Jose Protasio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda Quintos (June 19,1861-December 30,1896) The national hero of the Philippines and pride of the Malayan race, was born on June 19, 1861, in the town of Calamba, Laguna. He was the seventh child in a family of 11 children (2 boys and 9 girls). Both his parents were educated and belonged to distinguished families.
Parents <ul><li>FRANCISCO MERCADO (1818-1898) Father of Jose Rizal who was the youngest of 13 offsprings of Juan and Cirila Mercado. Born in Biñan, Laguna on April 18, 1818; studied in San Jose College, Manila; and died in Manila. </li></ul>
<ul><li>TEODORA ALONSO (1827-1913) Mother of Jose Rizal who was the second child of Lorenzo Alonso and Brijida de Quintos. She studied at the Colegio de Santa Rosa. She was a business-minded woman, courteous, religious, hard-working and well-read. She was born in Santa Cruz, Manila on November 14, 1827 and died in 1913 in Manila. </li></ul>
Siblings <ul><li>PACIANO RIZAL (1851-1930) Only brother of Jose Rizal and the second child. Studied at San Jose College in Manila; became a farmer and later a general of the Philippine Revolution. </li></ul>
<ul><li>SATURNINA RIZAL (1850-1913) Eldest child of the Rizal-Alonzo marriage. Married Manuel Timoteo Hidalgo of Tanauan, Batangas. </li></ul>
<ul><li>NARCISA RIZAL (1852-1939) The third child. married Antonio Lopez at Morong, Rizal; a teacher and musician. </li></ul>
<ul><li>OLYMPIA RIZAL (1855-1887) The fourth child. Married Silvestre Ubaldo; died in 1887 from childbirth. </li></ul>
<ul><li>LUCIA RIZAL (1857-1919) The fifth child. Married Matriano Herbosa. </li></ul>
<ul><li>MARIA RIZAL (1859-1945) The sixth child. Married Daniel Faustino Cruz of Biñan, Laguna. </li></ul>
<ul><li>JOSE RIZAL (1861-1896) The second son and the seventh child. He was executed by the Spaniards on December 30,1896. </li></ul>
<ul><li>CONCEPCION RIZAL (1862-1865) The eight child. Died at the age of three. </li></ul>
<ul><li>JOSEFA RIZAL (1865-1945) The ninth child. An epileptic, died a spinster. </li></ul>
<ul><li>TRINIDAD RIZAL (1868-1951) The tenth child. Died a spinster and the last of the family to die. </li></ul>
<ul><li>SOLEDAD RIZAL (1870-1929) The youngest child married Pantaleon Quintero. </li></ul>
Farewell, my adored Land, region of the sun caressed, Pearl of the Orient Sea, our Eden lost, With gladness I give you my Life, sad and repressed; And were it more brilliant, more fresh and at its best, I would still give it to you for your welfare at most. On the fields of battle, in the fury of fight, Others give you their lives without pain or hesitancy, The place does not matter: cypress laurel, lily white, Scaffold, open field, conflict or martyrdom's site, It is the same if asked by home and Country. I die as I see tints on the sky b'gin to show And at last announce the day, after a gloomy night; If you need a hue to dye your matutinal glow, Pour my blood and at the right moment spread it so, And gild it with a reflection of your nascent light! My dreams, when scarcely a lad adolescent, My dreams when already a youth, full of vigor to attain, Were to see you, gem of the sea of the Orient, Your dark eyes dry, smooth brow held to a high plane Without frown, without wrinkles and of shame without stain.
My life's fancy, my ardent, passionate desire, Hail! Cries out the soul to you, that will soon part from thee; Hail! How sweet 'tis to fall that fullness you may acquire; To die to give you life, 'neath your skies to expire, And in your mystic land to sleep through eternity! If over my tomb some day, you would see blow, A simple humble flow'r amidst thick grasses, Bring it up to your lips and kiss my soul so, And under the cold tomb, I may feel on my brow, Warmth of your breath, a whiff of your tenderness. Let the moon with soft, gentle light me descry, Let the dawn send forth its fleeting, brilliant light, In murmurs grave allow the wind to sigh, And should a bird descend on my cross and alight, Let the bird intone a song of peace o'er my site. Let the burning sun the raindrops vaporize And with my clamor behind return pure to the sky; Let a friend shed tears over my early demise; And on quiet afternoons when one prays for me on high, Pray too, oh, my Motherland, that in God may rest I.
Pray thee for all the hapless who have died, For all those who unequalled torments have undergone; For our poor mothers who in bitterness have cried; For orphans, widows and captives to tortures were shied, And pray too that you may see your own redemption. And when the dark night wraps the cemet'ry And only the dead to vigil there are left alone, Don't disturb their repose, don't disturb the mystery: If you hear the sounds of cittern or psaltery, It is I, dear Country, who, a song t'you intone. And when my grave by all is no more remembered, With neither cross nor stone to mark its place, Let it be plowed by man, with spade let it be scattered And my ashes ere to nothingness are restored, Let them turn to dust to cover your earthly space.
Then it doesn't matter that you should forget me: Your atmosphere, your skies, your vales I'll sweep; Vibrant and clear note to your ears I shall be: Aroma, light, hues, murmur, song, moanings deep, Constantly repeating the essence of the faith I keep. My idolized Country, for whom I most gravely pine, Dear Philippines, to my last goodbye, oh, harken There I leave all: my parents, loves of mine, I'll go where there are no slaves, tyrants or hangmen Where faith does not kill and where God alone does reign. Farewell, parents, brothers, beloved by me, Friends of my childhood, in the home distressed; Give thanks that now I rest from the wearisome day; Farewell, sweet stranger, my friend, who brightened my way; Farewell, to all I love. To die is to rest.
On the afternoon of Dec. 29, 1896, a day before his execution, Dr. Jose Rizal was visited by his mother, Teodora Alonzo, sisters Lucia, Josefa, Trinidad, Maria and Narcisa, and two nephews. When they took their leave, Rizal told Trinidad in English that there was something in the small alcohol stove (cocinilla), not alcohol lamp (lamparilla). The stove was given to Narcisa by the guard when the party was about to board their carriage in the courtyard. At home, the Rizal ladies recovered from the stove a folded paper. On it was written an unsigned, untitled and undated poem of 14 five-line stanzas. The Rizals reproduced copies of the poem and sent them to Rizal's friends in the country and abroad. In 1897, Mariano Ponce in Hong Kong had the poem printed with the title "Mi Ultimo Pensamiento." Fr. Mariano Dacanay, who received a copy of the poem while a prisoner in Bilibid(jail), published it in the first issue of La Independencia on Sept. 25, 1898 with the title "Ultimo Adios." The stove was not delivered until after the execution. Rizal needed it to light the room and to be able to write the poem and his other parting words.
After the kangaroo trial, Rizal was escorted to his cell in Fort Santiago to make use of his remaining time. His last 24 hours was his busiest life – as if trying to meet the deadline. Last hours of Rizal. At 6:00 A.M., December 29, 1896, Captain Rafael Dominguez, read the death sentence to Rizal to be shot at the back by a firing squad at 7:00 A.M. in Bagumbayan.
At 7:00 A.M., an hour after the reading of the death sentence, Rizal was transferred to the Prison Chapel. His first visitors were Father Miguel Saderra Mata and Father Luis Viza. At 7:15 A.M., Father Saderra left. Father Viza handed over the Sacred Heart of Jesus carved by Rizal in Ateneo. At 8:00 A.M., Father Rosell arrived to relieve Father Viza. They joined at breakfast. Lt. Luis Taviel de Andrade came and Rizal thanked him for his gallant services.
At 9:00 A.M., Fathers Jose Vilaclara (teacher in Ateneo) and Vicente Balaguer (Jesuit priest in Dapitan) visited the hero. After them came the Spanish journalist, Santiago Mataix, interviewed Rizal for his newspaper El Heraldo de Madrid. From 12:00 A.M. (noon) to 3:30 P.M., Rizal was left alone in his cell. He took his lunch, after which he was busy writing. It was probably during this time when he finished his farewell poem and hid it inside his alcohol-cooking stove. (Not lamp as some biographers erroneously assert) which was given to him by Paz Pardo de Tavera. At the same he wrote his last letter to B lumentrit. At 3:30 P.M., Father Balaguer returned to Fort Santiago and discussed with his about his retraction of the anti-catholic ideas in his writings and membership in Masonry.
At 4:00 P.M., Rizal’s mother arrived. He asked forgiveness, they were both crying when the guards separated them. Shortly afterwards Trinidad entered the cell to fetch her mother. As they were leaving Rizal whispered that “there is something inside the alcohol cooking stove” Trinidad understood. This “something” was Rizal’s farewell poem. After the departure of Dona Teodora and Trinidad, Fathers Vilaclara and Estanislao march entered the cell, followed by Father Rosell. At 6:00 P.M. Rizal received a new visitor, Don Silvino Lopez Tunon. At 8:00 P.M., Rizal had his last supper. He informed Captain Dominguez that he forgave his enemies, including the military judges who condemned him to death. At 9:30 P.M., Don Gaspar Centano, the fiscal of the Royal Audiencia of Manila, visited Rizal. As a gracious host, Rizal offered him the best chair in the cell. After a pleasant conversation, the fiscal left with a good impression of Rizal’s intelligence and noble character
At 10:00 P.M., Father Belaguer to Rizal submitted the draft of the retraction sent by the anti-Filipino Archbishop Bernardino Nozaleda for signature, but he rejected it because it was too long and he did not like it. A shorter one was presented later which was prepared by Father Pio Pi, which was acceptable to Rizal. Rizal then wrote his retraction, in which he abjured Masonry and his religious ideas, which were anti-catholic. At 3:00 o’ clock in the morning of December 30, 1896, Rizal heard mass, confessed his sins, and took the Holy Communion. At 5:30 A.M., he took his last breakfast. After this, he wrote two letters, for his family and other one for his brother Paciano. It was also then, when his wife Josephine Bracken arrived accompanied by Josefa. (Sister of Rizal). With tears in her eyes, she bade farewell. Rizal embraced her for the last time and gave her his last gift – a religious book, Imitation of Christ, which he autographed: “ To My Dar Unhappy Wife, Josephine”.
6:00 A.M., He wrote another letter to his beloved parents, asking for forgiveness for the sorrows that he had given them, and thanking them for their sacrifices to give him a good education. At 6:30 A.M., Rizal was prepared for the execution. A trumpet sounded announcing his forthcoming execution. With four soldiers as advance guards, Rizal a few meters behind walk calmly towards his slaughter place, accompanied by Lt. Luis Taviel de Andrade, two Jesuits Priests, and followed by more soldiers behind him. He was dressed in black suit, with a black derby hat, black shoes but with white shirts and black tie. Like any execution by muskertry, muffled sound of drums rent the air, with the group marching solemnly and slowly. Near the field a large group of spectators was out probably to see how a hero dies or to make it sure that Rizal will die. As they were walking to the field, Rizal looked at the sky and made a remark to one of the priests: “How beautiful it is today, Father. What morning could be more serene! How clear are Corregidor and the mountains of Cavite! On morning like this, I used to take a walk with my sweetheart.”
While passing through in front of Ateneo, he asked one of the fathers, if the college towers were that of Ateneo’s, which was affirmed by one of the priests. In the Bagumbayan Field, the group stopped and he walked slowly to where he was told to stand-on a grassy lawn between two lampposts, overseeing the shores of the beautiful Manila Bay. He took time to bid farewell to his companions, and firmly shook their hands. One of the priests blessed him and offered a crucifix for him to kiss, which he did. He then requested the commander of the firing squad to shoot him facing the firing squad, which was refused, with the commander telling him of the orders that he had to follow. He did as ordered reluctantly and turned his back and faced the sea, even as a Spanish Military doctor, Dr. Felipe Luis Castillo asked his permission to feel his pulse. Nothing could be more extraordinary that for a man facing the firing squad who will take off his life, as having a normal pulse. Rizal, who was intelligent, famous, respected, and who almost had everything during his time – had no fear to die; it was a rare opportunity and he would want it in no other way.
When the command “Fuego!” was heard, he made a supreme effort to face the firing squad, and his bullet-riddled body instead turned to the right with his face facing the morning sun. it was exactly 7:03 A.M., December 30th, 1896, when Jose Rizal died, his death was the life of the Filipinos. When he died – Nationalism was born, at the prime of his life, thirty-five year of age, five months and eleven days. His Mission was accomplished!
JOSE RIZAL, the national hero of the Philippines and pride of the Malayan race, was born on June 19, 1861, in the town of Calamba, Laguna. He was the seventh child in a family of 11 children (2 boys and 9 girls). Both his parents were educated and belonged to distinguished families.
Dr. Jose Rizal , the well-loved Philippine national hero, and the brave known genius was famous and will remain famous worldwide. I don’t know if you’ve heard bout him, but of course if you’re a Filipino, you surely know him well because he’s a big part of the Philippine history. Jose Rizal is a star and like I’ve said genius and every star and genius is famous.
<ul><li>Jose’s real last name, Mercado , during those times was a hot name, targeted by the Spaniards. He changed his surname to protect his identity. So he just used his middle name, Rizal , instead, which was considered as illustrado during the Spanish time and entails the benefits a Spaniard can get. </li></ul><ul><li>Second, there was Spanish law to change the last name of Filipinos those times. Mercado </li></ul><ul><li>sounded a common name and there were lots of people having that surname already who were not really relatives of Rizal. </li></ul>
Dr. Jose Rizal was a philosopher , painter, poet , architect, artists, businessman, cartoonist , educator, economist, ethnologist, scientific farmer , historian, inventor , journalist, linguist, musician , mythologist, nationalist, naturalist, novelist, opthalmic surgeon , propagandist, psychologist, scientist , sculptor , sociologist, swordsman , , theologian hmm seems never-ending. In short Rizal was a versatile genius.
Group 1 (I-C ACSC) <ul><li>Bugnos, Grace </li></ul><ul><li>Noromor,Nina </li></ul><ul><li>Avelino,Shene </li></ul><ul><li>Maglaque,Patricia </li></ul><ul><li>Liwanag,Edralyn </li></ul><ul><li>Lapi,Roselyn </li></ul><ul><li>Submitted to: Prof.Tessie Sagadraca </li></ul>