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Carbon Dioxide Injection

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Basics of CO2 fertilization

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Carbon Dioxide Injection

  1. 1. Carbon Dioxide Fertilization
  2. 2. Energy Relationship of Photosynthesis and Respiration Carbohydrate Respiration Photosynthesis CO + H O 2 2 2 O 1_2 LOW HIGH Energy 2H + 2H + 2 O 1_2
  3. 3. C 3 - Photosynthesis
  4. 4. Carbon Dioxide and Plants <ul><li>Atmospheric CO 2 is the source of all carbon accumulation in plants </li></ul><ul><li>C3 plants benefit significantly from increased CO 2 concentration in the greenhouse. </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon Dioxide Fertilization is common practice in many ornamental and food crop commercial greenhouse operations </li></ul>
  5. 5. Effect of CO 2 <ul><li>Shifts the activity of RUBISCO in favor of the carboxylation reaction </li></ul><ul><li>On average yields should increase by 33% with a doubling of CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>That average based on entire plant life cycle, but increases in growth result in juvenile and mature tissues when CO 2 levels are increased. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Carbon Dioxide Fertilization <ul><li>Normally present at about 300 ppm </li></ul><ul><li>During daylight hours CO 2 may be rapidly depleted during crop production </li></ul><ul><li>Depletion may be exacerbated during winter production when there is less ventilation </li></ul>
  7. 7. CO 2 Greenhouse Levels <ul><li>1,000 ppm or more have shown to increase tomato yields economically </li></ul><ul><li>However, you must adjust based on plant maturity and environmental conditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bright, sunny weather 1000 ppm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cloudy weather 750 ppm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Young plants 700 ppm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>During moderate ventilation 350-400 ppm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less needed as temperature and ventilation rates increase </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Producing CO 2 for Commercial Greenhouse Production <ul><li>Natural Gas </li></ul><ul><li>Propane </li></ul><ul><li>Flue gases from hot water boiler </li></ul><ul><li>Compressed CO 2 </li></ul>
  9. 11. Other Impacts <ul><li>Increased sugars (fruit crops) </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced acid:sugar ratio (fruit crops) </li></ul><ul><li>Taste improvement noticeable by consumers (fruit crops) </li></ul><ul><li>Improved growth rates (fruit and ornamental) </li></ul><ul><li>Shorter times to flowering for certain ornamental crops. </li></ul>
  10. 12. Impacts on Sustainable Design <ul><li>Heat and carbon dioxide are also released as part of the composting process </li></ul><ul><li>Pilot tested at the New Alchemy Institute in Massachusetts. </li></ul><ul><li>Potential for these system exists, but rare on a commercial scale. </li></ul>
  11. 13. Good Sources of Information <ul><li>http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/hort/greenhouse_veg/gtp_pages/co2.html </li></ul><ul><li>Trembley and Gosselin. 1998. Effect of carbon dioxide and light. HortTechnology. 8(4). </li></ul><ul><li>http://oregonstate.edu/Dept/NWREC/tomatogh.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.ejpau.media.pl/series/volume4/issue2/horticulture/art-03.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.attra.org/attra-pub/ghveg.html </li></ul>

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