Module 1 lesson 1


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Module 1 lesson 1

  1. 1. Scientific Method
  2. 2. What is Science? <ul><li>Observation, identification, description, and explanation of phenomena (occurrences in the world around us) </li></ul><ul><li>Latin root for the word science is scientia meaning knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Through study of science </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask Questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop Hypothesis (educated guesses) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design and Carry out Experiments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gain a Better Understanding of the Universe </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Scientific Method <ul><li>Procedure for studying nature </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of several steps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make an observation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Form the hypothesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set up an experiment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collect data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyze data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Draw a conclusion </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Making Observations and Defining the Problem <ul><li>Observations are made by using the five senses (sight, touch, smell, sound, and taste) to obtain information </li></ul><ul><li>Making observations may lead to identifying problems </li></ul>
  5. 5. Asking Questions <ul><li>By asking questions we can search for logical explanations of what we observe and find ways to solve problems </li></ul>
  6. 6. Forming the Hypothesis <ul><li>After observing and asking questions we can form an opinion about how or why something happens </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis – statement that gives the best possible response to the question </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on already known facts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Educated Guess </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Setting Up the Experiment <ul><li>Should give accurate and measureable results </li></ul><ul><li>Should be designed to collect information </li></ul><ul><li>Goal is to support or reject a hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Set up to examine only one condition (variable) at a time to give meaningful data </li></ul>
  8. 8. Experimental Groups <ul><li>Control Group </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental Group </li></ul>
  9. 9. Experimental Variables <ul><li>Independent Variable – factor that is changed or manipulated during an experiment in order to determine the effect of the change </li></ul><ul><li>Dependent Variable – the factor that the experimenter is measuring or counting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in response to the independent variable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control Variable – all other factors in an experiment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Things that the investigator attempts to control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal is to keep them the same for all samples </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Collecting Data <ul><li>Gathered from observations and measurements taken during an experiment </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative Data – information that cannot be assigned a numerical value </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually collected using the five senses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quantitative Data - anything that can be expressed as a number or quantified </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Include lengths, weights, masses, volumes, time, anything expressed as a number </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Observations must be recorded </li></ul>
  11. 11. Analyze Data <ul><li>Use tables, charts, graphs to organize data so it is easier to read </li></ul>
  12. 12. Draw Conclusion <ul><li>Based on data </li></ul><ul><li>Support/reject our hypothesis </li></ul>
  13. 13. Sample Experiment <ul><li>Asked to observe marine snail behavior in an aquarium </li></ul><ul><li>Tank contains several snails at one end and food at the other end </li></ul><ul><li>Observe snails climbing the aquarium and swarming all over the food </li></ul>
  14. 14. Sample Experiment <ul><li>Materials: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aquarium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seawater </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graduated cylinder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Snails </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metric ruler </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Sample Experiment
  16. 16. Sample Experiment
  17. 17. Sample Experiment
  18. 18. Sample Experiment