An Analysis of Transnational Pharmacy Education  in Asia-Pacific Region Dr. Benjamin Tak-Yuen Chan Division of Health and ...
Transnational Education (TNE) <ul><li>Important and growing phenomenon in cross-border higher education </li></ul><ul><li>...
Extent of TNE <ul><li>For higher education (HE) sector, 33% of Australian educational exports are offshore provisions (in ...
TNE in Profile <ul><li>An average 56.8% of Australian HE educational exports in these 3 countries/regions are offshore pro...
Challenge of TNE <ul><li>New forms of delivery and partnership involved </li></ul><ul><li>According to IDP (2001): </li></...
Classification of TNE Provision <ul><li>Type I  Locally supported distance learning </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign  curriculum,...
TNE in Health Sciences <ul><li>Very few TNE provisions are in the health sciences field </li></ul><ul><li>Business and man...
TNE in Pharmacy (1) <ul><li>Evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Started as early as 1990 with provision of locally supported dista...
TNE in Pharmacy (2) <ul><li>Enabling factors </li></ul><ul><li>Shortage of pharmacists </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of postgradu...
TNE in Pharmacy (3) <ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Augments local capacity and achieve faster supply of graduates </li...
Overseeing TNE in Pharmacy <ul><li>National governments </li></ul><ul><li>Define national capacity (HKSAR and Malaysia in ...
Global Pharmacist Supply  Situation   Source: FIP 2006
Pharmacist Supply Situation in the Three Countries/ Regions Source: P & P Board of HK, Pharmacy Board of Malaysia, Singapo...
Global Pharmacists Employment Fields Source: FIP 2006
Western Pacific Pharmacists Employment Fields Source: FIP 2006
Challenge for Curriculum  Decision-makers in TNE <ul><li>To understand local context, priorities, needs and constraints </...
Curriculum Influence in Pharmacy in the Western Pacific Region <ul><li>International </li></ul><ul><li>FIP statement of po...
Practicalities of Curriculum Implementation for TNE in Pharmacy   <ul><li>Science-based and Clinical practice contents are...
Benefits of TNE for Exporter Country <ul><li>Encourage study abroad for exporter countries with low rates of domestic stud...
Strategy for Curriculum Internationalization <ul><li>Need not involve large-scale re-casting of the curriculum of a course...
Edwards’ Typology of  Curriculum Internationalisation Source: Edwards et al. (2003) Higher Educ Res Dev 22(2) 183-192
Success of TNE in Pharmacy <ul><li>When educators have done their lot, it will be incumbent on: </li></ul><ul><li>Governme...
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Analysis Of Transnational Pharm Educ in Asia-Pacific Region

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Presented in Commonwealth Pharmaceutical Association/Malaysian Pharmaceutical Society Conference, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Aug 1-5, 2007

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Analysis Of Transnational Pharm Educ in Asia-Pacific Region

  1. 1. An Analysis of Transnational Pharmacy Education in Asia-Pacific Region Dr. Benjamin Tak-Yuen Chan Division of Health and Applied Sciences, SPACE, University of Hong Kong
  2. 2. Transnational Education (TNE) <ul><li>Important and growing phenomenon in cross-border higher education </li></ul><ul><li>Mobility of programmes and institutions across national borders instead of student mobility </li></ul><ul><li>Growth of enrolments in importing countries/regions (offshore provision) is faster than onshore international student enrolments (in the case of UK and Australia) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Extent of TNE <ul><li>For higher education (HE) sector, 33% of Australian educational exports are offshore provisions (in 2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Top three sites of offshore enrolment parallel source of international student enrolments </li></ul><ul><li>(Singapore > HKSAR > Malaysia) </li></ul><ul><li>UK institutions enrolled 140,000 offshore students against 200,000 international students onshore in 1996-1997 </li></ul><ul><li>Source: AEI 2003 & OECD 2002 </li></ul>
  4. 4. TNE in Profile <ul><li>An average 56.8% of Australian HE educational exports in these 3 countries/regions are offshore provisions </li></ul><ul><li>Together, they account for 79% of offshore total enrolments </li></ul>Source: AEI 2003 45.7% 8,211 17,972 Malaysia 63.8% 12,426 19,479 HKSAR 59.7% 13,112 21,964 Singapore % offshore Offshore Onshore Countries/ regions
  5. 5. Challenge of TNE <ul><li>New forms of delivery and partnership involved </li></ul><ul><li>According to IDP (2001): </li></ul><ul><li>Delivery modes are face-to-face teaching (40%) and supported distance education (40%) </li></ul><ul><li>Partnered with private institutions or providers (51%) or public education institutions (25%) </li></ul><ul><li>Predominantly postgraduate (56%) and in business related subjects (51%) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Classification of TNE Provision <ul><li>Type I Locally supported distance learning </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign curriculum, some local teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Type 2 Twinning programmes </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign curriculum, local teaching and student mobility in upper years </li></ul><ul><li>Type 3 Franchise arrangement </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum and teaching arrangement approved by foreign institution </li></ul><ul><li>Type 4 Branch campus </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum and teaching wholly controlled by foreign institution emulating home context </li></ul>Source: Marginson and McBurnie (2003)
  7. 7. TNE in Health Sciences <ul><li>Very few TNE provisions are in the health sciences field </li></ul><ul><li>Business and management make up 68.2% and IT (19%) of all external bachelor degree enrolments in Singapore. 90% of external postgraduate enrolments are in business and management (Statistics Singapore Newsletter 2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Notable provision in health sciences field is in nursing (both top up or degree conversion and postgraduate Masters) </li></ul>
  8. 8. TNE in Pharmacy (1) <ul><li>Evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Started as early as 1990 with provision of locally supported distance learning MClinPharm-Otago University by HKU SPACE (Hong Kong) </li></ul><ul><li>Twinning programmes (2+2) model for BPharm delivery pioneered by IMU/Strathclyde U and SIT/UniSa (Malaysia) </li></ul><ul><li>Branch campus model for BPharm delivery by Nottingham and Monash Universities represent latest developments (Malaysia) </li></ul><ul><li>Franchise arrangement applies to pharmaceutical management degrees of Bradford and Sunderland Universities (HKSAR & Singapore) </li></ul>
  9. 9. TNE in Pharmacy (2) <ul><li>Enabling factors </li></ul><ul><li>Shortage of pharmacists </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of postgraduate education & training courses </li></ul><ul><li>Insufficient local capacity or barriers to expansion </li></ul><ul><li>Commonwealth sphere of influence in pharmacist training (UK, Australia, NZ) </li></ul><ul><li>Government support (Malaysia) or free market access (HKSAR & Singapore) </li></ul><ul><li>Receptive students </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign degree highly valued </li></ul>
  10. 10. TNE in Pharmacy (3) <ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Augments local capacity and achieve faster supply of graduates </li></ul><ul><li>Introduces new curriculum ideas and catalyses change in local sector </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages private investment in education </li></ul><ul><li>Possible side-effects </li></ul><ul><li>Competition and oversupply in the long run </li></ul><ul><li>Hinders localisation efforts </li></ul><ul><li>Uncertain return on private investment in education (graduates with dual registration may not work in home country) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Overseeing TNE in Pharmacy <ul><li>National governments </li></ul><ul><li>Define national capacity (HKSAR and Malaysia in opposite poles) </li></ul><ul><li>National pharmaceutical associations </li></ul><ul><li>Connect with professionalisation strategy (achieving SPD) </li></ul><ul><li>Institutions offering TNE in pharmacy </li></ul><ul><li>Quality assurance, internationisation of curriculum, proper training and support to teaching staff, ensuring competencies of graduates </li></ul>
  12. 12. Global Pharmacist Supply Situation Source: FIP 2006
  13. 13. Pharmacist Supply Situation in the Three Countries/ Regions Source: P & P Board of HK, Pharmacy Board of Malaysia, Singapore Pharmacy Board 17 24 24 Yrs to take based on 2005 level of new pharmacists registered Local capacity 2,050 17% 21% (2005) 1,330 32:100,000 4.1 Singapore Local capacity and TNE in pharmacy 13,000 - 40% (2005) 3,965 15:100,000 26.0 Malaysia None 3,450 82% 60% (2005) 1,583 23:100,000 6.9 Hong Kong SAR Strategy pursued No. required to achieve 50:100,000 ratio % foreign trained to local educated (total & 2005) No. reg. pharmacists & pharmacists to population ratio (2005) Pop. (mil) Country/ Region
  14. 14. Global Pharmacists Employment Fields Source: FIP 2006
  15. 15. Western Pacific Pharmacists Employment Fields Source: FIP 2006
  16. 16. Challenge for Curriculum Decision-makers in TNE <ul><li>To understand local context, priorities, needs and constraints </li></ul><ul><li>To adapt home curriculum with infusion of local elements </li></ul><ul><li>To orient home staff to foreign teaching environment; identify and train local staff up to common expectation </li></ul><ul><li>To involve local stakeholders in curriculum planning </li></ul><ul><li>To uphold academic values over entrepreneurial concerns of private provider </li></ul>
  17. 17. Curriculum Influence in Pharmacy in the Western Pacific Region <ul><li>International </li></ul><ul><li>FIP statement of policy/professional standards (Good Pharmacy Education Practice, Pharmaceutical Care, GPP Guidelines, Code of Ethics) </li></ul><ul><li>US </li></ul><ul><li>6 year DPharm (Japan, South Korea); </li></ul><ul><li>Postgraduate pharmacy residency training and pharmacy specialists accreditation (Taiwan, Singapore, Thailand) </li></ul><ul><li>British and Australia </li></ul><ul><li>3/4 year undergraduate education + 2 year postgraduate education (clinical pharmacy) (NZ, HK, Malaysia, Singapore) </li></ul><ul><li>Autochthonous </li></ul><ul><li>Colonial heritage, but largely independent development (Philippines, India) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Practicalities of Curriculum Implementation for TNE in Pharmacy <ul><li>Science-based and Clinical practice contents are fairly standard as defined by universal consensus (FIP) </li></ul><ul><li>Pharmaceutical legislations and introduction to health system require localization </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral sciences and health promotion need to account for varying beliefs about health and illness and patterns of medicines usage </li></ul><ul><li>Social and administrative pharmacy increasingly important as a subject (SPD, NDP, RUD, regional pharmaceutical public health issues identified by WPPF) </li></ul><ul><li>How to provide for multidisciplinary learning and practice placement? </li></ul>
  19. 19. Benefits of TNE for Exporter Country <ul><li>Encourage study abroad for exporter countries with low rates of domestic student mobility (e.g. Australia’s foreign students: domestic students abroad ratio is 19.74) </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance staff development in international education </li></ul><ul><li>Foster international awareness of students through curriculum and extra-curricular activities </li></ul><ul><li>Move beyond mono-culturalism, deepen cultural capacities and engage with emerging nations & cultures in the region </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Marginson and McBurnie (2003) </li></ul>
  20. 20. Strategy for Curriculum Internationalization <ul><li>Need not involve large-scale re-casting of the curriculum of a course </li></ul><ul><li>Builds on what is already in it (Levels 1 & 2 of the typology) and utilises institutional off-campus arrangements (Level 3) </li></ul><ul><li>Involves changing and transforming students’ perspectives from a mono-cultural view to reflection and acquisition of international literacy </li></ul><ul><li>Ideally complemented by providing students with skills and knowledge to perform competently in international environment </li></ul>
  21. 21. Edwards’ Typology of Curriculum Internationalisation Source: Edwards et al. (2003) Higher Educ Res Dev 22(2) 183-192
  22. 22. Success of TNE in Pharmacy <ul><li>When educators have done their lot, it will be incumbent on: </li></ul><ul><li>Governments of importing country/region </li></ul><ul><li>To articulate a clear vision of pharmacy development in order to reap public benefits of private investment in education (prevent brain drain) </li></ul><ul><li>National pharmaceutical association </li></ul><ul><li>To help shape TNE policy </li></ul><ul><li>To assist graduates/ returnees in integrating into the local pharmacist corporate </li></ul><ul><li>To combat segregation and inequality of opportunities for TNE graduates vis-à-vis local graduates </li></ul>
  23. 23. Thank you!

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