English languageThe Russian Federation Pupils from 8 “A” class Frantsuzova Anna Eliseeva Ekaterina
Content:1. Geography2. Population3. Language4. Folk culture and cuisine5. Literature.6. National holidays and symbols7. Famous people8. Our opinions
Geography Russia is the largestcountry in the world; itstotal area is 17,075,400square kilometres(6,592,800 sq mi). Thereare 23 UNESCO WorldHeritage Sites in Russia, 40UNESCO biospherereserves, 40 national parksand 101 nature reserve.Russia has a wide naturalresource base, including The topography of Russiamajor deposits of timber,petroleum, natural gas, coal,ores and other mineralresources.
Population Ethnic Russians comprise79.8% of the countryspopulation; however the RussianFederation is also home to severalsizeable minorities. In total, 160different other ethnic groups andindigenous peoples live within itsborders. Though Russiaspopulation is comparatively large,its density is low because of thecountrys enormous size.Population is densest in EuropeanRussia, near the Ural Mountains,and in southwest Siberia. 73% ofthe population lives in urbanareas while 27% in rural ones.Thetotal population is 141,927,297 Russian national costumepeople.
Language Russias 160 ethnicgroups speak some 100languages. According to the2002 census, 142.6 millionpeople speak Russian,followed by Tatar with 5.3million and Ukrainian with1.8 million speakers.Russian is the only officialstate language, but theConstitution gives theindividual republics theright to make their native Russian dollslanguage co-official next toRussian.
Folk culture and cuisine Handicraft, like Dymkovo toy,khokhloma, gzhel and palekhminiature represent an importantaspect of Russian folk culture.Ethnic Russian clothes includekaftan, kosovorotka and ushankafor men, sarafan and kokoshnikfor women, with lapti and valenkias common shoes. The clothes ofCossacks from Southern Russiainclude burka and papaha, whichthey share with the peoples of theNorthern Caucasus. Khokhloma
Folk culture and cuisine Russian cuisine widely uses fish,poultry, mushrooms, berries, andhoney. Favourits drink in Russia iskvass. Black bread is relatively morepopular in Russia. Flavourful soupsand stews include shchi, borsch,ukha, solyanka and okroshka.Smetana is often added to soups andsalads. Pirozhki, blini and syrniki arenative types of pancakes. ChickenKiev, pelmeni and shashlyk arepopular meat dishes. Popular saladsinclude Russian salad, vinaigrette andDressed Herring. Preparation of pelmeni, acommon Russian dish. Khokhlomahandicraft is seen on the background. blini
Folk culture and cuisine Typical ethnic Russian musicalinstruments are gusli, balalaika,zhaleika and garmoshka. Russians have manytraditions, including the washingin banya, a hot steam bathsomewhat similar to sauna. OldRussian folklore takes its roots inthe pagan Slavic religion. ManyRussian fairy tales and epicbylinas were adaptated foranimation films, or for films. Balalaika
Literature. In the 18th century developmentliterature was boosted by the works ofMikhail Lomonosov and DenisFonvizin, and by the early 19thcentury a modern native tradition hademerged, producing some of thegreatest writers of all time. Thisperiod, known also as the Golden Ageof Russian Poetry, began withAlexander Pushkin. It continued intothe 19th century with the poetry ofMikhail Lermontov and NikolayNekrasov, dramas of AleksandrOstrovsky and Anton Chekhov, andthe prose of Nikolai Gogol and IvanTurgenev and the novel of Leo Tolstoyand Fyodor Dostoevsky. Pushkin
National holidays and symbols There are seven public holidays inRussia. The New Year is the first incalendar and in popularity. RussianNew Year traditions resemble those ofthe Western Christmas, with NewYear Trees and gifts, and Ded Moroz.Orthodox Christmas falls on 7January. Further Russian public holidaysinclude Defender of the FatherlandDay (23 February), which honorsRussian men, especially those servingin the army; International WomensDay (8 March), which combines thetraditions of Mothers Day andValentines Day; Spring and LaborDay (1 May); Victory Day (9 May);Russia Day (12 June); and Unity Day(4 November). Victory Day Victory Day is the second popularholiday in Russia, it commemoratesthe victory over Nazism in the GreatPatriotic War.
National holidays and symbols The state symbols of Russiainclude the Byzantine double-headedeagle, combined with St. George ofMoscow in the Russian coat ofarms.Russian anthem shares itsmusic with the Soviet Anthem,though not the lyrics. Matryoshka doll is a recognizablesymbol of Russia, while the towers ofMoscow Kremlin and Saint BasilsCathedral in Moscow are mainRussias architectural icons.Cheburashka is a mascot of Russiannational Olympic team. St. Mary, St.Nicholas, St. Andrew, St. George, St.Alexander Nevsky, St. Sergius ofRadonezh and St. Seraphim of Sarovare Russias patron saints.Chamomile is a national flower, while Chamomile is a national flowerbirch is a national tree. Russian bearis an animal symbol and nationalpersonification of Russia.
Famous people Peter the Great was the firstEmperor of Russia. Alexander Pushkin was thegreatest poet in the World. Yuri Gagarin is Hero of theSoviet Union, was a Sovietcosmonaut Mikhail Lomonosov wasfamous polymath scientist,inventor, poet and artist. Leo Tolstoy was popularnovelist and philosopher. Andrei Rublev is considered tobe the greatest medieval Russian Mikhail Lomonosovpainter
Our opinions We think that Russia isvery beautiful country. Sightof big city in Russia, asMoskow, St Petersburg orNizhniy Novgorod is verywonderful. We think that alltourist who can been in ourcountry admire ourmemorial. Russia is the bestcountry and we like her.