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  1. 1. Group 2 – Research Report “What it takes to be an effective teacher in the year 2010 and beyond?” Group 2 - Research Report 1 Members: Tori ROBINSON, Bernadette ROGERS, Danielle SMITH, Brooke SWAIN & Susan TAYLOR
  2. 2. Introduction Group 2 - Research Report 2 Understand learners COGNITIVE development Promote the use of TECHNOLOGY Apply BEHAVIOURISM and SOCIAL COGNITIVE theories Focus on ASSESSMENT for learning Be a PROFESSIONAL Know how to MOTIVATE And ENGAGE learners Maintain a positive CLASSROOM and LEARNING environment What it takes to be an effective teacher in the 21st century (2010 and beyond)
  3. 3. Professionalism Group 2 - Research Report 3
  4. 4. Teachers have professional standards that they must apply to teaching as they are looked upon as professionals rather than just a classroom teacher (Whitton, Sinclair, Barker, Nanlohy & Nosworthy 2004). Group 2 - Research Report 4 As teachers are role models for the children of the future, teachers need to show commitment to their students by caring about their learning (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010)
  5. 5. Key elements of Professionalism Group 2 - Research Report 5 Professional Development Complex decision making Commitment to lifelong learning Knowledge of content and learners Ethics Respect, Caring, Integrity, Diligence, Open communication Reflecting on teaching practices
  6. 6. Group 2 - Research Report 6 Behaviourismdef: Noun {mass noun} Psychology The theory that human and animal behaviour can be explained in terms of conditioning without appeal to thoughts or feelings, and that. psychological disorders are best treated by altering behaviour patterns (retrieved from 10-1-2011)
  7. 7. Classical Conditioning occurs when an individual learns to produce an involuntary response (called the unconditioned response), either emotional or physiological, that is similar to an instinct or reflex to an event, object or situation (called the unconditioned stimulus). Operant Conditioning is observable behaviours that result from an event/consequences. The frequency and duration of behaviour varies depending on the event precipitating the behaviour. Teachers in the year 2010 and beyond need to be aware of behavioural conditioning and, adjust instruction, discipline approaches and management strategies accordingly. Group 2 - Research Report 7
  8. 8. Reinforcement is a consequence or event that increases the likelihood of a recurrence in behaviour. Positive reinforcement (+) occurs when something is added to increase the frequency or duration of a behaviour. Negative reinforcement (-) occurs when something is taken away in order to increase a desired behaviour. WHAT DOES THIS MEAN? Group 2 - Research Report 8
  9. 9. Foster a happy, inclusive environment in the classroom to build positive associations of the school classroom. (Eggen & Kauchak 2010) Adopt appropriate reinforcement to shape desired behaviours(shaping) (Eggen & Kauchak 2010). Utiliseantecedents to encourage behaviour that can be reinforced (Eggen & Kauchak 2010). Group 2 - Research Report 9
  10. 10. Constructivism Group 2 - Research Report 10
  11. 11. Social constructivism will guide the thinking of educational leaders and teachers ( Martin, J., 2006, as cited in Eggen & Kauchak, 2010 ) Guided by Vygotsky’s belief : ‘learners first construct knowledge in a social context then individually internalize it’, social constructivism will be promoted through learner interaction.
  12. 12. 21st century learners will... ...benefit from cognitive apprenticeships in the learning environment... for meaning, interact with the environment, test and modify existing schemas’ ... ( Goicoechea & Packer, 2000 as cited in Eggen & Kauchak, 2010) ...practise social interaction to assist in construction of knowledge. ( Alexander & Fleming, as cited in Eggen & Kauchak, 2010)
  13. 13. 21st century teachers will... learners to construct, rather than record knowledge... ...assist learners in reconstructing their thinking to accommodate new evidence.. ( Eggen & Kauchak, 2010) Effectively teach for conceptual change by providing students with examples and the using social interaction as a learning tool. ‘Much of what we learn is specific to the situation in which it is learned ( Anderson, J.R, Reder, L & Simon, H., 1996, as cited in Eggen & Kauchak, 2010, p.233.). Teachers will promote learning through activities that are experience based, discovery orientated and include the use of concrete objects. 21st century teachers will work together with their students to ensure EVERYONE achieves.
  14. 14. Learning Environment Group 2 - Research Report 14 a productive learning environment is defined as ‘a classroom that is orderly and focused on learning. In light of constructivist theories that describe learners as constructing their own knowledge rather than receiving it, the following points will show how a productive learning environment can be achieved by a teacher in the 21st Century.
  15. 15. Teachers don’t just provide or dictate information, rather teachers promote interaction. This ensures students are cognitively active which gets students involved through discussion and experimenting. This is the perfect environment for learning (understanding) to take place. (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010. pg. 238). Teachers can use this time to check perception. Students cognitive load is also reduced in this process(Eggen & Kauchak, 2010. pg. 241). Since constructivism is in harmony with the model of the human memory, 3 areas need to be achieved by teachers to allow long term memory to take place: 1. get and hold students attention so they’re focused. 2. Check student perception before a misconception arises, this avoids misunderstanding and the wrong information being encoded. 3. Limit cognitive load by giving excessive amounts of information at one time.
  16. 16. When students are presented with a new idea, high quality visual aides are important. It allows for students to use them as ‘experience to construct knowledge’ It holds students attention so and can be the means to create conceptual change if a misconception has been formed in the past, therefore old data can be revised (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010. pg. 240 Para. 3). Connect content to the real world to make it meaningful. Research has shown that topics students are interested in are more easily retained. Students attention is also able to be sustained. In a constructivist learning environment it is even more vital for information to be delivered in an organised way. This allows knowledge to be stored in long term memory i.e. information has been learned and processed successfully. Finally, assessment is essential as a means to ensure the construction of knowledge is accurate.
  17. 17. Classroom Management…in the 21st Century. Group 2 - Research Report 17 From advances in cognitive science and learning theories, students have become more responsible for their own learning (Pryce, L. Tomorrow’s teacher, These suggestions will help the modern day teacher to achieve orderly classrooms which are a haven for learning:
  18. 18. Start the lesson on the right footing, the beginning of the lesson is critical. Be calm, and comfortable, don’t look scared (Dixon, W. 2006). The very first lesson should start with teacher and students collaboratively putting down some classroom rules so students know what is expected of them. Show students respect and maintain their dignity when dealing with them at all times. When incidences arise handle them with a friendly attitude and humour, this will go a long way in winning friends and respect. Humour will also diffuse a heated situation (Maintaining classroom discipline, 1947).
  19. 19. Consistency should be manifested in what is expected of students throughout the school. If consistency isn’t shown in the way students are dealt with, respect is easily lost. Reward good behaviour, this harbours good teacher student relationships and creates a healthy emotional atmosphere. Create strong relationships between teacher and students and students with their peers. Let students ask questions; tell them something about yourself, this will help them to open up to you (Classroom management project (year unknown)). Students who have a strength in a particular subject should work with a weaker students and so forth.
  20. 20. Be neutral not accusatory, this will ensure students can tell their side of the story and not get defensive. Incorporate what students are interested in so lessons are stimulating and meaningful. When students act up, either ignore behaviour and carry on with the lesson, to then confront the student later privately. If this still doesn’t work use the S.W.A.T tactic i.e. – State the rule, Warn, Act, Time out (Dixon. W. 2006). ‘If the student refuses to leave the classroom or is threatening, other help should be called for, as this may require help from a mental health professional (Eggen and Kauchak, 2010). 20
  21. 21. Motivation Group 2 - Research Report 21
  22. 22. Group 2 - Research Report 22 Motivation to learn will empower students to work intrinsically Understand your individual students motivation to learn Give praise for genuine achievement Use goal- directed activity to instigate and sustain motivation
  23. 23. ENGAGE WITH YOUR STUDENTS... Group 2 - Research Report 23 ...motivated students equal satisfied teachers
  24. 24. 24 set, monitor and use goals effectively Teach using situational interest Give students choice Instil feelings of safety and belonging eliminate anxiety from our classrooms Personalise learning content Stimulate learners... work with their personal interests Assist in promoting self esteem & self actualization & student involvement Work with personal interest to ensure effective, concrete learning Group 2 - Research Report
  25. 25. Get your students involved Group 2 - Research Report 25 Link content to the real world Provide logical, concrete and coherent presentations
  26. 26. Assessment & Reporting Group 2 - Research Report 26
  27. 27. Formative Assessment: assessment during teaching as a way to provide instant feedback and assess student progress (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010) Summative Assessment: assessment after teaching used to test student understanding for grading (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010) The 21st Century will see a scale back of summative assessment and replacement with ‘alternative’ assessments (McMillan, 2011) Portfolios Performance assessment Exhibitions Journals Imagination is the limit
  28. 28. Focus on learning and increased competence (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010) Assessment-anxious students use superficial strategies instead of productive processes (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010) Emphasize understanding (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010)
  29. 29. (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010)
  30. 30. (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010)
  31. 31. Assessment in advancing technology Instantaneous assessment reporting – to both student and parents Interactive and online with advancement of systems such as InCAS (Interactive Computerises Assessment System) (reference) Global assessments, world wide standards
  32. 32. Technology Group 2 - Research Report 32 “The new learning spaces incorporate technologies, engage the learner, creating new learning possibilities, enhancing achievements and extending interactions with local and global communities” retrieved from 11-1-2010
  33. 33. Educators must aim to incorporate technology seamlessly into classrooms to enhance instruction. Harness the power of social networking sites to enhance existing relationships. Explore the possibilities of digital gaming with educational games such as Civilisation; which allows players to select a historical civilisation and develop in a sustainable way. Ref: Klopfer, E. Osterweil, S. Groff, J & Haas, J. 2009 Using the technology of Today in the Classroom Today Massachusetts Institute of Technology retrieved from on 11-1-2011 Group 2 - Research Report 33
  34. 34. The Smart board fosters interactive instruction allowing students to be “networked” to each other, the teacher and the school as a whole. Emails can be set up to correspond with fellow students and teacher about homework and assignments. Computer research, e.g. “googling” builds on student’s ability to identify relevant material and discriminate between useful and irrelevant information. “Ours is a knowledge-creating civilization. A growing number of “knowledge societies” (Stehr, 1994), are joined in a deliberate effort to advance all the frontiers of knowledge. Sustained knowledge advancement is seen as essential for social progress of all kinds and for the solution of societal problems. From this standpoint the fundamental task of education is to enculturate youth into this knowledge-creating civilization and to help them find a place in it.” cited from Scardamalia, M., & Bereiter, C. (2006) Knowledge building: Theory, pedagogy, and technology. In K. Sawyer (Ed.), Cambridge Handbook of New York: Cambridge University Press retrieved from 12-1-2010 Group 2 - Research Report 34
  35. 35. Teachers need to be familiar with the various technologies available in order to utilise them effectively. Use technology to create authentic learning experiences based in real-life scenarios. (McMillan, J.H. 2007) Utilise technology to support a constructivist learning environment through exploring, researching, identifying, discriminating and making connections. Group 2 - Research Report 35