• Different types of BS
– CWBS: Contractual WBS
– OBS: Organisational WBS
– RBS: Resource WBS
– BOM: Bill of Materials
– PBS: Project Breakdown Structure
Work Breakdown Structure
• Breaking the p j
g project down into more manageable
pieces is known as creating a work breakdown
• A WBS defines the work to be completed in the project.
• It is a graphical representation (diagram) of the project
showing its component parts.
• Th work at all levels of the WBS should b d fi d i
The k t ll l l f th h ld be defined in
terms of results, or deliverables, it is intended to
– It gives better control of scope.
– It gives a more stable plan.
– It gives more visible control.
• What are the benefits of WBS? List
down 3 benefits of WBS
Creating a WBS
• When creating a WBS for the first time, the following
information should be available:
– Activity Title.
– Duration of Activity.y
– Successor Activity.
– Direct Costs.
– Predecessor Activity
• Use the categories that make up the project:
– The WBS diagram does not have to be symmetrical.
– Every box is a summary of the boxes in levels below it.
– The final box in each level must end in a deliverable.
– The lowest level activities are called work packages, this is lowest
detail you wish to describe and control.
– All the boxes must equal the complete project.
Simple Approach for Creating
• Gather Project Team
• Provide Team Members with Pad of Sticky-
• Team Members Write Down all Tasks They
can Think of.
• Sticky-Notes Placed and Arranged on Wall
An Example of WBS
• Take your course as a project.
• Create a WBS for completing your course titled
g g j
• Break into 3 groups
• Discussion (15 minutes)
• Draw WBS (10 minutes)
• The OBS gives a division of responsibility.
• It emphasizes the clear allocation of
• Most software systems also have a link
between the WBS and the OBS.
• One of the most important p
p parts of p j
determining the logical flow of all the project activities.
• It establishes the logical relationship between the
activities using a network di
ti iti i t k diagram.
• A network diagram shows the activities and the logical
relationships among those activities.
• The method used to determine this relationship is
called the Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM).
• The PDM method was developed from the activity on
node (AON) method.
Activities on node
Activities in parallel
Activities in series
Activities on Arrow
• Two basic relationships:
– Activities in series: activities are carried out one after another.
– Activities in parallel: activities can be performed at the same time.
• To create a network diagram for you should use the following
1. For each activity, work out the relationships with other activities.
That is, determine where each activity depends on other activities.
2 List the activities into a logical sequence
3. For those activities that are not dependent on each other a
separate path should be formed.
4 Each activity must be dependent on the activity that
immediately goes before it.
5. Go over the sequence to make sure it is logical and makes
PERT and CPM
• Late 1950s
– Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)
• Lockheed Aircraft/US Navy
• Probabilistic activity durations (Stochastic)
– Critical Path Method (CPM)
• Rand Corporation/Du Pont
• Deterministic activity durations
– task or set of tasks
– use resources
– state resulting from completion of one or more activities
– consume no resources or time
– predecessor activities must be completed
PERT and CPM
– events that mark significant progress
– diagram of nodes and arcs
– used to illustrate technological relationships
– series of connected activities b t
i f t d ti iti between t
• Critical Path
– set of activities on a path that if delayed will delay completion
• Critical Time
– time required to complete all activities on the critical path
Table 2-1 A Sample Set of Project Activities
f c, d
Figure 2-1 Stage 1 of a Sample
Figure 2-2 Stage 2 of a Sample
Figure 2-3 A Completed Sample
Figure 2-4 Stage 1 of a Sample
Figure 2-5 Stage 2 of a Sample
Figure 2-6a A Completed
Sample AOA Network
Figure 2-6b A Completed Sample AOA
Network Sh i th U of a D
N t k Showing the Use f Dummy T kTask
Figure 2-7 Information Contents
in an AON Node
Figure 2-8 The Critical Path and
Time for Sample Project
Calculating Activity Slack
• Slack or Float
LST - EST = LFT - EFT = Slack
Figure 2-11 A Modified Version
of MS Project Network
– Draw an activities-on-arrow network to
activities on arrow
represent project of digging a well based on
Activities Activity Predecessors Duration
A Clear site - 1
B Obtain material - 2
C Obtain pump - 4
D Prepare apron A,
A B 2
E Dig well D 5
F Install pump C, E 1
T i maintainers
i t i C 2
H Run trials
http://unisunderland.blogspot.com F, G 2 33
• Gantt charts are bar charts that display a
schedule of all the activities.
• Named after Henry Gantt who invented them
in the First World War.
• Easy to see the relationships between the
activities and time.
Figure 2-12 A Gantt Chart of
a Sample Project
Figure 2-13 A Gantt Chart of Sample Project
Showing C t ca Path, Path Co ect o s, S ac ,
S o g Critical at , at Connections, Slack,
EST, LST, EFT, and LFT
Figure 2-14 A Gantt Chart of a Day Care Project
Showing Expected Durations, C t ca Path,
g pected u at o s, Critical at ,
Milestone, and Resource Requirements
PCs and Project Management
• The computer is now an integral p of the
p g part
project manager’s information and control
• S f
Software is used b mangers to plan and
i d by l d
• There is now complete acceptance of project
management software to help project teams
with their tasks.
• Project management software cannot control
or manage the project.
• Feasibility study helps us identify whether the
y y p y
proposed project is likely to be successful.
• Project planning starts with the project lifecycle and
project feasibility to test whether the project is feasible
• The stages in the life cycle model are apt to run into
• The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) breaks the
project down into manageable chunks.
• Critical Path Analysis (CPA) gives us a structure
approach to planning.
• Project planning can be likened to a modeling exercise.
• Burke, R. (2003) Project Management, Planning and
, ( ) j g , g
Control Techniques. John Wiley and Sons.
• Field, M., Keller, L. (1998) Project Management. Open
U i it
• Jordan, E.W. and Machesky, J.J. (1990) Evaluation,
Design, and Implementation, Boston, MA, PWS-Kent
• Richman, L. (2002) Project Management Step-by-Step.
• Weiss, J and Wysocki, R. (1994) 5 Phase Project
Management:APractical Planning and Implementation
Guide. Addisn-Wesley, Reading, Mass.