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  1. 1. Phosphorus By: Pansy Haney
  2. 2. <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phosphorus was first discovered by Hennig Brandt in 1669. Brandt found phosphorus by heating concentrated urine with sand. Brandt collected the heated product under water which was a waxy substance. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. What is Phosphorus? <ul><li>Phosphorus is a chemical element that is part of the nitrogen family. Phosphorus can be identified on the periodic table of element by the symbol P. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Where do we find Phosphorus? <ul><li>Phosphorus is found in every living organism. </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphorus is found in our Lakes, river and streams. </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphorus is found in vegetable, fruits, and meats. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Phosphorus allotropic forms <ul><li>White/yellow Phosphorus </li></ul><ul><li>Red Phosphorus </li></ul><ul><li>Black Phosphorus </li></ul>
  6. 6. White Phosphorus <ul><li>Does not occur naturally </li></ul><ul><li>Soft, very reactive </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of P 4 molecules </li></ul><ul><li>So unstable that it turns yellow </li></ul><ul><li>Reddens when hit by light </li></ul><ul><li>Glows in the dark making Phosphorescence </li></ul><ul><li>Stored underwater to isolate from air </li></ul>
  7. 7. White Phosphorus Uses <ul><li>Production of phosphoric acid and other chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilizers </li></ul><ul><li>Additives in foods and drinks </li></ul><ul><li>Cleaning compounds </li></ul>
  8. 8. White Phosphorus Hazards <ul><li>A poison that can be absorb through skin contact, ingestion, or breathing. </li></ul><ul><li>Removes oxygen from the air </li></ul><ul><li>Highly explosive if mixed with other chemicals </li></ul>
  9. 9. Red Phosphorus <ul><li>Red phosphorus formed by exposing white phosphorus to sunlight or heating to 275°c </li></ul><ul><li>Not has explosive as white </li></ul><ul><li>Used to make matches, tracer bullets, pesticides, fire bombs, and fire works </li></ul><ul><li>Black phosphorus formed by heating white phosphorus 225°c </li></ul>
  10. 10. Black Phosphorus <ul><li>Black phosphorus formed by heating white phosphorus, but a mercury catalyst and a seed crystal of black phosphorus is needed. </li></ul><ul><li>Least reactive form of Phosphorus </li></ul><ul><li>Glows in the dark </li></ul><ul><li>Since it’s discovery phosphorescence has been used to describe substances that glow in the dark without burning </li></ul><ul><li>No significant commercial uses </li></ul>
  11. 11. Phosphorus Cycle <ul><li>Phosphorus goes through a cycle when it enter our river and lakes. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations Definition <ul><li>Concentrated Feeding Operations is where animals are kept and raised in confined situations. Animals kept in a confined space for 45 days or more and not allowed to graze for food. It is illegal to spread manure of a CAFO animal where it moves off the land and into waters of the state. CAFO is loaded with plant nutrient nitrogen and phosphorus. </li></ul>
  13. 13. CAFO Impact on Ground Water <ul><li>Ground Water </li></ul><ul><li>E. coli poisoning </li></ul><ul><li>Blue baby syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Surface Water </li></ul><ul><li>Cryptosporidium parasite infection </li></ul><ul><li>Giardia parasite </li></ul><ul><li>Pfisteria </li></ul>
  14. 14. North Carolina <ul><li>North Carolina has develop a site- specific P indexing system that is called Phosphorus Loss assessment Tool. This helps North Carolina to see how much phosphorus is lost in the agricultural fields. A study was done on 100 counties that were sampled in North Carolina. This was to see how many farms would have to make changes under the PLAT act. </li></ul>
  15. 15. How Phosphorus gets into our lakes and river. <ul><li>Runoff from roads </li></ul><ul><li>Farmed fields </li></ul><ul><li>Septic system </li></ul><ul><li>Residential lawns with high phosphorus fertilizer </li></ul><ul><li>Wastewater treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial waste </li></ul>
  16. 16. What you can do to stop excess phosphorus in ground and surface water <ul><li>Use fertilizers sparingly </li></ul><ul><li>Use phosphorus free detergents </li></ul><ul><li>Plant ground cover in bare spots in your yard </li></ul><ul><li>Take car to car wash instead of washing in the driveway </li></ul><ul><li>Pick up after your pet </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t use CAFO manure for fertilizer </li></ul>
  17. 17. The schematic diagram below highlights the complexity of soil P chemistry.
  18. 18. Web site <ul><li>1- http: www.jeq.scijournals.org/cgi/content/abstract.com </li></ul><ul><li>This site talks about the North Carolina Phosphorus Loss Assessment tool. </li></ul><ul><li>2- www.1.fipr.state.fl.us/phosphateprimer.com </li></ul><ul><li>This site has information on the fertilization, where it was first mined, and how important phosphorus is to animals and plants. </li></ul><ul><li>3- www.3dchem.com </li></ul><ul><li>this site tells what phosphorus is and its allotropic forms. </li></ul><ul><li>4- www.carrs-fertiliser.co.uk/.../scotphos4.html </li></ul><ul><li>diagram of the schematic </li></ul><ul><li>5- http://www.tutorvista.com/content/biology/biology-iv/ecosystem/phosphorus-cycle.php </li></ul><ul><li>phosphorus cycle </li></ul><ul><li>6- http://www.3dchem.com/moremolecules.asp?ID=210&othername=Black%20Phosphorus Black Phosphorus </li></ul><ul><li>7- http://nobel.scas.bcit.ca/resource/ptable/p.htm </li></ul>
  19. 19. Books <ul><li>Odum, P. Eugene, 1993, Ecology and Our Endangered Life-Support Systems, Sinauer Associates, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Raven, Peter H., Berg, Linda R., Hassenzahl, David M., 2004, Environment, John Wiley & Sons,Inc . </li></ul>