Optimization of an ak-47<br />CAD Applications<br />December 16th, 2010<br />Presented By: Christopher N. Berry<br />
History of the AK-47<br />The AK-47 was developed by Mikhail Kalashnikov between 1941 and 1947.<br />75+ million rifles ha...
DesignPhase 1:Product Evaluation<br />
What are the Strengths?<br />Extremely reliable.<br />Very low cost.<br />Easy to manufacture.<br />Low maintenance.<br />
What are the Weaknesses?<br />1)  Firing Inaccuracy.<br />Video Source 1: http://www.youtube.com/v/xeeeFxA_9nA<br />
What are the Weaknesses? (Cont.)<br />2)  Weapon Handling<br />Video Source 2: http://www.youtube.com/v/QVpents7XbA&featur...
Design Goals<br />Increase firing accuracy.<br />Increase weapon handling.<br />Increase weapon durability<br />
DesignPhase 2:Preliminary Design/Survey<br />
Product Comparison<br />M16  vs. AK-47<br />M16 has a heavier and thicker barrel.<br />M16 has a compact design.<br />M16 ...
Product Comparison (Cont.)<br />M16  Weapon Handling<br />Video Source 3: http://www.youtube.com/v/xBZWCHWqwGc&feature=rel...
DesignPhase 3:Project Management andIdea Generation<br />
Project Time Line<br />Figure 2: AK-47 Redesign Gantt Chart<br />
Current Recoil Dampening System<br />Rear Recoil Spring Guide: consists of a mount, 2 guide bars, a spring, and a “front g...
Alternative Design Sketches (1 of 2)<br />Proposed Dampening System to reduce recoil and increase weapon handling. <br />F...
Current Barrel and Receiver Assembly<br />Figure 6: AK-47 Barrel and Receiver<br />
Alternative Design Sketches (2 of 2)<br />Component Redesign to reduce system flexibility and increase weapon accuracy.<br...
DesignPhase 4:Component Modeling<br />
Critical Components<br />Figure 9: Bolt Carrier<br />Figure 10: Butt Stock<br />Figure 12: AK-47 Receiver<br />Figure 11: ...
Critical Sub-Assembly<br />Figure 15: Exterior of Receiver Sub-Assembly<br />Figure 16: Interior of Receiver Sub-Assembly<...
Figure 17a: AK-47 Assembly Top View<br />Figure 17b: AK-47 Assembly Side View<br />Figure 17c: AK-47 Assembly Front View<b...
Full Assembly (Cont.)<br />Figure 18: Exploded Full Assembly<br />Figure 19: Bill of Materials<br />
DesignPhase 5:Engineering AnalysisPart 1: Current Components<br />
Increase Firing AccuracyBarrel Analysis (Current)<br />Performed a frequency analysis on the barrel.<br />Applied rough me...
Increase Firing Accuracy (Cont.)Barrel Analysis (Current) Results<br />Figure 21a: Displacement diagram for current barrel...
Increase Firing Accuracy (Cont.) Receiver Analysis (Current)<br />Performed a frequency analysis on receiver.<br />Applied...
Increase Firing Accuracy (Cont.)Receiver Analysis (Current) Results<br />Figure 24a: Displacement diagram for current rece...
Increase Weapon HandlingBolt Carrier Motion Analysis (Current)<br />Performed motion analysis on bolt carrier.<br />Applie...
Increase Weapon Handling (Cont.)Bolt Carrier Motion Analysis (Current) Results<br />X-Position, Velocity and Acceleration ...
DesignPhase 5:Engineering AnalysisPart 2: Redesigned Components<br />
Redesigned Components<br />Receiver wall thickness doubled from 0.05 inches to 0.1 inches.<br />Barrel outer diameter unif...
Increase Firing AccuracyBarrel Analysis (Modified)<br />Performed a frequency analysis on the barrel.<br />Applied rough m...
Increase Firing Accuracy (Cont.)Barrel Analysis (Modified) Results<br />Figure 28a: Displacement diagram for modified barr...
Increase Firing Accuracy (Cont.) Receiver Analysis (Modified)<br />Performed a frequency analysis on receiver.<br />Applie...
Increase Firing Accuracy (Cont.)Receiver Analysis (Modified) Results<br />Figure 30a: Displacement diagram for modified re...
Increase Weapon HandlingBolt Carrier Motion Analysis (Modified)<br />Added a polyurethane dampener to reduce the recoil fo...
Increase Weapon Handling (Cont.)Bolt Carrier Motion Analysis (Modified) Results<br />X-Position, Velocity and Acceleration...
Results<br />
Increased Firing Accuracy<br />15% increase of outer diameter for barrel yields 36% displacement reduction.<br />28% reduc...
Increase Weapon Handling<br />System is dramatically slowed down after contacting dampener.<br />Rest time is increased by...
Increase Durability<br />15% increase of outer diameter for barrel yields 37% max stress reduction.<br />50% increase of r...
Discussion<br />
Design Problems<br />Simulating Recoil <br />Difficult to know dampening coefficient and spring coefficient without comple...
Questions? <br />
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[Mae477]Final Project Presentation

  1. 1. Optimization of an ak-47<br />CAD Applications<br />December 16th, 2010<br />Presented By: Christopher N. Berry<br />
  2. 2. History of the AK-47<br />The AK-47 was developed by Mikhail Kalashnikov between 1941 and 1947.<br />75+ million rifles have been manufactured since its inception.<br />Kalashnikov has never profited from weapon sales.<br />Figure 1: Picture of a Mikhail Kalashnikov<br />Image source: http://en.academic.ru/dic.nsf/enwiki/11815<br />
  3. 3. DesignPhase 1:Product Evaluation<br />
  4. 4. What are the Strengths?<br />Extremely reliable.<br />Very low cost.<br />Easy to manufacture.<br />Low maintenance.<br />
  5. 5. What are the Weaknesses?<br />1) Firing Inaccuracy.<br />Video Source 1: http://www.youtube.com/v/xeeeFxA_9nA<br />
  6. 6. What are the Weaknesses? (Cont.)<br />2) Weapon Handling<br />Video Source 2: http://www.youtube.com/v/QVpents7XbA&feature=related<br />
  7. 7. Design Goals<br />Increase firing accuracy.<br />Increase weapon handling.<br />Increase weapon durability<br />
  8. 8. DesignPhase 2:Preliminary Design/Survey<br />
  9. 9. Product Comparison<br />M16 vs. AK-47<br />M16 has a heavier and thicker barrel.<br />M16 has a compact design.<br />M16 has lower recoil due to “buffer piston”, as well as a smaller round.<br />
  10. 10. Product Comparison (Cont.)<br />M16 Weapon Handling<br />Video Source 3: http://www.youtube.com/v/xBZWCHWqwGc&feature=related<br />
  11. 11. DesignPhase 3:Project Management andIdea Generation<br />
  12. 12. Project Time Line<br />Figure 2: AK-47 Redesign Gantt Chart<br />
  13. 13. Current Recoil Dampening System<br />Rear Recoil Spring Guide: consists of a mount, 2 guide bars, a spring, and a “front guide retainer”.<br />Figure 3: Picture of a Rear Recoil Spring Guide.<br />Image source: http://www.monstermarketplace.com/firearms-and- <br />firearm-supplies/romanian-ak47-recoil-spring-assembly-ak-ro02<br />
  14. 14. Alternative Design Sketches (1 of 2)<br />Proposed Dampening System to reduce recoil and increase weapon handling. <br />Figure 5: Redesigned Dampening System (2of 2)<br />Figure 4: Redesigned Dampening System (1 of 2)<br />
  15. 15. Current Barrel and Receiver Assembly<br />Figure 6: AK-47 Barrel and Receiver<br />
  16. 16. Alternative Design Sketches (2 of 2)<br />Component Redesign to reduce system flexibility and increase weapon accuracy.<br />Figure 7: Redesigned Dampening System (1 of 2)<br />Figure 8: Redesigned Dampening System (2 of 2)<br />
  17. 17. DesignPhase 4:Component Modeling<br />
  18. 18. Critical Components<br />Figure 9: Bolt Carrier<br />Figure 10: Butt Stock<br />Figure 12: AK-47 Receiver<br />Figure 11: AK-47 Barrel<br />Figure 13: Rear Recoil Spring Guide<br />Figure 14: Front Guide Retainer<br />
  19. 19. Critical Sub-Assembly<br />Figure 15: Exterior of Receiver Sub-Assembly<br />Figure 16: Interior of Receiver Sub-Assembly<br />
  20. 20. Figure 17a: AK-47 Assembly Top View<br />Figure 17b: AK-47 Assembly Side View<br />Figure 17c: AK-47 Assembly Front View<br />Figure 17d: AK-47 Assembly Full View<br />Full Assembly<br />
  21. 21. Full Assembly (Cont.)<br />Figure 18: Exploded Full Assembly<br />Figure 19: Bill of Materials<br />
  22. 22. DesignPhase 5:Engineering AnalysisPart 1: Current Components<br />
  23. 23. Increase Firing AccuracyBarrel Analysis (Current)<br />Performed a frequency analysis on the barrel.<br />Applied rough mesh<br />Created joint at receiver connection.<br />Applied continuous load of 500 lb-f on the end of the barrel.<br />Figure 20: Mesh and force application on current barrel.<br />
  24. 24. Increase Firing Accuracy (Cont.)Barrel Analysis (Current) Results<br />Figure 21a: Displacement diagram for current barrel.<br />Figure 21b: Stress diagram for current barrel.<br />
  25. 25. Increase Firing Accuracy (Cont.) Receiver Analysis (Current)<br />Performed a frequency analysis on receiver.<br />Applied rough mesh<br />Created joint at barrel and full butt stock connection.<br />Applied continuous load of 500 lb-f along the base interior side.<br />Figure 23: Mesh and force application on current barrel.<br />
  26. 26. Increase Firing Accuracy (Cont.)Receiver Analysis (Current) Results<br />Figure 24a: Displacement diagram for current receiver.<br />Figure 24b: Stress diagram for current receiver.<br />
  27. 27. Increase Weapon HandlingBolt Carrier Motion Analysis (Current)<br />Performed motion analysis on bolt carrier.<br />Applied a Recoil Force of 77,992 lb-f on the bolt carrier.<br />The spring is given a constant of 7.5lb-in.<br />Damping Value of 3.7lbf/(in/s). <br />Video Source 4: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6o4MZ38d9NI<br />
  28. 28. Increase Weapon Handling (Cont.)Bolt Carrier Motion Analysis (Current) Results<br />X-Position, Velocity and Acceleration of the “front guide retainer.”<br />Graph shows bolt carrier coming to rest after initial firing of bullet.<br />Figure 25: Motion Parameters for front guide retainer.<br />
  29. 29. DesignPhase 5:Engineering AnalysisPart 2: Redesigned Components<br />
  30. 30. Redesigned Components<br />Receiver wall thickness doubled from 0.05 inches to 0.1 inches.<br />Barrel outer diameter uniformly increased by 15%.<br />Figure 26a: Redesigned Receiver.<br />Figure 26b: Redesigned Barrel.<br />
  31. 31. Increase Firing AccuracyBarrel Analysis (Modified)<br />Performed a frequency analysis on the barrel.<br />Applied rough mesh<br />Created joint at receiver connection.<br />Applied continuous load of 500 lb-f on the end of the barrel.<br />Figure 27: Mesh and force application on modified barrel.<br />
  32. 32. Increase Firing Accuracy (Cont.)Barrel Analysis (Modified) Results<br />Figure 28a: Displacement diagram for modified barrel.<br />Figure 28b: Stress diagram for modified barrel.<br />
  33. 33. Increase Firing Accuracy (Cont.) Receiver Analysis (Modified)<br />Performed a frequency analysis on receiver.<br />Applied rough mesh<br />Created joint at barrel and full butt stock connection.<br />Applied continuous load of 500 lb-f along the base interior side.<br />Figure 29: Mesh and force application on modern barrel.<br />
  34. 34. Increase Firing Accuracy (Cont.)Receiver Analysis (Modified) Results<br />Figure 30a: Displacement diagram for modified receiver.<br />Figure 30b: Stress diagram for modified receiver.<br />
  35. 35. Increase Weapon HandlingBolt Carrier Motion Analysis (Modified)<br />Added a polyurethane dampener to reduce the recoil force.<br />Attached dampener along rear recoil spring guide.<br />Figure 31a: Polyurethane (11671) dampener.<br />Figure 31b: Attached dampener to rear recoil spring guide.<br />
  36. 36. Increase Weapon Handling (Cont.)Bolt Carrier Motion Analysis (Modified) Results<br />X-Position, Velocity and Acceleration of the “front guide retainer.”<br />Graph shows bolt carrier speed was dramatically reduced due to dampener.<br />Figure 32: Motion Parameters for modified front guide retainer..<br />
  37. 37. Results<br />
  38. 38. Increased Firing Accuracy<br />15% increase of outer diameter for barrel yields 36% displacement reduction.<br />28% reduction of max displacement for receiver with 50% increase in wall thickness.<br />Barrel movement further reduced, which means bullet will exit with straighter trajectory and increase accuracy.<br />Figure 33a: Displacement results chart.<br />Figure 33b: Displacement results chart.<br />
  39. 39. Increase Weapon Handling<br />System is dramatically slowed down after contacting dampener.<br />Rest time is increased by 20.6% for modified system.<br />Weapon handling is directly increased due to recoil reduction.<br />Figure 34: Motion Parameters result comparisson chart.<br />
  40. 40. Increase Durability<br />15% increase of outer diameter for barrel yields 37% max stress reduction.<br />50% increase of receiver wall thickness results in a 52.3% decrease in max stress.<br />This shows less stress in system, therefore system is more durable, which will in turn increase accuracy.<br />Figure 35a: Stress results chart.<br />Figure 35b: Stress results chart.<br />
  41. 41. Discussion<br />
  42. 42. Design Problems<br />Simulating Recoil <br />Difficult to know dampening coefficient and spring coefficient without complex disassembly of AK-47. Configured settings by trial and error based upon known system behavior.<br />Motion Simulation<br />Very difficult to analyze a system with multiple components being accounted for.<br />Resolved this by suppressing unnecessary components (Trigger assembly, bolt, bolt pin, etc.).<br />
  43. 43. Questions? <br />

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