Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Executive Function in Typical Children

1,993 views

Published on

as part of an independent research study at Metro State College Denver, I learned and wrote about Executive Fuction development in children

  • Be the first to comment

Executive Function in Typical Children

  1. 1. Rhonda DeYoung
  2. 2.  Numerous skills are defined as Executive Functions (EF) These skills help a person to:  Form a task  Focus on task  Fulfill the task EF is derived from the frontal lobe of the brain Located behind the forehead(Powell & Voeller, 2004)
  3. 3.  Five crucial skills that sum up EF abilities  1. Working memory helps to:  Keep track of information  Recall information  Remember how to conduct a procedure (Best, Miller & Jones, 2009)
  4. 4.  Five crucial skills that sum up EF abilities  2. Inhibition helps to:  Keep control of self  Appropriately deal with frustration  Focus attention when working on tasks (Best, Miller & Jones, 2009; Ciairano, Visu-Petra & Settanni, 2007; Nilsen & Graham, 2009; Riggs, Jahromi, Razza, Dillworth-Bart & Mueller, 2006)
  5. 5.  Five crucial skills that sum up EF abilities  3. Shifting helps to:  Stop one procedure  Move on to a new procedure  Adapt to change (Ciairano, Visu-Petra & Settanni, 2007)
  6. 6.  Five crucial skills that sum up EF abilities  4. Attention helps to:  Keep on-task  Ignore distractions (Best, Miller & Jones, 2009)
  7. 7.  Five crucial skills that sum up EF abilities  5. Motor skills help to:  Control body movement  Control sway (Miyake, Friedman, Shah, Rettinger & Hegarty, 2001; Reilly, Van Donkelaar, Saavedra & Woollacott, 2008)
  8. 8.  Major parts of the frontal lobe:  Are present at birth  Connect with other parts of the brain through:  Experience  Maturing  Develop throughout childhood and the teen years  EF Skills each arrive in their own unique timeframe (Conklin, Luciana, Hooper & Yarger, 2007; Stuss, 1992)
  9. 9. Cognitive Development 8 7 6Amount of Ability 5 4 Preschool 3 Childhood Adolescence 2 1 0 Make Memory Shifting Inhibition Others Postural Social Processing Decisions Point of Control Cooperation Speed View EF Skill (Best, Miller & Jones, 2009; Davidson, Amso, Anderson & Diamond, 2006; Liston, Watts, Tottenham, Davidson, Niogi & Ulug, 2006; Powell & Voeller, 2004; Reilly, Van Donkelaar, Saavedra & Wollacott, 2008)
  10. 10.  Typical children can be behind average peers in the development of EF Cognitive crutches can help delayed EF child keep up with average peers in the classroom (Best, Miller & Jones, 2009; Blair, 2002; Brocki & Bohlin, 2004; Meltzer, 2007)
  11. 11.  Possible reasons for EF developmental delays in typical children  Preterm birth  Frontostriatal connectivity  Not all is known why delay occurs Deficits can cause problems in the classroom  Starting, staying focused on and competing tasks (Cornelieke, Aarnoundse-Moens, Smidts, Oosterlaan, Duivenvoodren & Weisglas- Kuperus, 2009)
  12. 12.  Delay in EF development can be 30% that of typical development  10-year-old cognitively behaves like a 7-year-old Empirical research of EF loss from dementia can be applied to delayed EF children New research on delayed EF development can look at how to help children in the classroom(McCloskey, 2009)
  13. 13.  Identify delayed EF children A clinical label of delayed EF  Often mislabeled as learning dysfunction  “Classroom crutches”  Allow new research in the matter  Provide hope for children that EF skill are still growing  Help others to understand that the cognitive skills are still growing in these children (Carroll & Reppucci, 1978) The need for a label of delayed EF is prudent for the child’s well being both in the classroom and in social settings.
  14. 14. Best, J., Miller, P., & Jones, L. (2009). Executive functions after age 5: Changes and correlates. Developmental Review, 29.Blair, C. (2002). School readiness: Integrating cognition and emotion in a neurobiological conceptualization of childrens functioning at school entry. American Psychologist, 57(2).Bull, R., Espy, K., & Wiebe, S. (2008). Short-term memory, working memory, and executive functioning in preschoolers: Longitudinal predictors of mathematical achievement at age 7 years. Developmental Neuropsychology, 33(3).Carroll, C., & Reppucci, D. (1978). Meanings that professionals attach to labels for children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46(2).Ciairano, S., Visu-Petra, L., & Settanni, M. (2007). Executive inhibitory control and cooperative behavior during early school years: A follow-up study. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 35(335-345).Conklin, H., Luciana, M., Hooper, C., & Yarger, R. (2007). Working memory performance in typically developing children and adolescents: Behavioral evidence of protracted frontal lobe development. Developmental Neuropsychology, 3(1).Cornelieke, Aarnoundse-Moens, Smidts, Oosterlaan, Duivenvoodren, & Weisglas-Kuperus. (2009). Executive function in very preterm at early school age. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 37.Davidson, M. C., Amso, D., Anderson, L. C., & Diamond, A. (2006) Development of cognitive control and executive functions from 4 to 13 years: Evidence from manipulations of memory, inhibition, and task switching. Advances in Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 44(11), 2037-2078Diamond, A. (2000). Close interrelations of motor development and cognitive development and the cerebellum and prefrontal cortex. Child Development. 71(1), 44-56Greene, J., Hodges, J., & Baddeley, A. (1995). Autobiographical memory and executive function in early dementia of Alzheimer type. Neuropsychologia, 33(12).Kerr, A., & Philip David Zelazo. (2004). Development of "hot" executive function: the childrens gambling task. Brain and Cognition, 55.Liston, C., Watts, R., Tottenham, N., Davidson, M., Niogi, S., Ulug, A., & Casey, B.J. (2006). Fontostriatal microstructure modulates efficient recruitment of cognitive control. Cerebral Cortex, 16.Mazzocco, and Kover. (2007). A longitudinal assessment of executive function skills and their association with math performance. Child Neuropsychology, 13(1).McCloskey, G. (2009). Executive function development: Lines and levels. In Assessment and intervention for executive function difficulties (p. 72). New York: Taylor & Francis Group-Rutledge.Meltzer, L. (Ed.). (2007). Executive function in the classroom: Embedding strategy instruction into daily teaching practices. In Executive function in education: From theory to practice (pp. 165-186). New York: The Guilford Press.Miyake, A., Friedman, N., Shah, P., Rettinger, D. A., & Hegarty, M. (2001). How are visuospatial working memory, executive functioning, and spatial abilities related? A latent-variable analysis. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 130(4).Nilsen, E., & Graham, S. (2009). The relations between childrens communicative perspective-taking and executive functioning. Cognitive Psychology, 58.Powell, K. B., & Voeller, K. K. S. (2004). Prefrontal executive function syndromes in children. Journal of Child Neurology, 19.Reilly, D., Van Donkelaar, P., Saavedra, S., & Woollacott, M. (2008). Interaction between the development of postural control and the executive function of attention. Journal of Motor Behavior, 40(2).Riggs, N., Jahromi, L., Razza, R., Dillworth-Bart, J., & Mueller, U. (2006). Executive function and the promotion of social-emotional competence. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 27.Stuss, Donald, (1992). Biological and psychological development of executive functions. Brain and Cognition, 20, 8-23.Tsujimoto, S. (2008). The prefrontal cortex: Functional neural development during early childhood. The Neuroscientist, 14(4), 345-358

×