MTA-BuildingPlace Sm Wind Turbine Regs


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2010 MTA Educational Conference

HANDOUT1 - Planning for the Wind Slides

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MTA-BuildingPlace Sm Wind Turbine Regs

  1. 1. Rodney C. Nanney, AICP The Way Things Were in the Wind Planning for the Wind Michigan Building Place Notebook Townships Association January 28, 2010 Rodney C. Nanney, AICP Building Place 1 2 Michigan Wind Potential Why are we talking about Marginal… alternative and renewable energy? • Higher utility costs • Growth in Michigan-based wind turbine Building Place Notebook Building Place Notebook and solar energy manufacturing • Cost of renewable energy production is coming down • Federal and state government incentives (and mandates) 3 4 Electric Bills May Jump "Clean, Renewable, and Efficient Energy Act" • P.A. 295 of 2008 • establishes a system of renewable energy credits and permits “net metering” • 10% of an electric provider's energy must Building Place Notebook Building Place Notebook come from renewable sources by 2015 • Electric and natural gas providers must create and file energy optimization plans • Creates Wind Energy Resource Zone Board 5 6 Michigan Townships Association 1
  2. 2. Rodney C. Nanney, AICP The Way Things Are Today… Tax Credits for Small Wind Turbines • New Federal investment tax credit • Home, Farm, or Business use • Owners of small wind systems Building Place Notebook Building Place Notebook • 100 kilowatts (kW) of capacity or less • Potential credit = 30% of total installed cost • Available through 12/31/2016 7 8 Alternatives to the Propeller The Way Things are Going… • ~30’ high • Omni- directional • Relatively Building Place Notebook Building Place Notebook inexpensive • ~1/2 acre site 9 10 Planning for our Energy Future Planning • Update local master plans to for our address energy issues • Evaluate local potential for Energy Building Place Notebook “renewable” energy: Future • • solar wind • geo-thermal • methane (landfill gas) • etc. 11 12 Michigan Townships Association 2
  3. 3. Rodney C. Nanney, AICP Planning for our Energy Future Planning for our Energy Future • Consider energy conservation in • Renewable energy production as land development/re-development an economic development tool • Maximize solar energy potential in • Diversify farming income building and site design Building Place Notebook Building Place Notebook • Municipal income source • Cluster of homes on smaller lots • Visibility/Advertising - Wind • Promote mixed-use development turbine systems placed to draw • Create walkable neighborhoods attention (and visitors) • Improve bicycle and public transit connectivity 13 14 Planning for our Energy Future • Sustainable Zoning or Place Zoning Regulating • Google “sustainable zoning” • Rocky Mountain Land Use Institute Small • Wind Building Place Notebook • Promote LEED certification • Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design • U.S. Green Building Council Turbines • New Buildings • Building Renovations • Neighborhoods (new) 15 16 Ordinance Preparation Ordinance Preparation • Wind turbine standards should be • Prior to preparing a wind turbine in the Zoning Ordinance ordinance: • Preferred - all standards in one • Invite an wind energy industry expert self-contained section or article from the to make a public presentation Building Place Notebook Building Place Notebook • Similar to cell tower regulations • Consider individual site visit(s) to existing wind turbines • Purpose of ordinance is to allow • Review recent wind energy articles for reasonable use and minimize from the Michigan Planner, Planning & off-site impacts Zoning News, and other publications 17 18 Michigan Townships Association 3
  4. 4. Rodney C. Nanney, AICP Ordinance Preparation • Use tables to organize information: Checklist of Issues to Consider !Height/fall zone/setback !Noise & shadow flicker impacts !Visibility/aesthetics Building Place Notebook Building Place Notebook !Types of permitted units !Permitted locations !Preferred approval process !End of life/abandonment/removal 19 20 Height, Fall Zone, & Setback Height, Fall Zone, & Setback • Towers should be set back from all • Tower Height: property lines and buildings a • Require minimum ground clearance minimum distance equal to: for blades • 100% - 150% of overall height • Need to get above trees and structures by at least 25 - 35 feet Building Place Notebook Building Place Notebook • Measure to tip of blade • Require tower design to minimize • Set maximum height for “by right” towers potential fall zone • Allow for taller towers with special • May allow temporary anemometer use approval “test” tower with reduced setbacks 21 22 Height, Fall Zone, & Setback Height, Fall Zone, & Setback • Setbacks are intended to: • Building-Mounted • Maximize safety Units: • Limit turbine height • Provide space to contain a catastrophic tower or blade failure above the building height Building Place Notebook Building Place Notebook • Provide area for ice-fall or debris-fall • Require setback from • Protects property rights of adjacent building wall to landowners minimize visibility • Reduce visual impacts with distance • Require fall zone for unit within roof area 23 24 Michigan Townships Association 4
  5. 5. Rodney C. Nanney, AICP Height Issues That May Come Up Noise Impacts • Icing (Ice Throw): • Noise impacts may extend well beyond • Under certain conditions, ice may build up property line on turbine blades • Causes blades to slow or stop • Topography and weather conditions may • Ice then sloughs or falls to the ground within cause noise to: Building Place Notebook Building Place Notebook area = diameter of blades • “Skip” over some areas, or • Lightning: • Concentrate or amplify in other locations • Wind turbines do not attract lightning • Small wind turbines with narrow, fast- • Pose no threat to neighboring properties • Release of pent-up static electricity that moving blades create more “white moves from turbulent atmosphere to ground noise” and less whine or pulsating sound 25 26 Noise Impact Example Noise Impact Example • The wind turbine industry says: • “The blades…make a ‘whooshing' sound and mechanical parts or unusual wind currents can produce a Building Place Notebook Building Place Notebook steady ‘hum' or ‘whine.' • However, ambient noise is usually louder than any noise produced by wind turbines (which) are significantly quieter than older 27 models.” 28 Noise Impact Example Noise Impacts • A neighbor says: • Require blade and turbine noise data • “(W)e now live with the daily presence of with application turbine noise, 24/7. … The noise is as • Set standard for maximum permitted constant as the wind…. noise levels at the property line • “It can be a low rumbling, whooshing, Building Place Notebook Building Place Notebook • Typical: Maximum of 45 dB(A) - 55 dB(A) grinding background noise that one can just hear above the sound of the trees or • Rustling leaves = 10 dB(A) • it can build to an in-your-face noise, (a) • Rural evening = 20 dB(A) pulsating sound that echoes in your head, • Quiet rural area = 40 dB(A) keeps you awake at night, and beats on your • Ordinary conversation = 60 dB(A) house like a drum.” 29 30 Michigan Townships Association 5
  6. 6. Rodney C. Nanney, AICP Shadow Flicker Visual Character & Aesthetics • A “flickering” shadow is created by • Some find wind turbines to be graceful rotating blades visual amenity • Require sun angle data and daytime • Others find units to be an unwelcome path of the wind turbine’s shadow visual intrusion • Summer and especially winter paths Building Place Notebook Building Place Notebook • Require monopole tower • Concern for those with photosensitive • Non-reflective color (white, gray, black) epilepsy or similar conditions • No guy wires • Not a significant issue for smaller • Minimum FAA lighting turbines with narrow blades and higher • No signage rotation speed • Strict maintenance plan 31 32 Types of “Small” Wind Permitted Locations and Energy Systems Approval Processes • Agricultural wind turbines • Agricultural Wind Turbines: • Windmills for pumping, etc. (historical) • Allow limited number per acre or • Isolated site power generation parcel “by right” • Additional source of income Building Place Notebook Building Place Notebook • building/zoning/electrical permits • Private or residential wind turbines • Rooftop • Set maximum height for “by right” • Freestanding turbine towers • Non-residential wind turbines • Allow additional or taller agricultural • Demonstration project wind turbines with special use • Commercial “attention-getting” installation approval 33 34 Permitted Locations and Permitted Locations and Approval Processes Approval Processes • Private or Residential Wind Turbines: • Non-Residential • Require special use approval so Wind Turbines: neighbors are aware of proposal • Require special use • Maximum of one per parcel Building Place Notebook Building Place Notebook approval • Rear yard only • Beware that project • Allow only in “rural” residential may be intended as district(s)? “attention-getter” • Building-mounted units likely require • Think of dealership substantial structural upgrades flags and whirly-gigs! 35 36 Michigan Townships Association 6
  7. 7. Rodney C. Nanney, AICP End of Life, Additional Requirements Abandonment, & Removal • Detailed site plan • Require information about • Documentation of compliance: anticipated lifespan with application • Construction and electrical codes • Maintenance plan • Setbacks and fall zone Building Place Notebook Building Place Notebook • Removal agreement • Noise limitations • Remove within 90 days of abandonment • Lighting and signage limitations or ceasing operation • Proof of liability insurance • Removal bond for non-residential units • Method of climb prevention 37 38 Final Notes Thank You • Wind turbines are a fast-changing For more information: technology Rodney C. Nanney, AICP • Any ordinance will likely need to be Building Place updated in one to two years (734) 483-2271 (phone) Building Place Notebook Building Place Notebook • Assistance from qualified professionals key to success (866) 611-4207 (fax) • Planning consultant (email) • Attorney • Wind energy expert 39 40 Michigan Townships Association 7