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203wbs Network Gantt Chart


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203wbs Network Gantt Chart

  1. 1. Tools techniques T l &t h i WBS, network, Gantt chart , , Managing projects 1
  2. 2. Topics • Work breakdown structure • Sequencing Activities • PERT & CPM • Network diagrams • Gantt chart • PCs and Project Management Software 2
  3. 3. Breakdown Structures • Different types of BS – CWBS: Contractual WBS – OBS: Organisational WBS g – RBS: Resource WBS – BOM: Bill of Materials – PBS: Project Breakdown Structure 3
  4. 4. Work Breakdown Structure • Breaking the p j g project down into more manageable g pieces is known as creating a work breakdown structure (WBS). • A WBS defines the work to be completed in the project. • It is a graphical representation (diagram) of the project showing its component parts. • Th work at all levels of the WBS should b d fi d i The k t ll l l f th h ld be defined in terms of results, or deliverables, it is intended to achieve for: – It gives better control of scope. – It gives a more stable plan. – It gives more visible control. 4
  5. 5. Discuss • What are the benefits of WBS? List down 3 benefits of WBS 5
  6. 6. Creating a WBS • When creating a WBS for the first time, the following information should be available: – Activity. – Activity Title. – Duration of Activity.y – Successor Activity. – Personnel. – Direct Costs. – Predecessor Activity Activity. • Use the categories that make up the project: – The WBS diagram does not have to be symmetrical. – Every box is a summary of the boxes in levels below it. y y – The final box in each level must end in a deliverable. – The lowest level activities are called work packages, this is lowest detail you wish to describe and control. – All the boxes must equal the complete project. 6
  7. 7. Simple Approach for Creating the WBS • Gather Project Team • Provide Team Members with Pad of Sticky- Notes • Team Members Write Down all Tasks They can Think of. • Sticky-Notes Placed and Arranged on Wall 7
  8. 8. An Example of WBS 8
  9. 9. 9
  10. 10. WBS 10
  11. 11. Gantt chart 11
  12. 12. Exercise • Take your course as a project. • Create a WBS for completing your course titled “Managing Project” g g j • Break into 3 groups • Discussion (15 minutes) • Draw WBS (10 minutes) 12
  13. 13. Organisational Breakdown Structure • The OBS gives a division of responsibility. • It emphasizes the clear allocation of responsibilities. p • Most software systems also have a link between the WBS and the OBS. 13
  14. 14. Sequencing Activities • One of the most important p p parts of p j project p planning is g determining the logical flow of all the project activities. • It establishes the logical relationship between the activities using a network di ti iti i t k diagram. • A network diagram shows the activities and the logical relationships among those activities. • The method used to determine this relationship is called the Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM). • The PDM method was developed from the activity on node (AON) method. 14
  15. 15. Activities on node Activities-on-node Task(Time duration) Activities in parallel Activities in series 15
  16. 16. Activities on Arrow Activities-on-Arrow 16
  17. 17. Relationships • Two basic relationships: – Activities in series: activities are carried out one after another. – Activities in parallel: activities can be performed at the same time. • To create a network diagram for you should use the following steps: t 1. For each activity, work out the relationships with other activities. That is, determine where each activity depends on other activities. 2. 2 List the activities into a logical sequence sequence. 3. For those activities that are not dependent on each other a separate path should be formed. 4. 4 Each activity must be dependent on the activity that immediately goes before it. 5. Go over the sequence to make sure it is logical and makes sense 17
  18. 18. PERT and CPM • Late 1950s – Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) • Lockheed Aircraft/US Navy • Probabilistic activity durations (Stochastic) – Critical Path Method (CPM) • Rand Corporation/Du Pont • Deterministic activity durations • Activity – task or set of tasks – use resources • Event – state resulting from completion of one or more activities – consume no resources or time – predecessor activities must be completed p p 18
  19. 19. PERT and CPM • Milestones – events that mark significant progress • Network – diagram of nodes and arcs – used to illustrate technological relationships • Path – series of connected activities b t i f t d ti iti between t two events t • Critical Path – set of activities on a path that if delayed will delay completion of project f j • Critical Time – time required to complete all activities on the critical path 19
  20. 20. Critical Path 20
  21. 21. Table 2-1 A Sample Set of Project Activities and Precedences Task Predecessor a -- b -- c a d b e b f c, d g e 21
  22. 22. Figure 2-1 Stage 1 of a Sample AON Network 22
  23. 23. Figure 2-2 Stage 2 of a Sample AON Network 23
  24. 24. Figure 2-3 A Completed Sample AON Network 24
  25. 25. Figure 2-4 Stage 1 of a Sample AOA Network 25
  26. 26. Figure 2-5 Stage 2 of a Sample AOA Network 26
  27. 27. Figure 2-6a A Completed Sample AOA Network 27
  28. 28. Figure 2-6b A Completed Sample AOA Network Sh i th U of a D N t k Showing the Use f Dummy T kTask 28
  29. 29. Figure 2-7 Information Contents in an AON Node 29
  30. 30. Figure 2-8 The Critical Path and Time for Sample Project 30
  31. 31. Calculating Activity Slack • Slack or Float LST - EST = LFT - EFT = Slack 31
  32. 32. Figure 2-11 A Modified Version of MS Project Network 32
  33. 33. Exercise – Draw an activities-on-arrow network to activities on arrow represent project of digging a well based on following information Activities Activity Predecessors Duration identifier (Weeks) A Clear site - 1 B Obtain material - 2 C Obtain pump - 4 D Prepare apron A, A B 2 E Dig well D 5 F Install pump C, E 1 G Train T i maintainers i t i C 2 H Run trials F, G 2 33
  34. 34. Gantt Chart • Gantt charts are bar charts that display a schedule of all the activities. • Named after Henry Gantt who invented them y in the First World War. • Easy to see the relationships between the y p activities and time. 34
  35. 35. Figure 2-12 A Gantt Chart of a Sample Project 35
  36. 36. Figure 2-13 A Gantt Chart of Sample Project Showing C t ca Path, Path Co ect o s, S ac , S o g Critical at , at Connections, Slack, EST, LST, EFT, and LFT 36
  37. 37. Figure 2-14 A Gantt Chart of a Day Care Project S o Showing Expected Durations, C t ca Path, g pected u at o s, Critical at , Milestone, and Resource Requirements 37
  38. 38. Exercise 38
  39. 39. PCs and Project Management Software • The computer is now an integral p of the p g part project manager’s information and control system. • S f Software is used b mangers to plan and i d by l d control projects. • There is now complete acceptance of project management software to help project teams with their tasks. • Project management software cannot control or manage the project. 39
  40. 40. Summary • Feasibility study helps us identify whether the y y p y proposed project is likely to be successful. • Project planning starts with the project lifecycle and project feasibility to test whether the project is feasible or not. • The stages in the life cycle model are apt to run into problems. problems • The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) breaks the project down into manageable chunks. • Critical Path Analysis (CPA) gives us a structure approach to planning. • Project planning can be likened to a modeling exercise.
  41. 41. References • Burke, R. (2003) Project Management, Planning and , ( ) j g , g Control Techniques. John Wiley and Sons. • Field, M., Keller, L. (1998) Project Management. Open University. U i it • Jordan, E.W. and Machesky, J.J. (1990) Evaluation, Design, and Implementation, Boston, MA, PWS-Kent PWS Kent • Richman, L. (2002) Project Management Step-by-Step. AMACOM. • Weiss, J and Wysocki, R. (1994) 5 Phase Project Management:APractical Planning and Implementation Guide. Addisn-Wesley, Reading, Mass. Addisn Wesley, 41