Morphology 7 to 32 micro long and 5 to 15 micro wide Short undulated membrane Many granules among its axostyle Hydrogenosome is characteristic feature Have variability in action and living among high Ph conditions
TrichomoniasisTrichomonas vaginalis is the etiologic agent of trichomoniasisMode of infection ; STDreservoir for this species - human genital tractSexually transmitted infection of the urogenital tractVaginitis in women- site of infection –vagina,urethraUrethritis in men - site of infection – urethra,prostate
Mechanism of infection ; Produces mechanical stress on host cells and theningesting cell fragments after cell death.
Pathogenesis Most are asymptomatic Causes inflammation, itching and leukorrhea They feed on leukocytes and cell exudates They are ingested by monocytes
Symptoms in womenCervicitis and vaginitisDiscomfort may increase during intercourse andurination.yellow-green, itchy, frothy foul-smelling ("fishy" smell) invaginal discharge in rare cases, lower abdominalpain and inflammation of the external genitals canoccur.Symptoms usually appear in womenwithin 5 to 28 days of exposure.
Symptoms in mens Urethritis and Prostatitis Asymptomatic,Dysurea, Non purulent discharge ( fish-like odour) irritation inside the penis or slight burning after urination or ejaculation painful intercourse, and inflammation of the external genitals.
Complicationspreterm deliverylow birth weightincreased mortalitypredisposing to HIV infectioncervical cancerpneumoniaBronchitisoral lesions.prostate cancer in mens
Clinical aspects Persistentvaginitis, 50% asymptomatic Discharge 75% Vulvar itching and burning 50% Dyspareunia 50% Dysurea %0% Bad odor 10%
Diagnosissmall red ulceration (sores) on the vaginal wallsVaginal scrapping for direct microscopicexamination or cultureCultivation of the organism after vaginal irrigationPAP smear examinationDot-blot DNA hybridization assay
Genetic sequenceA draft sequence of the Trichomonas genome waspublished on January 12, 2007 in the journal Scienceconfirming that the genome has at least 26,000genes, a similar number to the human genome
Treatment Trichomoniasis - prescription drug METRONIDAZOLE or TINIDAZOLE
The symptoms of trchomniasis in infected men may disappear within a few weeks without treatment pregnant and non-pregnant patients usually utilizes metronidazolebut with caution especially in early stages of pregnancy Sexual partners, even if asymptomatic, should be concurrently treated.
Prevention Monogamous relation with partners Should notify his or her partners so that they can see a helath care provider and be treated to avoid reinfection Avoiding intercourse during treatment
Avoiding products that can irritate the vaginal tissues, such as feminine hygiene sprays, perfumes, powders and soaps. Keeping your genital area dry and clean Sitting in a warm bath to relieve your symptoms Wearing loose-fitting, airy clothes to allow air circulation and reduce irritation
American Social Health Association estimates trichomoniasis affects 7.4millionThe most frequently sexually transmitted diseases among humansAlthough careful studies have never been done that focus on how toprevent this infectionInfection with Trichomoniasis through water is unlikely becauseTrichomonas vaginitis dies in water after 45–60 minutes, in thermal waterafter 30 minutes to 3 hours and in diluted urine after 5–6 hours.Treatment is usually Metronidazole.
The Trichomoniasis parasite was first found in birds, but mutated into the human-dwelling parasite Trichomonas vaginitis. In 2004, a new (oral or vaginally inserted) antibiotic, Tinidazole, was approved by the FDA to use along with oral antibiotic Metronidazole. This is successful for treating most Metronidazole resistant strains; however, some strains are resistant to both. Research on treatment of these co-resistant strains persists.
Studies show that it commonly occurs on women ages 14 to 49 years old It is estimated that a new person is infected every 9 minutes across the globe.
Although approximately 700 million people are known to suffer from trichomoniasis worldwide, the exact number of cases suffering from this condition is difficult to obtain. This is due to the fact that this condition is usually asymptomatic and diagnostic tests have poor sensitivity with this condition.