. VES 02/03 12
  13. 13. Domestic Waste These items should be discarded in domestic waste: • All packaging • Tissues for hand drying • Used aprons, gloves • Nasogastric tubes • Urine catheters • Suction catheters • Drainage bags which have been emptied from their contents. • Used syringes • All intravenous lines and connections • Nappies & Incopads • Masks • Used tray from dressing • Venflons and central lines • Slightly soiled swabs VES 02/03 13
  14. 14. Particular situations: • Nappies from patients who have gastroenteritis • N95 masks worn when in close proximity with patients who are suspected or confirmed TB. • Blood soiled items from patients who are HIV, Hep B and Hep C. VES 02/03 14
  15. 15. PREVENTING ERRORS IN IV THERAPY THE FIVE RIGHTS RIGHT PATIENT RIGHT DRUG RIGHT DOSE RIGHT ROUTE RIGHT TIME VES 02/03 15

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