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203wbs Network Gantt Chart

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203wbs Network Gantt Chart

  1. 1. Tools techniques T l &t h i WBS, network, Gantt chart , , Managing projects http://unisunderland.blogspot.com 1
  2. 2. Topics • Work breakdown structure • Sequencing Activities • PERT & CPM • Network diagrams • Gantt chart • PCs and Project Management Software http://unisunderland.blogspot.com 2
  3. 3. Breakdown Structures • Different types of BS – CWBS: Contractual WBS – OBS: Organisational WBS g – RBS: Resource WBS – BOM: Bill of Materials – PBS: Project Breakdown Structure http://unisunderland.blogspot.com 3
  4. 4. Work Breakdown Structure • Breaking the p j g project down into more manageable g pieces is known as creating a work breakdown structure (WBS). • A WBS defines the work to be completed in the project. • It is a graphical representation (diagram) of the project showing its component parts. • Th work at all levels of the WBS should b d fi d i The k t ll l l f th h ld be defined in terms of results, or deliverables, it is intended to achieve for: – It gives better control of scope. – It gives a more stable plan. – It gives more visible control. http://unisunderland.blogspot.com 4
  5. 5. Discuss • What are the benefits of WBS? List down 3 benefits of WBS http://unisunderland.blogspot.com 5
  6. 6. Creating a WBS • When creating a WBS for the first time, the following information should be available: – Activity. – Activity Title. – Duration of Activity.y – Successor Activity. – Personnel. – Direct Costs. – Predecessor Activity Activity. • Use the categories that make up the project: – The WBS diagram does not have to be symmetrical. – Every box is a summary of the boxes in levels below it. y y – The final box in each level must end in a deliverable. – The lowest level activities are called work packages, this is lowest detail you wish to describe and control. – All the boxes must equal the complete project. http://unisunderland.blogspot.com 6
  7. 7. Simple Approach for Creating the WBS • Gather Project Team • Provide Team Members with Pad of Sticky- Notes • Team Members Write Down all Tasks They can Think of. • Sticky-Notes Placed and Arranged on Wall http://unisunderland.blogspot.com 7
  8. 8. An Example of WBS http://unisunderland.blogspot.com 8
  9. 9. http://unisunderland.blogspot.com 9
  10. 10. WBS http://unisunderland.blogspot.com 10
  11. 11. Gantt chart http://unisunderland.blogspot.com 11
  12. 12. Exercise • Take your course as a project. • Create a WBS for completing your course titled “Managing Project” g g j • Break into 3 groups • Discussion (15 minutes) • Draw WBS (10 minutes) http://unisunderland.blogspot.com 12
  13. 13. Organisational Breakdown Structure • The OBS gives a division of responsibility. • It emphasizes the clear allocation of responsibilities. p • Most software systems also have a link between the WBS and the OBS. http://unisunderland.blogspot.com 13
  14. 14. Sequencing Activities • One of the most important p p parts of p j project p planning is g determining the logical flow of all the project activities. • It establishes the logical relationship between the activities using a network di ti iti i t k diagram. • A network diagram shows the activities and the logical relationships among those activities. • The method used to determine this relationship is called the Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM). • The PDM method was developed from the activity on node (AON) method. http://unisunderland.blogspot.com 14
  15. 15. Activities on node Activities-on-node Task(Time duration) Activities in parallel Activities in series http://unisunderland.blogspot.com 15
  16. 16. Activities on Arrow Activities-on-Arrow http://unisunderland.blogspot.com 16
  17. 17. Relationships • Two basic relationships: – Activities in series: activities are carried out one after another. – Activities in parallel: activities can be performed at the same time. • To create a network diagram for you should use the following steps: t 1. For each activity, work out the relationships with other activities. That is, determine where each activity depends on other activities. 2. 2 List the activities into a logical sequence sequence. 3. For those activities that are not dependent on each other a separate path should be formed. 4. 4 Each activity must be dependent on the activity that immediately goes before it. 5. Go over the sequence to make sure it is logical and makes sense http://unisunderland.blogspot.com 17
  18. 18. PERT and CPM • Late 1950s – Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) • Lockheed Aircraft/US Navy • Probabilistic activity durations (Stochastic) – Critical Path Method (CPM) • Rand Corporation/Du Pont • Deterministic activity durations • Activity – task or set of tasks – use resources • Event – state resulting from completion of one or more activities – consume no resources or time – predecessor activities must be completed p p http://unisunderland.blogspot.com 18
  19. 19. PERT and CPM • Milestones – events that mark significant progress • Network – diagram of nodes and arcs – used to illustrate technological relationships • Path – series of connected activities b t i f t d ti iti between t two events t • Critical Path – set of activities on a path that if delayed will delay completion of project f j • Critical Time – time required to complete all activities on the critical path http://unisunderland.blogspot.com 19
  20. 20. Critical Path http://unisunderland.blogspot.com 20
  21. 21. Table 2-1 A Sample Set of Project Activities and Precedences Task Predecessor a -- b -- c a d b e b f c, d g e http://unisunderland.blogspot.com 21
  22. 22. Figure 2-1 Stage 1 of a Sample AON Network http://unisunderland.blogspot.com 22
  23. 23. Figure 2-2 Stage 2 of a Sample AON Network http://unisunderland.blogspot.com 23
  24. 24. Figure 2-3 A Completed Sample AON Network http://unisunderland.blogspot.com 24
  25. 25. Figure 2-4 Stage 1 of a Sample AOA Network http://unisunderland.blogspot.com 25
  26. 26. Figure 2-5 Stage 2 of a Sample AOA Network http://unisunderland.blogspot.com 26
  27. 27. Figure 2-6a A Completed Sample AOA Network http://unisunderland.blogspot.com 27
  28. 28. Figure 2-6b A Completed Sample AOA Network Sh i th U of a D N t k Showing the Use f Dummy T kTask http://unisunderland.blogspot.com 28
  29. 29. Figure 2-7 Information Contents in an AON Node http://unisunderland.blogspot.com 29
  30. 30. Figure 2-8 The Critical Path and Time for Sample Project http://unisunderland.blogspot.com 30
  31. 31. Calculating Activity Slack • Slack or Float LST - EST = LFT - EFT = Slack http://unisunderland.blogspot.com 31
  32. 32. Figure 2-11 A Modified Version of MS Project Network http://unisunderland.blogspot.com 32
  33. 33. Exercise – Draw an activities-on-arrow network to activities on arrow represent project of digging a well based on following information Activities Activity Predecessors Duration identifier (Weeks) A Clear site - 1 B Obtain material - 2 C Obtain pump - 4 D Prepare apron A, A B 2 E Dig well D 5 F Install pump C, E 1 G Train T i maintainers i t i C 2 H Run trials http://unisunderland.blogspot.com F, G 2 33
  34. 34. Gantt Chart • Gantt charts are bar charts that display a schedule of all the activities. • Named after Henry Gantt who invented them y in the First World War. • Easy to see the relationships between the y p activities and time. http://unisunderland.blogspot.com 34
  35. 35. Figure 2-12 A Gantt Chart of a Sample Project http://unisunderland.blogspot.com 35
  36. 36. Figure 2-13 A Gantt Chart of Sample Project Showing C t ca Path, Path Co ect o s, S ac , S o g Critical at , at Connections, Slack, EST, LST, EFT, and LFT http://unisunderland.blogspot.com 36
  37. 37. Figure 2-14 A Gantt Chart of a Day Care Project S o Showing Expected Durations, C t ca Path, g pected u at o s, Critical at , Milestone, and Resource Requirements http://unisunderland.blogspot.com 37
  38. 38. Exercise http://unisunderland.blogspot.com 38
  39. 39. PCs and Project Management Software • The computer is now an integral p of the p g part project manager’s information and control system. • S f Software is used b mangers to plan and i d by l d control projects. • There is now complete acceptance of project management software to help project teams with their tasks. • Project management software cannot control or manage the project. http://unisunderland.blogspot.com 39
  40. 40. Summary • Feasibility study helps us identify whether the y y p y proposed project is likely to be successful. • Project planning starts with the project lifecycle and project feasibility to test whether the project is feasible or not. • The stages in the life cycle model are apt to run into problems. problems • The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) breaks the project down into manageable chunks. • Critical Path Analysis (CPA) gives us a structure approach to planning. • Project planning can be likened to a modeling exercise. http://unisunderland.blogspot.com
  41. 41. References • Burke, R. (2003) Project Management, Planning and , ( ) j g , g Control Techniques. John Wiley and Sons. • Field, M., Keller, L. (1998) Project Management. Open University. U i it • Jordan, E.W. and Machesky, J.J. (1990) Evaluation, Design, and Implementation, Boston, MA, PWS-Kent PWS Kent • Richman, L. (2002) Project Management Step-by-Step. AMACOM. • Weiss, J and Wysocki, R. (1994) 5 Phase Project Management:APractical Planning and Implementation Guide. Addisn-Wesley, Reading, Mass. Addisn Wesley, http://unisunderland.blogspot.com 41

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