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STERILIZATION ,DISINFECTION
AND ANTISEPSIS
PRACTICAL SESSION: 1
COURSE: PRINCIPLES OF DISEASE I
LEVEL 4 MEDICINE
Course In...
AIM:
To discuss the difference between
sterilization , disinfection and antiseptics
and the methods to use each of these ....
INTRODUCTION
Microorganisms are the agents of
contamination, infection.
Hence it becomes necessary to remove
them from mat...
Destroying
Microorganism
Sterilization Disinfection Antisepsis
4
Sterilization
Is the Complete destruction and killing of all
microbes, including endospores.
Can be achieved by mechanical...
Heat methods of sterilization
 Kills microorganisms by denaturing their
enzymes and other proteins. Heat
resistance varie...
1.Dry heat
A)FLAMING
►Inoculation loop
or Wire, the tip of
Forceps and
spatulas are held
in a bunsen flame
till they are r...
Flaming
8
B)Hot Air Oven
Place objects in an
oven (from 50oC to
300oC) . Require
between 90 and
120 minutes at
160oC for
sterilizati...
Uses
►To sterilize Forceps, Scissors, Scalpels, Swabs.
►Pharmaceuticals products like Liquid paraffin, dusting
powder, fat...
►At temperature below 100°C:
Pasteurization: there are two methods of
pasteurization, the holder method (heated
at 63°C fo...
At a temperature above
100°C
Autoclave: Chamber which
is filled with hot steam under
pressure. Preferred method
of sterili...
CHEMICAL
►ETHYLENE OXIDE GAS
 ITEMS THAT ARE SENSITIVE HEAT/ MOISTURE.
►HIGHLY FLAMMABLE!!!
MONITOR!!!
13
 STERILIZATION IS ACHIEVED THROUGH LOW -
TEMPERATURES
►HYDROGEN PEROXIDE PLASMA VAPOR
SAFE AND NON-TOXIC
14
Disinfection
►Is the process of eliminates most or all
microorganisms, with the exception of
Endospores (Reducing the numb...
Disinfection
High level
disinfectants
Kills all microbes
Intermediate level
disinfectants
Kills most
microbes and
viruses
...
Vegetative
cells
Mycobacteria Spores Fungi Viruses Examples
High level + + + + + Ethylene Oxide,
Gluteraldehyde,
Formaldeh...
Disinfection of hands :
** Alcohol-based rubs.
18
Antisepsis
 is the process of destroying or
inhibiting the growth of microorganisms on
the living tissue.
Antiseptics
►Ch...
20
Terminology
1/ Bactericide:
An agent that kills bacteria. Most do not kill
Endospores.
2/ Bacteriostatic
An agent that inh...
►Germicide
 An agent that kills certain
microorganisms.
►Bactericide: An agent that kills
bacteria. Most do not kill endo...
►Degerming: Removal of most
microbes in a limited area. Example:
Alcohol swab on skin.
►Sanitization: Use of chemical agen...
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Sterilization,disinfection and antisepsis ,session 1

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Sterilization,disinfection and antisepsis ,session 1

  1. 1. STERILIZATION ,DISINFECTION AND ANTISEPSIS PRACTICAL SESSION: 1 COURSE: PRINCIPLES OF DISEASE I LEVEL 4 MEDICINE Course Instructors Dr. DOHA SIJA Dr. EIMAN ELNAKEEB Dr. HESHAM AZIZ Dr. MOURAD Dr. MOHAMED RAOUF Course Coordinator: Dr. RIM MOHAMED
  2. 2. AIM: To discuss the difference between sterilization , disinfection and antiseptics and the methods to use each of these . Outcomes:  The effective decontamination of spillage, surfaces and equipment after use. ►Advice on adequacy of sterilization and disinfection procedure used in surgical and medical practice 2
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION Microorganisms are the agents of contamination, infection. Hence it becomes necessary to remove them from materials and areas. 3
  4. 4. Destroying Microorganism Sterilization Disinfection Antisepsis 4
  5. 5. Sterilization Is the Complete destruction and killing of all microbes, including endospores. Can be achieved by mechanical means, heat , chemicals or radiation. The common types of sterilization : heat and chemical. 5
  6. 6. Heat methods of sterilization  Kills microorganisms by denaturing their enzymes and other proteins. Heat resistance varies widely among microbes.  fast, reliable, inexpensive 6
  7. 7. 1.Dry heat A)FLAMING ►Inoculation loop or Wire, the tip of Forceps and spatulas are held in a bunsen flame till they are red hot. 7
  8. 8. Flaming 8
  9. 9. B)Hot Air Oven Place objects in an oven (from 50oC to 300oC) . Require between 90 and 120 minutes at 160oC for sterilization 9
  10. 10. Uses ►To sterilize Forceps, Scissors, Scalpels, Swabs. ►Pharmaceuticals products like Liquid paraffin, dusting powder, fats and grease. 10
  11. 11. ►At temperature below 100°C: Pasteurization: there are two methods of pasteurization, the holder method (heated at 63°C for 30 minutes) and flash method (heated at 72°C for 15 seconds) followed by quickly cooling to 13°C. ►At a temperature 100°C: Boiling: (100°C) for 10-30 minutes kills most vegetative bacteria and viruses immediately. Some bacterial spores are resistant to Boiling and survive 2. Moist Heat 11
  12. 12. At a temperature above 100°C Autoclave: Chamber which is filled with hot steam under pressure. Preferred method of sterilization, unless material is damaged by heat, moisture, or high pressure.  Temperature of steam reaches 120oC at twice atmospheric pressure.  All organisms and endospores are killed within 15 minutes. 12
  13. 13. CHEMICAL ►ETHYLENE OXIDE GAS  ITEMS THAT ARE SENSITIVE HEAT/ MOISTURE. ►HIGHLY FLAMMABLE!!! MONITOR!!! 13
  14. 14.  STERILIZATION IS ACHIEVED THROUGH LOW - TEMPERATURES ►HYDROGEN PEROXIDE PLASMA VAPOR SAFE AND NON-TOXIC 14
  15. 15. Disinfection ►Is the process of eliminates most or all microorganisms, with the exception of Endospores (Reducing the number of pathogenic microorganisms to the point where they no longer cause infection) ►Disinfectant: An agent applied to inanimate objects. 15
  16. 16. Disinfection High level disinfectants Kills all microbes Intermediate level disinfectants Kills most microbes and viruses Low level disinfectants Kills Some Vegetative Bacteria Some Viruses and Fungi Exposure less than 10 mins 16
  17. 17. Vegetative cells Mycobacteria Spores Fungi Viruses Examples High level + + + + + Ethylene Oxide, Gluteraldehyde, Formaldehyde Intermediate level + + - + + Phenolics, halogens Low level + - - +/- + quaternary ammonium compounds 17
  18. 18. Disinfection of hands : ** Alcohol-based rubs. 18
  19. 19. Antisepsis  is the process of destroying or inhibiting the growth of microorganisms on the living tissue. Antiseptics ►Chemicals used to kill microorganisms on the surface of skin and mucous membranes. ►A substance applied on a living tissue. 19
  20. 20. 20
  21. 21. Terminology 1/ Bactericide: An agent that kills bacteria. Most do not kill Endospores. 2/ Bacteriostatic An agent that inhibits the growth of bacteria, but does not necessarily kill them. 21
  22. 22. ►Germicide  An agent that kills certain microorganisms. ►Bactericide: An agent that kills bacteria. Most do not kill endospores. ►Viricide: An agent that inactivates viruses. ►Fungicide: An agent that kills fungi. ►Sporicide: An agent that kills bacterial endospores of fungal spores. 22
  23. 23. ►Degerming: Removal of most microbes in a limited area. Example: Alcohol swab on skin. ►Sanitization: Use of chemical agent on food-handling equipment to meet public health standards and minimize chances of disease transmission. e.g.: Hot soap & water 23

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