Illustrate that this is a multi-disciplinary project and therefore this presentation is a call for input
Motivations Multidisciplinary Started in October Influence and engagement Who is UKERC exactly? Explain
You wouldn’t build a house without buying the land first however this isn’t a practice that necessarily occurs in the ocean. Many of us can appreciate that the ocean is worth something but are un-able to picture how you would put a price on it.
Fewer people at PML are directly involved in socio-economic valuation therefore a short overview of why the process of valuation is important. All these are used when you are trying to value an entire ecosystem, I will be focusing only on the regulating service of gas and climate regulation
DMS and other gases are things that will be of interest to members of the audience. I will be looking for their advice in the future.
My research is novel and aims to significantly expand the method by which marine ecosystems are valued for their gas and climate regulating services. Perhaps make the point that with more time available these shortcomings can be rectified and it’s not just an oversight. Costanza: Based on a literature review and estimates of CO 2 absorption by Schlesinger (1991) who state our current understanding of the carbon cycle is incomplete and over 1 Billion tons of C are lost from the “accounts” Beaumont: UK Biodiversity valuation study valued UK gas and climate regulation services at £0.4-8.47 billion using damage avoided method. Only considered primary production Biological role of carbon pump not determined so estimate only relates to natural cycling Mangi: Study of the Scilly Isles using SeaWiFS data and literature search of carbon fixation by benthic producers Fish not taken into consideration Study is difficult to transfer as a “standard method”: Not a major factor in this study but this method is highly affected by Colour Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) and turbidity Productivity is related to temperature, water clarity, nutrient availability, competition and grazing. These will not be consistent across the area of study and prevents extrapolation and transferability. I will be looking UK wide, from Estuary to continental shelf with respect to areas that are appropriate for marine renewable energy
Explain that I will be taking into account more than primary productivity – really important!! I am using ERSEM as a first look to carbon fluxes throughout the UK then trying to answer the question what values are important in determining the service of gas and climate regulation. pCO 2 , net carbon flux…? Practice flow of speech between this slide and the next!
What values are important!!!! This slide is very important. This is where I can explain all about the outputs that I would want from a model simulation (not necessarily ERSEM), and a high resolution.
= Policy, re-introduce sparks again and the sense of urgency
= Policy, re-introduce sparks again and the sense of urgency
Eleanor Carter-Silk Blue Carbon PhD Outline
Socio-Economic value of the marineecosystem service of gas and climateregulationEleanor Carter-Silk
Outline• Background• Why is socio-economic valuation important?• Explanation of ecosystem services• Previous work valuing gas and climate regulation• The scope of my project• How it fits into the big picture
Me• Ocean Science BSc Hons• Started PhD in October 2010• Funded by UKERC• Part of UKERC Sparks early career networkSupervisory Team: Dr Melanie Austen (PML) Dr Nicola Beaumont (PML) Dr William Cheung (UEA) Dr Kevin Hiscock (UEA)
Why is socio-economic valuationimportant?• Taking into account the value of marine resources allows improved management – No longer treating the marine environment as “free”• Spatial planning
Ecosystem Services Provisioning Supporting Regulating Cultural
“Gas and climate regulation”• The balance and maintenance of the chemical composition of the atmosphere and oceans by marine living organisms (Beaumont et al., 2007)• The regulation of atmospheric chemical composition e.g. CO2/O2, O3, and SOx levels. The regulation of global temperature, precipitation, and other biologically mediated climatic processes e.g. GHG regulation and DMS production (Costanza et al., 1997)
Previous studies valuing gas and climate regulationScope Method Limitations and Reference AssumptionsGlobal valuation Detailed Over Costanza et al,of ecosystem Literature review simplification of (1997)services and carbon cycle the carbon cycle estimatesUK valuation of Estimates of Only considered Beaumont et al.biodiversity and primary Primary (2007, 2008)ecosystem production ProductivityservicesRegulatory SeaWiFS and Only considered Mangi et al.services in the literature search Primary (2010)Isles of Scilly of carbon fixation Productivity by benthic producers
Carbon produced Climate change through production Steady state of Carbon Marine Change in CarbonATMexchange carbon flow Burial renewable energy Budget Ecosystem Change Carbon not produced by avoiding use of fossil fuels
Air sea exchange Remineralisation Presence of fish/fishing Food Web Flow of nutrients Hydrodynamics Burial of POM Benthic community structure
Carbon produced Climate change through production Steady state of Carbon Marine Change in CarbonATMexchange carbon flow Burial renewable energy Budget Ecosystem Change Carbon not produced by avoiding use of fossil fuels Damage Avoided Social Cost of carbon Discounting Mitigation Cost
The value of 1 tonne of carbon Social Cost of Method Citation carbon $23tC-1 Damage Avoided Franhauser (1994) $5tC-1 Damage Avoided Tol (2005) $16tC-1 Moving towards Stern (2006) cost of mitigation $42.04 (2008) Cost of mitigation Dec (2009) $55.04 (2020)
Carbon produced Climate change through production Steady state of Marine Change in Carbon ATM Carbon carbon flow renewable energy Budget exchang Burial e Ecosystem Change Carbon not produced by avoiding use of fossil fuels Damage Avoided Social Cost of carbon Discounting Mitigation Cost More accurate determination of change in gas and climate regulating services and its value Spatial planningMethodology for policy decisions
Carbon produced Final Climate change through production Outputs Steady state of Marine Change in CarbonATM Carbon carbon flow renewable energy Budgetexchang Buriale Determination Ecosystem of how gas and climate Carbon not produced Change by avoiding use of fossil fuels regulating service, and its value, change under different futures Damage Avoided Social Cost of carbon Discounting Mitigation Cost Methodology for policy, including spatial policy decisions
Summary • Gas and climate regulation is one service within many • Previous work has used only primary production • An in-depth knowledge of the movements of carbon at the planning scale aids decision making • Once carbon movement is determined, the price of carbon attached is debatable • By improving work in this field the value of this service can be expressed in policyEleanor Carter-Silk: firstname.lastname@example.org