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TUGAS PENTING

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  1. 1. 89300228206 72106857980867 89301031494 75772183909168 89300228258 60321676698990 Susan's Activites Susan is a diligent student. First, at home she starts his day by studying at 4.00 am. She thinks that studying at that time making her getting the idea of the lesson. Second, she never comes late to school. She arrives to school 15 minutes before the class begins. Susan follows her class with much appreciates. She always asking without hesitates to her teacher and she is always happy if given tasks. At the rest time, Susan spend her time not to chat with her friends too much. She prefers to study over again to make sure that she doesn’t forget about the material. The student goes home at 3.00 pm. When the other students go home, Susan doesn’t. She stops in the library which is near from the school. She borrows the book and sometimes she also read the books there. She sometimes read for a good book that is thin; so it not spends many times for reading. Third, Susan always studies in the night. She does her homework which was given in the school. The good effects of getting up in early morning Getting up in the morning is a good thing and many people do this. They usually use an alarm to make them getting up, but this is not a habit because they do this with many reason that encourage them. There are many reasons why they do it, such as for school, appointment, or work, but when they do it, getting up in the early morning gives them many good effects. They often don’t realize that because the power of reason make them don’t think about it. They just get up and do that reason. There are many good effects that we can get because of getting up in the early morning. The first good effect in getting up early is finishing the task on time. Many people doesn’t have much time to do their task in the night because many reasons, some of them feel tired and there are many activities that have to do. So, getting up in the morning gives you much time and a good feeling to finish your task. You can get up in 2.00 am and start doing the task. The peace and the quietness will guide you to have a good finishing task. There are some people or the sound of vehicle like in the afternoon and in the night. You will more concentrate to finish your task and usually your task will be better than you do it in the other time. Besides it, when we have a deadline task and we have to submit it in that day, getting up in the morning will really help you. Of course you just have a little time to finish your task. I believe that our task will finish on time. Because when you are given a little time, it makes you think so hard and finally you can finish your task on time. That’s like a law, when people are given a little time to do the task they will become a great people who can find the good idea and can finish it, but of course, finishing your task because of getting out in the morning. Getting up early also makes us will have much time to do sport such as jogging and cycling. I have heard that a Chinese believe going out home in early morning will make the positive feeling of the earth will get into your mind. But we usually don’t want to get up early and to do a sport outside. They have overworking in the night so, they can’t get out early. Sports in the morning will improve your mood and energy during the next few hours. This condition helps people to be better prepared to face the challenges of work or facing any kind during the day. Exercise at night will make the body temperature rises and can disrupt sleep. Exercise you do in the morning (before going to work) is more appropriate for the body which
  2. 2. has a daily routine. Because if you do exercise after your daily routine, then the actual energy in your body just the remnants of your daily routine activities. Most people will go to the gym or fitness center during the evening or during the day so with a lot of people sometimes make a person standing in line to use the existing sports equipment. In the morning, you do not need to wait if you want to use the equipment and exercise would be more effective. As a moslem we have to do subuh pray, it’s about day break time. It has many extraordinary useful and excellence for every people who do it consistently. Although just two prostrations, subuh pray saves many great secrets from the spiritual side, the healthy and the successful life. Our prophet Muhammad said that subuh pray is better that the world and its contents. From the spiritual side, subuh pray has many excellence, such as, saving our life from the god punishment, get a profit which same as pilgrimage, freed from the hell, avoided from hypocrisy, and get the protection from the God. Our prophet also commands us to get up early and do the subuh prayer because that is the most exalted thing. From the healthy side, getting up to do subuh pray can normalize our nerve and brain performance because the ozone of O3 is very high and really help us to increase our mind performance. It also decreases blockage of blood vessels and heart attack. Furthermore, we are forbidden going back to sleep and we are really suggested to start our activities or reading Al-Quran. Getting up in early morning gives us many advantages that I described above. We can finish our task, because the quietness and the peace that given in early morning make us more concentrate to do the task. Second, we can do a sport to improve our energy and to make us be ready to face many kinds of problem during the day. The last, as a moslem, we must do the subuh pray which is really useful for our life. Benefits of Compromise People face many problems in situations of their life with the others and there are three ideas to fix those. First, they have to obey the other one because their opinion isn’t agreed or they have to obey without any comment or an idea to make their opinion to be right. The second statement usually happens when they face the people who are stronger. In that condition, they feel restrained or lose and usually don’t agree with that solution. Second, they win the opinion debate; so their opponent feels to be forced to agree with the opinion. This solution also makes people who are forced becoming restrained. Third, they can use compromise as their solution. It is the win-win solution, because compromise is the solution that really considers both opinions and we can use it in our daily life. In many situations of our life, compromise is necessary. People who are in the buying and selling situation will need compromise as their solution. When people want to buy something in the market, they often meet the price that doesn’t appropriate with their want. In this situation, they have to negotiate with the seller to find the right price. Sellers want to sell theirs in the high price and the consumers want to get it in the low price. Their compromise is an agreement in the middle of price, so both of them won’t be loss. Besides the price, they usually argue about the quantity of the goods. When the consumers want to buy a bowl of meatball, they usually want the seller to add the broth, monosodium glutamate, or the salt more. Compromise is also necessary in this situation because sometimes the sellers don’t agree about it. Of course they don’t want to be loss, but they have to consider the consumer’s order. The good solution is adding all of the order but just a little. Those daily situations above tell us how can be compromise used to fix our problems. Buying and selling only one of the situations that need a compromise. It is also needed for a couple who want to get wedding celebration. As a married couple candidate, they argue many problems like the money, the wedding dress design, and the invitation design. Most of the couples in wedding will have a problem in managing their money. They have to ensure that it will be enough for all necessities but it isn’t usually enough when the calculation has been done; so they have to make some compromise that there are necessities which should be prioritized. Besides that, designing the wedding dress is also needed compromise. For the example, one of them suggests that the wedding dress design should be in one theme that is a modern design, without a traditional dress of course. But, the other one suggests that their wedding dress should be filled by traditional design. To make a fair agenda, they find the compromise that in the daytime they have to use a modern design and in the night, they have to use a traditional design. Not only in designing of wedding dress but also in designing invitation letters as a trifling thing, many couples have to compromise it. I have ever met a couple which the man as a French teacher and the woman as a Japanese teacher. They argued about the theme of the invitation. The man wanted to have France theme with the Eiffel tower picture on the invitation. He thought that France is the country which is really romantic; so it was suitable with the marriage’s philosophy
  3. 3. as a symbol of romantic, but the woman doesn’t agree about that. According to her, Japan is more romantic than France. She suggested making the Sakura flower with the snow as the theme of the invitation. Finally, they found the good way that their theme must include both of the ideas. They designed two cities that have a condition in Paris with the romantic river and the Eiffel tower picture. The other one is the condition in Niigata city with the Sakura flower and the snow covered the houses. They design it as a city with two conditions but separated by a river. They added the bridge in the middle to assume that it was a symbol of uniting two hearts which are really different. The next situation that need to compromise when an organization handling an event. When an event will be held, all of the divisions have their own task. For example, Buying and selling, wedding celebration, and the political life in Indonesia show us how compromise is needed. Buying and selling compromise showed us how the seller and the consumer made a deal about the price by taking the middle price. Second, wedding ceremony showed us how the couple made compromises with their money, wedding dress design, and invitation design. Last, political life explained us how a compromise can be taken to make people got their good position in cabinet. But, the important is we can’t force our opinion to make people follow us. We have to consider their necessity and try to find the best way to make their opinion also used; so they absolutely agree with the solution. Rice Field is The Source of Living My hometown is located in Lampung. Most of people work as farmer and there are 4 kinds of field, rice field, corn field, cassava field, and coconut field. Rice field is the biggest of all and many professions depend on it. They make it as their source of living. Because of the following reasons, Rice field is the source of living for 2 kinds of professions. Rice field is the source of living for the owners. First, it provides the jobs. In my hometown, there are some owners who don’t want to pay the worker in keeping their rice field because of decreasing their income. They work every day to keep and to manage theirs. They work since the rice was planted and they were helped by their family. After the planting season is over, they do their daily work. They make many dolls which are similar with human to frighten the birds which will eat their rice. They must keep it in daytime to make sure that there is no disturbing. Besides that, In 1 until 3 times they spray by pesticide to kill the disease especially slugs. Furthermore, when the harvest moon is coming, they must work more hard. They must harvest the rice and separate between the rice and its stalk. After that, they move their rice to be saved in the home temporary and they are going to grind it. In this time, they will rent workers to help them at least three weeks. The other useful is rice field being a place for cultivation of fish. The fish which will be cultivated is Lele fish or Eel fish. The reasons are these fishes easy to cultivate and it doesn’t need clean water like the others. In addition, they don’t have to give the food and the harvesting is fast. They make the pond combining with their field rice; it doesn’t waste the place. They restrict the pond by implanting many splits of bamboo in the edge of field; it needed to make the fish don’t escape to the another rice field, especially for the Eel fish. After that, they start plant the rice while put the germ of fish into the pond or the field. So, the spreading of fish is done in the same time when planting rice. The fishes harvesting also do in the same time when the harvesting of rice. Rice field is the source of living for the owners because of those ideas. It gives job opportunity for the owners who don’t want to pay the workers and can be a place for cultivation of fish. Rice field is the source of living for workers. First, it provides jobs for them. Workers are people who are paid by the owner to keep the rice field until harvest moon. One owner will pay one worker to keep the rice field and that worker will be helped by his or her family in working every day. The jobs are the same with the previous paragraph which was done by the owner. They have to keep and manage every day by spraying the disease and making the dolls to frighten the bird. In the harvest moon, they won’t be helped by the owner. They will be helped by their family but not other workers although it makes them work really hard to minimize the cost. When they have done and get the rice, they will be paid by the owner. They will get the money, the rice or the part of land, depending on the deal at the beginning. In my hometown, they get the rice which is about a quarter of all and it will be consumed or will be sold. Second, rice field can be a place for fish cultivation and other plants cultivation for them. The way to cultivate it is the same with the explanation before and this project is separated. In the fish harvesting they won’t share the result with the owner. The owner permits to cultivate the fish and the worker should not share it, because that is their creativity to get the income. Rice field has the small area in the side and this area is located above. It can’t be used because there is no water there. Worker uses it to cultivate many kinds of plants, such as cassava, corn, chili, and ginger. They cultivate it only one or two kinds of plants to maximize the result. The result will be sold in the market, especially for chili and ginger. The owner also permits them to do that without
  4. 4. sharing with them. So, the reasons that rice field is the source of living for workers or people who are paid by the owner are providing jobs for them and providing the area to cultivate the fish and to cultivate another plant. The paragraphs above explain us how rice field can be the source of living for many people in my village. The owners who do not want to pay the worker will use it as their job. They work every day to spray the diseases and to keep from the bird disturbing. Besides that, they use their rice field as a place of fish cultivation. The other people who work as the workers also take the advantages from rice field. They care the rice field every day and use it as the fish cultivation. Furthermore, they use the empty area of the rice field for planting the spices plants. Two Problems after Tsunami There are two big causes of the problems which appeared after the tsunami wave in Aceh. First, many people lost their family after the wave. It made them hopeless and they felt that they would be hard to continue their life without their family. They didn’t have time enough to save their family, because tsunami came too fast. They were so confuse and they only thought about how to save themselves. It happened because there was not a warning about the arrival of tsunami. The hopeless needed hard effort and very long time to convince them that they could continue their life and could be a success one. The role of the psychiatrists in the disaster area was really needed. They had to be patient and to be consistent in returning the spirit of the victims. The other problems were caused by the destruction almost all of the society’s house, school, hospital, tabernacle, company, and infrastructure facility. It made difficult to do their activity; they had no a house and they could not communicate with their family which was really worried about the condition. Furthermore, there were many people lost their jobs and their educations which were really needed for them to support their life. They had to wait for the rebuild which would be taken in a long time and their life would be supported by the donation of government for a while. These problems should be faced with the resolute and the victims should work hard with never giving up in building their bright future. My House My house is located in Jl Lestari no. 5. There is wall fence in front of my house to limit the area with the other and many trees such as, avocado, mango, and guava. Besides that, I also have many kind of flower and my front yard is filled by grasses. There is a terrace which usually use for us to do some activities, like chatting with my parents in the evening, doing my homework, and playing Rubik’s cube with my brother. The first room in my house is a guest room which functions to receive the guest and at this room there is one set of chair and a table; there are also two windows covered by red curtain. My guest room is not big enough and we usually use family room to receive when the guest is too many. The second room is my room which contains a bed almost as long as the room. There is a book rack besides the bed to put my brother’s books and my books. There is also a desk beside the rack book. It not only uses to study, but also functions to put my bag, my brother’s toys, my book, and my movies collection. The third room is my parent’s room; there is a clothes closet and a bed beside it. The bed merges with a small closet and it located in the front of bed. It contains my father’s books and my mother’s cosmetics. The fourth room is family room; at this room, there are a small bed for us to sit down and to sleep, a television, a DVD player, a sound system and a small aquarium. I usually spend the time at this room with my parents and my brother and it uses to discuss something or to watch a movie. That room is bigger than other room; so I feel comfortable to spend my time longer. The fifth room is a bathroom which contains of a bath up and two water tap. I have two bathrooms and it located side by side; so my second bathroom beside it. The sixth room is a kitchen; the first thing that you seeing are refrigerator beside the door, and there is a dining table with four chairs. In front of it, there are two gas stoves, a rack and two windows behind the stoves.
  5. 5. Taj Mahal, Agra, India Taj Mahal is regarded as one of the eight wonders of the world, and some Western historians have noted that its architectural beauty has never been surpassed. The Taj is the most beautiful monument built by the Mughals, the Muslim rulers of India. Taj Mahal is built entirely of white marble. Its stunning architectural beauty is beyond adequate description, particularly at dawn and sunset. The Taj seems to glow in the light of the full moon. On a foggy morning, the visitors experience the Taj as if suspended when viewed from across the Jamuna river. Taj Mahal was built by a Muslim, Emperor Shah Jahan (died 1666 C.E.) in the memory of his dear wife and queen Mumtaz Mahal at Agra, India. It is an "elegy in marble" or some say an expression of a "dream." Taj Mahal (meaning Crown Palace) is a Mausoleum that houses the grave of queen Mumtaz Mahal at the lower chamber. The grave of Shah Jahan was added to it later. The queen’s real name was Arjumand Banu. In the tradition of the Mughals, important ladies of the royal family were given another name at their marriage or at some other significant event in their lives, and that new name was commonly used by the public. Shah Jahan's real name was Shahab-ud-din, and he was known as Prince Khurram before ascending to the throne in 1628. Taj Mahal was constructed over a period of twenty-two years, employing twenty thousand workers. It was completed in 1648 C.E. at a cost of 32 Million Rupees. The construction documents show that its master architect was Ustad ‘Isa, the renowned Islamic architect of his time. The documents contain names of those employed and the inventory of construction materials and their origin. Expert craftsmen from Delhi, Qannauj, Lahore, and Multan were employed. In addition, many renowned Muslim craftsmen from Baghdad, Shiraz and Bukhara worked on many specialized tasks. The Taj stands on a raised, square platform (186 x 186 feet) with its four corners truncated, forming an unequal octagon. The architectural design uses the interlocking arabesque concept, in which each element stands on its own and perfectly integrates with the main structure. It uses the principles of self-replicating geometry and a symmetry of architectural elements. Its central dome is fifty-eight feet in diameter and rises to a height of 213 feet. It is flanked by four subsidiary domed chambers. The four graceful, slender minarets are 162.5 feet each. The entire mausoleum (inside as well as outside) is decorated with inlaid design of flowers and calligraphy using precious gems such as agate and jasper. The main archways, chiseled with passages from the Holy Qur’an and the bold scroll work of flowery pattern, give a captivating charm to its beauty. The central domed chamber and four adjoining chambers include many walls and panels of Islamic decoration. The mausoleum is a part of a vast complex comprising of a main gateway, an elaborate garden, a mosque (to the left), a guest house (to the right), and several other palatial buildings. The Taj is at the farthest end of this complex, with the river Jamuna behind it. The large garden contains four reflecting pools dividing it at the center. Each of these four sections is further subdivided into four sections and then each into yet another four sections. Like the Taj, the garden elements serve like Arabesque, standing on their own and also constituting the whole.
  6. 6. DESCRIPTIVE TEXT ABOUT ANIMAL The African Elephant The African Elephant is described as the Loxodonta africana of Africa. They are very large, grey, four-legged herbivorous mammals. They have almost hairless skin, a distinctive long, flexible, prehensile trunk. Its upper incisors form long curved tusks of ivory. African elephants have large fan-shaped ears and two “fingers” at the tip of its trunk, compared to only one in the Asian species. Furthermore, the Indian Elephant is described as Elephas maximus of south-central Asia. The ears of Indian elephants are significantly smaller than African elephants. Elephants are herbivores and eat all types of vegetation such as grasses, leaves, fruits, and bark. The facts tell that despite the size of ears the elephant’s hearing is poor, because elephants ears are used to aid ventilation. One of the softest parts of their body is at the back of the ears, which is called the knuckle. In a zoo, elephant trainers, called Mahouts, use their feet to steer or give commands to the animal via the knuckle at the back of the ears. Some other facts about the elephants are : The elephant is the largest of all land mammals; Life Span - elephants can live for up to 70 years; Elephants normally walk about 4 mph; Elephants are able to swim for long distances; Elephants spend about 16 hours a day eating; They consume as much as 495 pounds of food per day; They live in tight social units led by an older matriarch; Males leave the herd between the ages of 12 and 15; Their tusks are of ivory and are actually enormously enlarged incisors; The elephant's eyes are small and its eyesight is poor, They have the largest brains in the animal kingdom. The African Lion Lions are the only cats that live in groups, which are called prides. Prides are family units that may include up to three males, a dozen or so females, and their young. All of a pride's lionesses are related, and female cubs typically stay with the group as they age. Young males eventually leave and establish their own prides by taking over a group headed by another male. Only male lions boast manes, the impressive fringe of long hair that encircles their heads. Males defend the pride's territory, which may include some 100 square miles (259 square kilometers) of grasslands, scrub, or open woodlands. These intimidating animals mark the area with urine, roar menacingly to warn intruders, and chase off animals that encroach on their turf. Female lions are the pride's primary hunters. They often work together to prey upon antelopes, zebras, wildebeest, and other large animals of the open grasslands. Many of these animals are faster than lions, so teamwork pays off. After the hunt, the group effort often degenerates to squabbling over the sharing of the kill, with cubs at the bottom of the pecking order. Young lions do not
  7. 7. help to hunt until they are about a year old. Lions will hunt alone if the opportunity presents itself, and they also steal kills from hyenas or wild dogs. Lions have been celebrated throughout history for their courage and strength. They once roamed most of Africa and parts of Asia and Europe. Today they are found only in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, except for one very small population of Asian lions that survives in India's Gir Forest. DESCRIPTIVE ABOUT PERSON David Beckham David Beckham is one of Britain's most iconic athletes whose name is also an elite global advertising brand. He was captain of the English national team from 2000 to 2006, scored in three different FIFA World Cups, and played midfield for clubs in Manchester, England, Madrid, Spain, and Milan, Italy; he also won the MLS Cup playing for Los Angeles Galaxy in 2011. He was born David Robert Joseph Beckham on May 2, 1975, in Leytonstone, East London, England, son of Ted Beckham, a kitchen fitter, and Sandra West, a hairdresser. Beckham's maternal grandfather is Jewish, and he has been mentioning the religion as influence; he wears a tattoo written in Hebrew from the 'Song of Songs' in the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament), albeit he is not known to practice Judaism or any other faith. Beckham has always played in long sleeve shirts to cover up his tattoos in consideration of others who may feel uncomfortable due to their beliefs. He was brought up by his parents, supporters of Manchester United, attended Bobby Charlton's football school in Manchester, and won a spot in a training session at FC Barcelona as a child. In 1986 he was a Manchester United's mascot for a match against West Ham United. From 1992 - 2003 Beckham made almost 400 appearances for Manchester United and scored 85 goals, although his official record counts only 62 goals in 265 official senior team's matches. In the 1998 FIFA World Cup he played all of England's qualifying matches and scored in several important victories. He received a red card for violent conduct in England's match against Argentina, albeit his opponent later admitted to trying to send Beckham off by over-reacting to their contact during the game and by urging the referee to send Beckham off. After losing the game England was eliminated, Beckham was made a scapegoat and became the target of criticism and abuse in media. He had a good season in 1999 - 2000 and helped Manchester United to win the Premier League. At that time, he married singer Victoria Beckham (nee' Adams) from the popular musical group The Spice Girls, and the couple had their first son, Brooklyn, born in 1999. That same year, Beckham was given a permission to miss training routine, in order to look after his son Brooklyn, who suffered from a stomach infection. Meanwhile, the Manchester United's manager, Alex Ferguson, fined Beckham £50,000 (about $80,000 then) the maximum amount that was permitted, for babysitting with his sick child, while his wife was spotted at a London fashion Week event on the same night. Ferguson's claim that Beckham should be able to train if his wife stayed home that day, caused a serious personal tension between two men. In February 2003, following the defeat to Arsenal, the Manchester
  8. 8. United's manager Alex Ferguson entered the changing room and kicked a football boot that struck Beckham over the eye, causing a cut that required stitches. David Beckham has been a good scorer and a major attraction for public. On the field he has been demonstrating his consistent ability to see a big picture even under severe pressure during the most rapidly changing and unpredictable games. His field vision has been remarkable, allowing him to create many assists in a number of important matches. Beckham's forte has been his delivery from the righthand side as well as his efficient free kicks. His superior performances in the midfield position has required a higher physical endurance through the entire game. "David Beckham's right foot" was mentioned, although humorously, as one of British national treasures in the movie Love Actually (2003). He signed a four-year contract with Real Madrid, beginning on July 1, 2003, and worth a potential 40 million dollars. In Madrid, Beckham was not allowed to wear his favorite number seven, because another player had the right to wear it written into his contract. Beckham decided to wear the number 23 instead, being a big fan of Michael Jordan. He immediately became popular with the Real Madrid fans, but the team did not perform well enough to win either the Spanish League or the Champions League. However, Beckham remained a reliable scorer and his performances attracted more public. His shirts sales and other merchandising deals remained lucrative for the club, which continued to under-perform, regardless of the Real's management's higher expectations. In 2005 Beckham became a UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador. He was also involved in promoting London's successful bid for the 2012 Olympic Games. His third season in Madrid was unremarkable, and he was criticized a lot, mainly because the team finished second to Barcelona in Spanish "La Liga" and lost to Arsenal in the European Champions League. However, during that season, he expanded his international presence by establishing football academies in Los Angeles and East London. During the FIFA World Cup 2006, he played for England, and became the first ever English player to score in three World Cups. In the quarter final game against Portugal, Beckham was replaced because of his injury in the middle of the game. Without him the English team lost and was knocked out of the World Cup. In June 2007 Beckham played his final game for Real Madrid, winning a medal and celebrating with his friends Tom and Katie Cruse, who attended the game. This was his fourth, and last season there, ending his contract with the club. He announced that he had signed a five-year contract to play for the Los Angeles Galaxy from July 1, 2007 through June 2012. The 5-year deal includes up to $10 million a year in direct salary, and with merchandising endorsements and profit-sharing could earn Beckham up to $50 million a year, and may end up worth about $250 million in five years, making him one of the highest earning athletes of all time. In 2009, in a unique time share agreement David played on loan at AC Milan to maintain his fitness after ending the season with the Galaxy. He ended up staying with Milan for five months, from January to May 2009. In 2010, he also arranged to embark on a second loan spell at AC Milan from the Galaxy, to play for Milan for another five months. He said that he "genuinely enjoyed playing for Milan." In 2011, after winning his first MLS Cup, his five-year deal with the Los Angeles Galaxy ended. At that time, Beckham was invited to play for Paris SaintGermain. But the 36-year-old player said "My family and I are incredibly happy and settled in America and we look forward to spending many more years here... I am
  9. 9. still passionate about playing in America and winning trophies with the Galaxy" he stated after signing another two-year contract with the Los Angeles club. Beckham's jersey No 23 is the best selling in the MLS and one of the best in the world, as he expands his image as one of sport's leading icons. Although he plays his best in the right of midfield, Beckham can be dangerous anywhere in the field and can make a difference in a big game with a pass, a cross, or a free kick. Arguably no one in the game can rival Beckham's accuracy in free kicks, as he can put that ball on a teammate's head with uncanny precision. He is still a decisive player, regardless of age. The Beckhams, who have become known as "Posh and Becks", have three sons: Brooklyn Joseph Beckham (born 1999), Romeo James Beckham (born 2002), and Cruz David Beckham (born 2005) who was named "Cruz" in honor of their friend Tom Cruise. Taj Mahal, Agra, India Taj Mahal is regarded as one of the eight wonders of the world, and some Western historians have noted that its architectural beauty has never been surpassed. The Taj is the most beautiful monument built by the Mughals, the Muslim rulers of India. Taj Mahal is built entirely of white marble. Its stunning architectural beauty is beyond adequate description, particularly at dawn and sunset. The Taj seems to glow in the light of the full moon. On a foggy morning, the visitors experience the Taj as if suspended when viewed from across the Jamuna river. Taj Mahal was built by a Muslim, Emperor Shah Jahan (died 1666 C.E.) in the memory of his dear wife and queen Mumtaz Mahal at Agra, India. It is an "elegy in marble" or some say an expression of a "dream." Taj Mahal (meaning Crown Palace) is a Mausoleum that houses the grave of queen Mumtaz Mahal at the lower chamber. The grave of Shah Jahan was added to it later. The queen’s real name was Arjumand Banu. In the tradition of the Mughals, important ladies of the royal family were given another name at their marriage or at some other significant event in their lives, and that new name was commonly used by the public. Shah Jahan's real name was Shahab-ud-din, and he was known as Prince Khurram before ascending to the throne in 1628. Taj Mahal was constructed over a period of twenty-two years, employing twenty thousand workers. It was completed in 1648 C.E. at a cost of 32 Million Rupees. The construction documents show that its master architect was Ustad ‘Isa, the renowned Islamic architect of his time. The documents contain names of those employed and the inventory of construction materials and their origin. Expert craftsmen from Delhi, Qannauj, Lahore, and Multan were employed. In addition, many renowned Muslim craftsmen from Baghdad, Shiraz and Bukhara worked on many specialized tasks. The Taj stands on a raised, square platform (186 x 186 feet) with its four corners truncated, forming an unequal octagon. The architectural design uses the interlocking arabesque concept, in which each element stands on its own and perfectly integrates with the main structure. It uses the principles of self-replicating geometry and a symmetry of architectural elements. Its central dome is fifty-eight feet in diameter and rises to a height of 213 feet. It is flanked by four subsidiary domed chambers. The four graceful, slender minarets
  10. 10. are 162.5 feet each. The entire mausoleum (inside as well as outside) is decorated with inlaid design of flowers and calligraphy using precious gems such as agate and jasper. The main archways, chiseled with passages from the Holy Qur’an and the bold scroll work of flowery pattern, give a captivating charm to its beauty. The central domed chamber and four adjoining chambers include many walls and panels of Islamic decoration. The mausoleum is a part of a vast complex comprising of a main gateway, an elaborate garden, a mosque (to the left), a guest house (to the right), and several other palatial buildings. The Taj is at the farthest end of this complex, with the river Jamuna behind it. The large garden contains four reflecting pools dividing it at the center. Each of these four sections is further subdivided into four sections and then each into yet another four sections. Like the Taj, the garden elements serve like Arabesque, standing on their own and also constituting the whole. DESCRIPTIVE TEXT ABOUT ANIMAL The African Elephant The African Elephant is described as the Loxodonta africana of Africa. They are very large, grey, four-legged herbivorous mammals. They have almost hairless skin, a distinctive long, flexible, prehensile trunk. Its upper incisors form long curved tusks of ivory. African elephants have large fan-shaped ears and two “fingers” at the tip of its trunk, compared to only one in the Asian species. Furthermore, the Indian Elephant is described as Elephas maximus of south-central Asia. The ears of Indian elephants are significantly smaller than African elephants. Elephants are herbivores and eat all types of vegetation such as grasses, leaves, fruits, and bark. The facts tell that despite the size of ears the elephant’s hearing is poor, because elephants ears are used to aid ventilation. One of the softest parts of their body is at the back of the ears, which is called the knuckle. In a zoo, elephant trainers, called Mahouts, use their feet to steer or give commands to the animal via the knuckle at the back of the ears. Some other facts about the elephants are : The elephant is the largest of all land mammals; Life Span - elephants can live for up to 70 years; Elephants normally walk about 4 mph; Elephants are able to swim for long distances; Elephants spend about 16 hours a day eating; They consume as much as 495 pounds of food per day; They live in tight social units led by an older matriarch; Males leave the herd between the ages of 12 and 15; Their tusks are of ivory and are actually enormously enlarged incisors; The elephant's eyes are small and its eyesight is poor, They have the largest brains in the animal kingdom. The African Lion Lions are the only cats that live in groups, which are called prides. Prides are family units that may include up to three males, a dozen or so females, and their
  11. 11. young. All of a pride's lionesses are related, and female cubs typically stay with the group as they age. Young males eventually leave and establish their own prides by taking over a group headed by another male. Only male lions boast manes, the impressive fringe of long hair that encircles their heads. Males defend the pride's territory, which may include some 100 square miles (259 square kilometers) of grasslands, scrub, or open woodlands. These intimidating animals mark the area with urine, roar menacingly to warn intruders, and chase off animals that encroach on their turf. Female lions are the pride's primary hunters. They often work together to prey upon antelopes, zebras, wildebeest, and other large animals of the open grasslands. Many of these animals are faster than lions, so teamwork pays off. After the hunt, the group effort often degenerates to squabbling over the sharing of the kill, with cubs at the bottom of the pecking order. Young lions do not help to hunt until they are about a year old. Lions will hunt alone if the opportunity presents itself, and they also steal kills from hyenas or wild dogs. Lions have been celebrated throughout history for their courage and strength. They once roamed most of Africa and parts of Asia and Europe. Today they are found only in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, except for one very small population of Asian lions that survives in India's Gir Forest. DESCRIPTIVE ABOUT PERSON David Beckham David Beckham is one of Britain's most iconic athletes whose name is also an elite global advertising brand. He was captain of the English national team from 2000 to 2006, scored in three different FIFA World Cups, and played midfield for clubs in Manchester, England, Madrid, Spain, and Milan, Italy; he also won the MLS Cup playing for Los Angeles Galaxy in 2011. He was born David Robert Joseph Beckham on May 2, 1975, in Leytonstone, East London, England, son of Ted Beckham, a kitchen fitter, and Sandra West, a hairdresser. Beckham's maternal grandfather is Jewish, and he has been mentioning the religion as influence; he wears a tattoo written in Hebrew from the 'Song of Songs' in the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament), albeit he is not known to practice Judaism or any other faith. Beckham has always played in long sleeve shirts to cover up his tattoos in consideration of others who may feel uncomfortable due to their beliefs. He was brought up by his parents, supporters of Manchester United, attended Bobby Charlton's football school in Manchester, and won a spot in a training session at FC Barcelona as a child. In 1986 he was a Manchester United's mascot for a match against West Ham United. From 1992 - 2003 Beckham made almost 400 appearances for Manchester United and scored 85 goals, although his official record counts only 62 goals in 265 official senior team's matches. In the 1998 FIFA World Cup he played all of England's qualifying matches and scored in several important victories. He received a red card for violent conduct in England's match against Argentina, albeit his opponent later admitted to trying to send Beckham off by over-reacting to their contact during the game and by urging the referee to send
  12. 12. Beckham off. After losing the game England was eliminated, Beckham was made a scapegoat and became the target of criticism and abuse in media. He had a good season in 1999 - 2000 and helped Manchester United to win the Premier League. At that time, he married singer Victoria Beckham (nee' Adams) from the popular musical group The Spice Girls, and the couple had their first son, Brooklyn, born in 1999. That same year, Beckham was given a permission to miss training routine, in order to look after his son Brooklyn, who suffered from a stomach infection. Meanwhile, the Manchester United's manager, Alex Ferguson, fined Beckham £50,000 (about $80,000 then) the maximum amount that was permitted, for babysitting with his sick child, while his wife was spotted at a London fashion Week event on the same night. Ferguson's claim that Beckham should be able to train if his wife stayed home that day, caused a serious personal tension between two men. In February 2003, following the defeat to Arsenal, the Manchester United's manager Alex Ferguson entered the changing room and kicked a football boot that struck Beckham over the eye, causing a cut that required stitches. David Beckham has been a good scorer and a major attraction for public. On the field he has been demonstrating his consistent ability to see a big picture even under severe pressure during the most rapidly changing and unpredictable games. His field vision has been remarkable, allowing him to create many assists in a number of important matches. Beckham's forte has been his delivery from the righthand side as well as his efficient free kicks. His superior performances in the midfield position has required a higher physical endurance through the entire game. "David Beckham's right foot" was mentioned, although humorously, as one of British national treasures in the movie Love Actually (2003). He signed a four-year contract with Real Madrid, beginning on July 1, 2003, and worth a potential 40 million dollars. In Madrid, Beckham was not allowed to wear his favorite number seven, because another player had the right to wear it written into his contract. Beckham decided to wear the number 23 instead, being a big fan of Michael Jordan. He immediately became popular with the Real Madrid fans, but the team did not perform well enough to win either the Spanish League or the Champions League. However, Beckham remained a reliable scorer and his performances attracted more public. His shirts sales and other merchandising deals remained lucrative for the club, which continued to under-perform, regardless of the Real's management's higher expectations. In 2005 Beckham became a UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador. He was also involved in promoting London's successful bid for the 2012 Olympic Games. His third season in Madrid was unremarkable, and he was criticized a lot, mainly because the team finished second to Barcelona in Spanish "La Liga" and lost to Arsenal in the European Champions League. However, during that season, he expanded his international presence by establishing football academies in Los Angeles and East London. During the FIFA World Cup 2006, he played for England, and became the first ever English player to score in three World Cups. In the quarter final game against Portugal, Beckham was replaced because of his injury in the middle of the game. Without him the English team lost and was knocked out of the World Cup. In June 2007 Beckham played his final game for Real Madrid, winning a medal and celebrating with his friends Tom and Katie Cruse, who attended the game. This was his fourth, and last season there, ending his contract with the club. He announced that he had signed a five-year contract to play for the Los Angeles Galaxy
  13. 13. from July 1, 2007 through June 2012. The 5-year deal includes up to $10 million a year in direct salary, and with merchandising endorsements and profit-sharing could earn Beckham up to $50 million a year, and may end up worth about $250 million in five years, making him one of the highest earning athletes of all time. In 2009, in a unique time share agreement David played on loan at AC Milan to maintain his fitness after ending the season with the Galaxy. He ended up staying with Milan for five months, from January to May 2009. In 2010, he also arranged to embark on a second loan spell at AC Milan from the Galaxy, to play for Milan for another five months. He said that he "genuinely enjoyed playing for Milan." In 2011, after winning his first MLS Cup, his five-year deal with the Los Angeles Galaxy ended. At that time, Beckham was invited to play for Paris SaintGermain. But the 36-year-old player said "My family and I are incredibly happy and settled in America and we look forward to spending many more years here... I am still passionate about playing in America and winning trophies with the Galaxy" he stated after signing another two-year contract with the Los Angeles club. Beckham's jersey No 23 is the best selling in the MLS and one of the best in the world, as he expands his image as one of sport's leading icons. Although he plays his best in the right of midfield, Beckham can be dangerous anywhere in the field and can make a difference in a big game with a pass, a cross, or a free kick. Arguably no one in the game can rival Beckham's accuracy in free kicks, as he can put that ball on a teammate's head with uncanny precision. He is still a decisive player, regardless of age. The Beckhams, who have become known as "Posh and Becks", have three sons: Brooklyn Joseph Beckham (born 1999), Romeo James Beckham (born 2002), and Cruz David Beckham (born 2005) who was named "Cruz" in honor of their friend Tom Cruise.

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