What’s the Point? Authors intentionally (on purpose) put words’ meanings IN the context of their writing There are four common ways that they do this! S = synonyms A = antonyms G = general context E = examples
Sooo…… When reading and you come across a word whose meaning you do not know, you could…. Use a dictionary Ask a friend Ask a teacher Ask your pet Use context (also known as – the SAGE approach!)
S = Synonyms• A synonym is a word that has the same or similar meaning as another.• Roots – Syn = same – Nym – name• Pairs of synonyms, for example: – Happy = glad – Sad = depressed – Cat = feline – Horse = equine – Watery = aqueous
Synonym Cue Words Or That is If you see these words (or others like them), you should expect that a synonym will follow! So….if you don’t know the first word’s meaning, you may know the second’s!!!
Synonym Examples The dentist gave me laughing gas to alleviate (or ease) the pain of cutting out my wisdom teeth. Cue word? Meaning of alleviate? Being nocturnal, that is, active at night, owls are rarely seen during the day. Cue word? What does nocturnal mean?
Whole Group Practice The government should not infringe on or violate a person’s right to free speech. What does this sentence mean? Tom was so engrossed, that is, involved, in the football game on television that he did not hear his wife’s question. What doe this sentence mean? Endangered species such as manatees need a sanctuary, or haven, so they can begin to thrive, that is, repopulate, again. What is a sanctuary? What does it mean to thrive (in the animal kingdom)?
A = Antonyms Antonyms are words that have the opposite meaning of each other. Roots Ant = opposite Nym = name• Pairs of antonyms, for example: – Happy = sad – Prompt = late – Studious = unfocused – Calm = hyperactive – Ingenious = commonplace
Antonym Cue Words But However In contrast Instead Not On the other hand Unlike Yet Sometimes antonyms are right next to the new word(set off by commas, dashes, or parentheses) Sometimes antonyms are placed in other parts of the sentence to stress the contrast
Antonym Examples During dinner, Anne Marie let out a long, loud burp that mortified her mother but amused her friends. What did her friends think of the burp? Her mother? Therefore, what does mortified mean? Suzanne’s tone was surprisingly flippant, in contrast to her usual respectful manner. How is she usually? How was her tone this time?
G = General Context Often you will find that the author has not provided a synonym or antonym clue to a word’s meaning. You may need to read the entire sentence or to read ahead for a few sentences. Sometimes a definition may be provided. Vivid word pictures or descriptions may be provided Logic and reasoning may be needed!
General Context Cue Words For instance For example Such as Including Consists of
Examples To ensure safety, written and road tests should be mandatory for everyone who seeks a driver’s license for the first time; no exceptions should be allowed. What part of this sentence gives you a clue of mandatory’s meaning? What does mandatory mean?
Examples Instead of being placed in adult prisons, where they often became more antisocial by mixing with hardened criminals, youth who have been convicted of crimes should be placed in programs that rehabilitate them. A. Restore to useful life B. Punish for good reason C. Exhaust in order to break the spirit D. Entertain
More examples Jaime speculated about how much weight he wanted to gain during the three month bodybuilding program he was beginning. A. Knew B. Wondered C. Worried D. Celebrated Losing weight too quickly – more than a pound or two a week – can be detrimental to long-term weight control and good health. A. Helpful B. Odd C. Harmful D. Pleasing
One More! From ”Popular” And though you protest Your disinterest I know clandestinely Youre gonna’ grin and bear it Your new found popularity HOW will you find out what this word means? What DOES clandestinely actually mean?
E = Examples Many times an author will show the meaning of a new or difficult word by providing an example. Example signal words For instance For example Such as Including Consists of
Examples….examples! The American presidency has suffered infamous events such as the Watergate scandal of Richard Nixon and the impeachment of Bill Clinton. What are the examples in this sentence? Do you know what these events were – in history? If you DO, you might have a better idea of infamous’s definition. If you DON’T, you may need to find another route.
More Examples Some authors use pseudonyms; for example, famous American author Mark Twain’s real name was Samuel Clemens. A. Typists B. Mental tricks C. Ghost writers D. False name Some people believe that the pesticides used on food cause serious physical impairments such as weakened kidneys and a more fragile immune system. A. Improvements B. Laws C. Injuries D. Pairings
Final Example…Example Some students find collaborative leaning helps them understand and retain information; for example, Nicole, Vejay, and Chad meet every Tuesday and Thursday in the library to compare notes and help each other prepare for tests. A. Additional B. Intense C. Independent D. Shared