Daily Lecture And Discussions


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Daily Lecture And Discussions

  1. 1. Sumita Chakraborti-Ghosh, Ph.D. Tennessee State University Nashville, Tennessee EDSE 5800 Technology for Rehabilitation an Special Education
  2. 2. Day one Discussion <ul><li>IDEA , IEP, Inclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Continuum of special education placement </li></ul><ul><li>Impact of the Standards : CEC, State </li></ul><ul><li>An understanding of Technology tools for individual with disabilities AT, ADT, RT, IT </li></ul><ul><li>Four Core Principles </li></ul>
  3. 3. Day two: universal Design <ul><li>Universal design is the design of products and environments to be usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialized design. –Ron Mace </li></ul><ul><li>Necessary Website </li></ul><ul><ul><li>< http://www.cast.org/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.design.ncsu.edu/cud/about_ud/udhistory.htm </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. UD Principles <ul><li>Principle One : Equitable Use The design is useful and marketable to people with diverse abilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Principle TWO: Flexibility in Use The design accommodates a wide range of individual preferences and abilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Principle Three : Simple and Intuitive Use Use of the design is easy to understand, regardless of the user's experience, knowledge, language skills, or current concentration level. </li></ul><ul><li>PRINCIPLE FOUR: Perceptible Information The design communicates necessary information effectively to the user, regardless of ambient conditions or the user's sensory abilities. </li></ul><ul><li>PRINCIPLE FIVE: Tolerance for Error The design minimizes hazards and the adverse consequences of accidental or unintended actions. </li></ul><ul><li>PRINCIPLE SIX: Low Physical Effort The design can be used efficiently and comfortably and with a minimum of fatigue. PRINCIPLE SEVEN: Size and Space for Approach and Use Appropriate size and space is provided for approach, reach, manipulation, and use regardless of user's body size, posture, or mobility. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Day Three: Chapter 2 & 3 <ul><li>Chapter 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Selecting Technology for Classroom </li></ul><ul><li>Technology for School or school district </li></ul><ul><li>Technology for Individual students </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobility/Accessibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instructional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creative </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evaluating Education Software: 15 points to note </li></ul><ul><li>Web-based Learning environments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elements of Educational Websites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accessible Web-design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selecting Assistive and Adaptive Technologies </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Chapter 3: Technology for students with Learning Disabilities <ul><li>Working Definition of LD </li></ul><ul><li>Categories and Prevalence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Auditory Language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual Spatial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motor Related </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Academic Difficulty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Skills Disorders </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Instructional Techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remedial Approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Task Analysis through skill and drill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project Based Learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct Instruction </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Ch. 3 Contd… <ul><li>Advantages of Technology for LD Students </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computers generates individual attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer engage students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computers give students greater control of learning and encourage more risk taking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Talking books </li></ul><ul><li>Math Practice and Problem Solving </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative learning in inclusive setting </li></ul>
  8. 8. Ch. 3 Contd <ul><li>Technology in Content Area for students with Exceptionalities </li></ul><ul><li>Reading </li></ul><ul><li>Written Language </li></ul><ul><li>Keyboarding </li></ul><ul><li>Word Prediction, Voice Recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Text to Speech </li></ul><ul><li>Speech and Language skills </li></ul><ul><li>Mathematics </li></ul><ul><li>Study skills and Organization </li></ul><ul><li>Interdisciplinary Activities </li></ul>
  9. 9. Day 4: Current Laws and Legislations <ul><li>IDEA 1990, (PL 101-476),  </li></ul><ul><li>ADA PL(101-336), 1990--  </li></ul><ul><li>Reauthorization Act of IDEA of 1997 (Pl 105-17) </li></ul><ul><li>Specifically defined AT devices and services </li></ul><ul><li>Provisions for AT in four areas: public accommodations, public transportation, employment and telecommunications, extends 503, 504, and 508 to all citizens </li></ul><ul><li>AT needs must be considered during IEP and for student’s performance evaluation purpose </li></ul>
  10. 10. Legislations Contd….. <ul><li>AT Act , (PL 105-394) of 1998 and Tech Act of 1988 (PL 100-407)-----------------  </li></ul><ul><li>Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended in 1992 , 1986, and 1998 (PL 102-569 and PL 105-166)-------------------------  </li></ul><ul><li>Telecommunication Act of 1996 (PL 104-104)---------  </li></ul><ul><li>Extended funding of 1988 TECH Act to assist states in enhancing AT awareness, technical Assistance and interagency collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Section 508 ensures that electronic and information technology allows federal employees with disabilities to have access to use Information and data </li></ul><ul><li>All Telecommunication systems and services to be accessible to individual with disabilities and also to federal employees with disabilities </li></ul>
  11. 11. Legislation Contd… <ul><li>No child Left Behind 2001(PL 107-110) -----  </li></ul><ul><li>IDEIA 2004 (PL 108-446)-----------------------  </li></ul><ul><li>Revised the 1965 Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) providing incentives to use technology in the education of students and their teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasized the potential of AT to assist students with disabilities in accessing to general education curriculum </li></ul>
  12. 12. Day 4 Contd: Chapter 4 <ul><li>Technology for Students with Developmental Delays </li></ul>
  13. 13. Day 5: Technology for Written Language Development <ul><li>What is Written Language? </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Written language is a form of communication. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>The primary requirement for Written Language include (Kay, 2000): </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>An intact nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>An intact cognitive ability </li></ul><ul><li>Intact language skills (both receptive and expressive </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Skill development </li></ul><ul><li>Practice, and </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional ability </li></ul><ul><li>The Secondary Written Language requirements include (Kay, 2000): </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Concepts of organization and flow </li></ul><ul><li>Writing skills </li></ul><ul><li>Spelling skill </li></ul><ul><li>Syntax and grammar knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanics </li></ul><ul><li>Productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>Visual and spatial organization </li></ul><ul><li>Simultaneous processing </li></ul><ul><li>Revisualization </li></ul><ul><li>Automatization </li></ul>
  14. 14. Written Lang. Contd… <ul><li>Multiple Brain Mechanism and written language development </li></ul><ul><li>  Incorporate highly complex neuro-developmental process </li></ul><ul><li>Requires simultaneous and sequential integration of attention, multiple information sources, memory, motor skills, Language, and higher cognition </li></ul><ul><li>Gross and fine motor coordination, motor memory and ‘kinetic melody” (automatic rhythm in physical act of writing), require balancing, flexing, and contracting of muscle movement </li></ul><ul><li>Self- monitor writing input includes: </li></ul><ul><li>Visual, proprio-kinesthetic, automatic motor memory and revisualization feedback mechanism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual feedback mechanism include eye-hand coordination and visual fine motor integration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proprio-Kinesthetic feedback mechanisms include awareness of the movement and location of the fingers in space, internal monitoring of rhythm and rate, and pencil grip </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motor memory feedback mechanisms include motor plans or engrams, visual fine motor coordination to produce symbols, sequentialization, speed, and accuracy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revisualization feedback mechanisms include visual memory for symbols, whole word memory, visual attention to detail and spelling </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Written Lang. Contd <ul><li>Written Language Disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Dysgraphia: a term has customarily used to refer to a disorder of written language expression in childhood as opposed to disorder of written language acquired in adulthood. Written Language disorders have also been referred to as a “developmental output failures (Kay, 2000).” </li></ul><ul><li>Dysgraphia costs approximately $30 billion dollars to American industry and business </li></ul><ul><li>It is a graphomotor execution of sequential symbols to covey thoughts and information </li></ul><ul><li>Since writing represents the last and most complex skill to develop, it is the most vulnerable to insult, injury, and genetic influences </li></ul><ul><li>Intervention for Written Language Disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Intervention depends upon an accurate localization and assessment of students’ specific deficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Age or grade specific remediation of deficit skills is recommended </li></ul><ul><li>By-pass strategies recommended when specific deficiency are present </li></ul><ul><li>Elementary: writing readiness exercise, instruction and practice using appropriate pencil grip, formation of symbol skills, practice to increase fluency and direct instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Upper elementary: shortening assignments, increasing performance time, avoiding negative reinforcement, oral exams, content than quality, and untimed conditions </li></ul>
  16. 16. Software and AT for Written Language <ul><li>Software for written language: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Alpha Smart keyboard </li></ul><ul><li>Claris works is a great spell checker (Claris corporation) </li></ul><ul><li>Write out loud: The talking word processor </li></ul><ul><li>TypeIt4 Me (Don Johnston Incorporated) </li></ul><ul><li>Co:Writer is an intelligent word prediction program (Don Johnston Incorporated) </li></ul><ul><li>Inspiration, Speech Recognition (Dragon Systems, Inc.) </li></ul><ul><li>IBM ViaVoice </li></ul><ul><li>Sound Proof: Screen Reading </li></ul><ul><li>Storybook Weaver Deluxe: Multimedia </li></ul><ul><li>Kids Works Deluxe </li></ul><ul><li>Student Writing Center </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Assistive Technology: Any item, piece of equipment or product system, whether acquired commercially of the self, modified or customized, that is used to increase, maintain or improve functional capabilities of individual with disabilities. AT meet a wide range of needs, including:  </li></ul><ul><li>Augmentative Communication Device </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Aids </li></ul><ul><li>Vision Aids </li></ul>
  17. 17. Chapter 8