Differentiation in undergraduate pharmaceutical education: the case of pharmaceutical mgt


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Presented in 21st FAPA Conference, Yokohama, Japan, Nov 18-21, 2006

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Differentiation in undergraduate pharmaceutical education: the case of pharmaceutical mgt

  1. 1. Differentiation in Undergraduate Pharmaceutical Education: The Case of Pharmaceutical Management Dr. Benjamin Tak-Yuen Chan
  2. 2. Issues in This Study <ul><li>Definition of Pharmaceutical Education </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity of Pharmaceutical Education </li></ul><ul><li>Manpower Needs of Pharma Industry </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiation Strategy for Pharmaceutical Education </li></ul><ul><li>Case Examples of Pharmaceutical Management Programs </li></ul>
  3. 3. Pharmaceutical Education <ul><li>Has no available authoritative definition </li></ul><ul><li>Is generally equated with the education and training of pharmacists conducted in schools/faculties of pharmacy, postgraduate pharmacy education/training centre or academic pharmacy practice unit </li></ul><ul><li>Does not generally include pharmacology but includes pharmaceutical science(s) within its ambit </li></ul><ul><li>Both pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences are undergoing expansion of their subject scope and making inroads into other sciences (e.g. pharmacy into social and behavioral sciences); thus, the boundaries of pharmaceutical education is evolving. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Problems with a Narrow Definition <ul><li>Lack of clarity (e.g. the major journal for pharmacy educators in Europe is named “Pharmacy Education: An International Journal for Pharmaceutical Education”) </li></ul><ul><li>Excludes non-pharmacy schools/departments offering programmes in pharmaceutical sciences(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Neglects inclusion of education for personnel associated with R & D, clinical trial, manufacturing, registration and sales/marketing of medicines (Journal of Pharmacy Teaching – Haworth Press makes for such inclusion but no articles actually appear) </li></ul>
  5. 5. How Diverse is Pharmaceutical Education Today? <ul><li>Systematic study is needed, particularly for Asia-Pacific region, since database on pharmacy schools/courses is incomplete or lacking </li></ul><ul><li>Apart from pharmacy, the following are pharmaceutical-related first degrees </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pharmaceutical science(s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical and pharmaceutical sciences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medicinal/pharmaceutical chemistry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial pharmacy/pharmaceutical engineering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pharmaceutical management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pharmaceutical sciences with another subject (e.g. law, language, business) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Survey of UK Undergraduate Pharmaceutical Education <ul><li>24 Schools of Pharmacy (8 new schools have been established in the last 5 years) offer the MPharm-first degree in pharmacy </li></ul><ul><li>26 universities offer BSc courses in pharmaceutical science(s), including chemical and pharmaceutical sciences, medicinal/pharmaceutical chemistry </li></ul><ul><li>10 schools of pharmacy offer courses in pharmaceutical science(s) alongside pharmacy, among them, 5 are new schools of pharmacy </li></ul><ul><li>4 universities offer courses in industrial pharmacy/pharmaceutical engineering, only 1 is based in a school of pharmacy </li></ul><ul><li>Only 1 course in pharmaceutical management </li></ul><ul><li>New initiative such as pharmaceutical science combined with law </li></ul>Based on UCAS course search 2007
  7. 7. Survey of Australian Pharmaceutical Education <ul><li>16 universities offer a combination of first degree (BPharm) and postgraduate-entry (MPharm) courses in pharmacy </li></ul><ul><li>Pharmaceutical Science is offered at postgraduate level by 3 universities that also offer pharmacy degrees </li></ul><ul><li>BSc/MSc medicinal chemistry are offered only at 2 universities, both with no pharmacy provisions </li></ul><ul><li>New initiative such as MBA in pharmaceutical management is offered by one university with pharmacy provision </li></ul>Based on IDP course search 2006
  8. 8. Findings Illustrated by UK/Australian Surveys <ul><li>Schools of pharmacy retain pharmacy as their mainstay provision </li></ul><ul><li>Pharmaceutical education is offered in non-pharmacy schools/departments, some of them capitalizing on this to offer pharmacy later </li></ul><ul><li>Crossdisciplinary study is starting to emerge but remains few </li></ul><ul><li>Specialization in pharmaceutical related areas (e.g. pharmaceutical management) is undertaken at postgraduate level (Australia, US, India) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Insularization, Diversification or Differentiation? <ul><li>Insularization </li></ul><ul><li>Continue running mainly pharmacy first degree program with assumption that pharmacy graduates are well-equipped for employment in pharmacy, manufacturing and pharmaceutical industry careers </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain traditional subject boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>Diversification </li></ul><ul><li>Increase diversity of student intake through e.g. postgraduate-entry MPharm course; generate additional fee income for school </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiation </li></ul><ul><li>Branch out to integrate related subjects into pharmaceutical science curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Involve other schools (e.g. law and business) in course delivery </li></ul>
  10. 10. Points to Contemplate <ul><li>Insularization </li></ul><ul><li>Pharmacy students are trained to take up pharmacist’s role, how many actually end up in other careers? </li></ul><ul><li>Prolongation of pharmacy curriculum happens worldwide to stress on pharmaceutical care, no space for other specialized training </li></ul><ul><li>Training pharmacist is costly, wastage of public resources if they don’t work in health systems </li></ul><ul><li>Diversification </li></ul><ul><li>“ Me too programmes” spring up quickly, no. of MPharm (graduate entry) courses is now the same as BPharm courses in Australia </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiation </li></ul><ul><li>Is it necessary? The answer lies in job sector requirements and changes of Pharma Industry </li></ul>
  11. 11. Careers in Pharmaceutical Industry Science Business Law Patenting New    Corporate Mgt and Admin   Sales and Marketing   Regulatory Affairs   Manufacturing    Clinical Trials    Development    Drug Discovery Traditional Pharm Mgt Pharmacy Ind Pharm Pharm Sci Pharmacol Job sectors
  12. 12. Pros and Cons of Specialized Programmes for Pharmaceutical Industry <ul><li>Using Pharmaceutical Sales and Marketing as Example </li></ul><ul><li>Cons </li></ul><ul><li>Job recruitment is traditionally open to all graduates, employer-based training is provided and professional exams are available </li></ul><ul><li>Degrees in certain subjects offer advantage but prior work experience is equally valued </li></ul><ul><li>Specialized education is for people with some industry work experience, hence course should be offered at postgraduate level </li></ul>
  13. 13. Pros and Cons of Specialized Programmes for Pharmaceutical Industry <ul><li>Using Pharmaceutical Sales and Marketing as Example </li></ul><ul><li>Pros </li></ul><ul><li>Dual track training (university degree and employer-based training) can exist alongside one another, employer-based training is common only for pharmaceutical MNCs </li></ul><ul><li>Employer desired qualities of recruits can be assured in degree programs, SW or PT modes can provide work experience </li></ul><ul><li>Bachelor degree level program can focus on product knowledge and local pharmaceutical industry; postgraduate level program on international pharmaceutical industry </li></ul>
  14. 14. Models for Running Pharmaceutical Management Course (Bachelor level) <ul><li>Full-time, dedicated school and faculty (e.g. Dept. of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Business, University of the Sciences Philadelphia offers BS Pharmaceutical Marketing and Management ) </li></ul><ul><li>Full-time based in pharmacy school with courses taught by business school, intercalated year in work option (e.g. University of Bradford offers BSc (Hons) Pharmaceutical Management ) </li></ul><ul><li>Part-time, top up degree for in-service pharmaceutical industry staff, jointly taught by academics and adjuncts from industry (e.g. University of Sunderland offers BSc (Hons) Pharmaceutical Studies jointly with HKU SPACE) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Features of BS Pharmaceutical Marketing and Management <ul><li>Science-oriented business curriculum with focus on sales, marketing, management and the applied pharmaceutical sciences </li></ul><ul><li>Stress on ‘learn by doing’, using classroom instruction, interactive simulations, case studies, guest speakers, and projects </li></ul><ul><li>Option of paid summer internship in pharmaceutical firms and pharmaceutical advertising agencies </li></ul><ul><li>Graduates can immediately assume an entry-level sales and marketing position in the industry;take up leadership and management responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>“ The blended balance of science and business makes you more valuable to an employer and puts you on a faster track to advancement” </li></ul><ul><li>Further study for MBA at USP </li></ul>
  16. 16. Features of BSc (Hons) Pharmaceutical Management <ul><li>Combines pharmaceutical science (2/3) with studies in management techniques and an optional European language (1/3) </li></ul><ul><li>Aims to provide graduates with the skills to take up positions as ‘scientifically aware’ managers within the pharmaceutical or related industries </li></ul><ul><li>Option year on industrial placement </li></ul><ul><li>High graduate employment (100% in employment or further study after 6 months of graduation) in areas of marketing, healthcare and management in the pharmaceutical industry </li></ul><ul><li>Offered both in UK and offshore (Singapore) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Features of BSc (Hons) Pharmaceutical Studies <ul><li>Admits subdegree students with backgrounds in pharmaceutical technology or pharmaceutical science </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum includes subjects in pharmacology, applied pharmaceutical sciences, marketing and international business (11 modules) </li></ul><ul><li>“ The program aims to develop a graduate who has a broad knowledge of pharmacology, pathophysiology and therapeutics, clinical research and marketing and who is equipped to enter a career in the business and drug marketing aspects of the pharmaceutical industry’ </li></ul><ul><li>All students are already employed in Pharmaceutical Industry when commencing study </li></ul><ul><li>Offered only offshore (Hong Kong) </li></ul><ul><li>Further study for MSc in International Pharmaceutical Science at HKU SPACE (awarded by Univ. of Sunderland) </li></ul>
  18. 18. How does your employment compare with when you were studying in the BSc Pharmaceutical Studies What our BSc graduates say? Based on a survey of 4 cohorts of BSc graduates with a 36% response rate
  19. 19. What our BSc graduates say? In your opinion, has the BSc contributed toward achieving any of the above? Based on a survey of 4 cohorts of BSc graduates with a 36% response rate
  20. 20. Conclusions <ul><li>All three undergraduates programs have produced graduates with high employment rate and level of course satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Success of these programmes is due to integration of pharmaceutical science and business, not bolt in of business into science degree as in double major </li></ul><ul><li>Integration of work experience into curriculum is essential, as well as participation of pharmaceutical industry in placement or teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Undergraduate pharmaceutical management program can answer to local pharmaceutical industry needs whereas a global focus can be better catered by postgraduate program </li></ul><ul><li>Per capita cost of training pharmaceutical management student is less than for pharmacist </li></ul>
  21. 21. Thank you! Email: [email_address]