Joint techs keynote january


Published on

NREN strategies for Data-Intensive Science in a Carbon Constrained World

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Building a zero carbon ICT infrastructurePurchasing green power locally is expensive with significant transmission line lossesDemand for green power within cities expected to grow dramaticallyICT facilities DON’T NEED TO BE LOCATED IN CITIES-Cooling also a major problem in citiesBut most renewable energy sites are very remote and impractical to connect to electrical grid. Can be easily reached by an optical network Provide independence from electrical utility and high costs in wheeling power Savings in transmission line losses (up to 15%) alone, plus carbon offsets can pay for moving ICT facilities to renewable energy siteICT is only industry ideally suited to relocate to renewable energy sites Also ideal for business continuity in event of climate catastrophe
  • Joint techs keynote january

    1. 1. NREN strategies for Data-IntensiveScience in a Carbon Constrained World Bill St. Arnaud Unless otherwise noted all material in this slide deck may be reproduced, modified or distributed without prior permission of the author
    2. 2. Theme of this talk• We have already lost the battle to save the planet from extreme climate change. Rather than focusing on reducing energy consumption, (Mitigation) we now need to focus on surviving climate change (Adaptation)• Explosion of data and energy consumption by computers and networks is contributing to energy demand and CO2 emissions• But big data and science will be critical as move to focus on adapting to climate change• How can Internet and IT help us build NRENs and support science and education that can adapt to global warming?
    3. 3. Changing NREN networking environment• Global Virtual Research Communities• Increasing co-operation between public and private researchers• Rapidly changing users demands• Increasing potential of commercial ICT-service providers• Education: any time, any place, any device• Citizen Science and M2M communications and sensors• The disappearing campus IT & diminishing expertise in ICT centres of connected institutions
    4. 4. Although there is less news coverageglobal warming has not disappeared
    5. 5. Half of US experienced record droughts or deluges in 2011 2010 warmest year ever – we are only at the start of the curve of the hockey stick. The worst is yet to come
    6. 6. Blame it on Canada How warming in the Arctic affects weather in Louisiana• Warming Arctic slowing down jet stream• Basic Thermodynamics - polar temperatures drive the jet stream, – There’s been a 20 percent drop in the zonal wind speeds.• As get stream slows down, it leads to those bigger kinks in the jet stream. – That amplification is associated with persistent weather patterns that lead to “extremes” like drought, flooding and heat waves.• Those slow-moving, persistent waves of weather energy may have played a role in the big snows that hammered parts of the West last winter, as well as some of the extreme winter weather that hit South West US and Europe• global-warming-revenge-of-the-atmosphere/ 6
    7. 7. Climate Forecasts• MIT report predicts median temperature forecast of 5.2°C – 11°C increase in Northern Canada & Europe – hp?publication_id=990 MIT• Last Ice age average global temperature was 5-6°C cooler than today – Most of Canada & Europe was under 2-3 km ice• Nearly 90 per cent of new scientific findings reveal global climate disruption to be worse, and progressing more rapidly, than expected. • enburg_2010_ASC.pdf
    8. 8. Future Droughts• Palmer Drought Severity Index,or PDSI.• The most severe drought inrecent history, in the Sahel regionof western Africa in the 1970s, hada PDSI of -3 or -4.• By 2030 Western USA could see-4 to -6. Drought in Texas clearlycaused by global warming:• By 2100 some parts of the U.S.and Latin America could see -8 to -10 PDSI, while Mediterraneanareas could see drought in the -15 -20 range. s-environment/
    9. 9. Dramatic changes in precipitation • Every continent has suffered record rainfalls • Rains submerged one-fifth of Pakistan, a thousand-year deluge swamped Nashville and storms just north of Rio caused the deadliest landslides Brazil has ever seen. • Observed increase in precipitation in the last few decades has been due in large part to a disproportionate increase in heavy and extreme precipitation rates which are exceeding predictions made in models
    10. 10. New Challenge: Climate Adaptation• Obama’s National Science Advisor John Holdren “Mitigation alone won’t work, because the climate is already changing, we’re already experiencing impacts….A mitigation only strategy would be insanity,”• Equal emphasis given to adaptation – avoiding the unmanageable, and adaptation – managing the unavoidable.”• Obama’s Climate Adaptation Executive Order –
    11. 11. Climate Change Impact on Internet and NRENs• UK Government study Climate Change could ruin the Internet –• California aims to have 30% renewable power – Impact on reliability of power systems• Last year Nuclear power plants in France were forced to shut down because cooling water was too warm• Germany is committed to shutting down all of its nuclear plants• Droughts will restrict production of hydro-electric power• Energy shortages and disruptions are predicted to increase in the coming years
    12. 12. Impact on ICT sectorAccording to IEA ICT will represent 40% of all energy consumption by 2030 www.smart2020.orgICT represent 8% of global electricity consumptionFuture Broadband- Internet alone is expected to consume 5% of all electricity
    13. 13. R&E biggest consumer!!Per employee Per sectorAustralian Computer Society Study
    14. 14. The ICT energy consumption in higher- ed• Campus computing 20-40% electrical energy consumption on most campuses – Studies in UK and The Netherlands –• Closet clusters represent up to 15% of electrical consumption –• Campus data center alone represents 8-20% of electrical consumption –• IISD study demonstrated that moving Canadian research to cloud would pay for itself in energy savings and CO2 reduction –
    15. 15. The real cost of campus computing• Land - 2%• Core and shell costs – 9% Belady, C., “In the Data Center, Power and Cooling Costs More than IT Equipment it Supports”, Electronics Cooling• Architectural – 7% Magazine (February 2007)• Mechanical/Electrical – 82% – 16% increase/year since 2004 Source: Christian Belady
    16. 16. The Data Deluge 2004: 36 TB 2012: 2,300 TBGenomic sequencing output x2 every Climate9 month model intercomparison project (CMIP) of the IPCC MACHO et al.: 1 TB Palomar: 3 TB 2MASS: 10 TB GALEX: 30 TB Sloan: 40 TB Pan-STARRS: 40,000 TB 1330 molec. bio databases Nucleic Acids Research (96 in Jan 2001) Source: Ian Foster, UoChicago
    17. 17. Big science has achieved big successes OSG: 1.4M CPU-hours/day, >90 sites, >3000 users, >260 pubs in 2010LIGO: 1 PB data in last sciencerun, distributed worldwide Robust production solutions Substantial teams and expense Sustained, multi-year effort Application-specific solutions, built on common technologyESG: 1.2 PB climate datadelivered to 23,000 users; 600+ pubs Source: Ian Foster, UoChicago
    18. 18. But small science is strugglingMore data, more complex dataAd-hoc solutionsInadequate software, hardwareData plan mandates Source: Ian Foster, UoChicago
    19. 19. Growth in sensor networks and Citizen Science Glacier Tracking Real Time Health Monitoring Smart Trash 19
    20. 20. THE CHALLENGEWe need solutions to address climate change, data deluge,needs of scientists, global collaboration, the evolvingnetwork of any time, any place, any device and yet addressesthe challenge of disappearing IT on campus while stillproviding a leadership role in next generation Internet andbroadband, and find ways to pay for it all in an era of severefiscal constraint.
    21. 21. THE SOLUTION 1. Brokered Green Clouds and off site campus IT 2. Software Defined Networks (OpenFlow) 3. NREN national wireless network 4. Global Interconnected Dynamic Optical Networks 5. eScience Platforms with next gen IdM 6. Community anchor IXPs with CDN and M2M hosting 7. New billion dollar revolving green energy funds at many universities 21
    22. 22. 1. Brokered Green Clouds and offsite CAMPUS IT 22
    23. 23. Universities moving to eliminate IT departments• Already many primary functions of IT department are being outsourced to the cloud – E-mail, web, DNS, research computing, etc – University of Western Australia has outsourced virtually all campus servers to an external private cloud• Even routing, network and firewall functions being outsourced to NREN – AARnet, SUnet and other NRENs offering border gateway routing services with collapsed IP backbones – Software Defined Networks makes it easy to configure outsourced LAN – Network facilities can be located• Increasingly most traffic is in/out of campus, instead of within – Social networking, P2P, Clouds, Kuali, Blackboard – Future of Campus IT – high speed optical network connected to WiFi/5G hot spots with tablets – No servers, no LAN
    24. 24. MIT to build zero carbon data center in Holyoke MA• The data center will be managed and funded by the four main partners in the facility: the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cisco Systems, the University of Massachusetts and EMC.• It will be a high-performance computing environment that will help expand the research and development capabilities of the companies and schools in Holyoke – sco-emc-team-mit-launch-100m-green-data-center
    25. 25. NREN Brokered Cloud for IT departments and Researchers• Internet 2 Net + – Provisioning of multi vendor cloud services leveraging the Internet2 Network and InCommon Federated Authentication – Interoperable marketplace for services where individual institutions might procure services from a wide range of cloud services providers.• HEFCE and JISC to Deliver Cloud-Based Services for UK Research – Besides providing brokered cloud services they are also providing cloud “solutions” for IT departments and researchers – based_services_for_uk_research.html?utm_medium=twitter&utm_source=twitterfeed• SURFnet: Community Cloud Models and the Role of the R&E network as a broker for cloud services –
    26. 26. 2. Software Defined networks 26
    27. 27. GreenStar NetworkWorld’s First Zero Carbon Cloud/Internet
    28. 28. OpenFlow Follow the wind/Follow the sun Canadian GSN European GSN Domain Domain Export VM Notify EU Cloud Manager Cloud Manager Cloud Manager Internet Dynamically Configure IP Tunnel Host Network Host Resource Manager Resource • Shudown VM • Copy Image • Update VM Context Mantychore2 • Start VM Shared VM storage Shared storage VM Lightpath Optical switch Optical switchHost Cloud Proxy Cloud Proxy Host
    29. 29. OpenFlow-based cloud OpenFlow Network A OpenFlow Network B VM VM VM VM VM VM VM VM eth1 eth0 eth1 eth0 eth1 eth0 eth1eth0 Open Virtual Open Virtual Open Virtual Open Virtual Switch (OVS) Switch (OVS) Switch (OVS) Switch (OVS) Host Host Host Host OF Controller Ethernet Switch OpenFlow Control plane Internet OpenFlow Data plane OVS OVS eth0 eth1 eth0 eth1
    30. 30. Green Clouds International• GreenLight explores how researchers can take advantage of data centers linked by high-speed networking in an era of carbon-thrifty computing• Recent studies migrating virtual machines to green energy sites indicate that 100 Gb/s networks are far superior to 10 Gb/s to make this transparent.• SURFnet 7 lightpath connection to GreenQCloud in Iceland SURFconecxt control of lightpath to Future Global Network of Green Clouds GreenQCloud in Iceland interconnected by GLIF
    31. 31. Science Cloud Communication Services Network• Enterprise clouds use commodity internet; computational clouds for data-intensive science require dynamic cloud provisioning integrated with dynamic high performance.• TransCloud: example of dynamic networking & dynamic cloud provisioning Example of working in the TransCloud [1] Build trans-continental applications spanning clouds: • Distributed query application based on Hadoop/Pig • Store archived Network trace data using HDFS • Query data using Pig over Hadoop clusters [2] Perform distributed query on TransCloud, which currently spans the following sites: • HP OpenCirrus • Northwestern OpenCloud • UC San Diego • Kaiserslautern Source: Maxine Brown
    32. 32. 3.0 NREN National WirelessNetwork 32
    33. 33. Building a NREN wireless network• Vision: to allow students, researchers and employees to collaborate, research, learn anytime and anywhere they seem fit!• Also Internet of Things – Machine to Machine communications• Existing 3G and 4G networks cannot handle data load – Roaming gateways prevent global seamless access – Voice centric architectures• New mobile networks seamlessly integrate with WiFi on campus – New Wifi 2.0 standards 802.11u allow for data handoff from 3G networks – Eduroam can be the global authorization tool – OpenFlow can be used to architect integrated solutions from wireless node across optical network
    34. 34. Impact of NREN wireless networks• The phone is a also a sensor platform• Processing is done in real time in the cloud – Allowing processing that can’t be done on the device – Big data analysis• New campus or hot spot centric architectures integrating LTE and Wifi – See SURFnet pilot• WiFi nodes can be powered by renewable sources such as roof top solar panel over 400Hz power systems or ethernet power 34
    35. 35. The Regulatory Challenge• Today’s SIM-card locks user to the network• If NREN becomes a MVNO with own SIM-cards, users could roam seamlessly around the globe• Only public service providers have access to IMSI-numbers for SIM-cards• One option is to lobby regulators to give R&E networks access to IMSI-numbers
    36. 36. 4. Global Interconnected DynamicOptical Networks 36
    37. 37. GLIF 37
    38. 38. e-Research Scenario GOLE 38 Source: SURFnet
    39. 39. Importance of GOLEs• Increasingly more research and education is international collaboration – Cornell- Technion announcement – US overseas university campuses in UK and elsewhere – GOLES enable direct peering of regional networks or even institutions• Many researchers need access to commercial clouds and data specialists – AUP issues often prevent NRENs from directly connecting up these institutions – Genomics and bio-informatics processing and climate modeling• Many commercial research institutions need access to lightpaths – GOLES provide neutral access points for interconnect to AUP free lightpaths• Enables new services – Software Defined Network using Switched lambdas 39
    40. 40. 5. eScience Platforms with next genIdM 40
    41. 41. Towards “research IT as a service” Scientific data management as a service GO-Store GO-Collaborate GO-Galaxy GO-Transfer GO-Compute GO-Catalog GO-Team GO-User Source: Ian Foster, UoChicago 41
    42. 42. SaaS services in action: The XSEDE visionAcademic institution = Standard interface XUAS Globus Online: Hosted persistent services User Team Catalog Transfer Compute ... 2InCommon ... Open Commercial Data Science XSEDE service provider provider provider Grid 42
    43. 43. Virtual Organisations Collaboration Infrastructure Netherlands BioInformatics Centre (NBIC) (SURFconext) GuestsNBI N=6 N=10 N=30 C Attri N=20 Gro grou provisioni b. N=66 upAAI ps ng mgm … t Generic Broker Supporting Services Network Storage Compute Instrument • SURFfederatie Virt Broker Broker Broker Broker • SURFteamsual Comput Instrum • OpenSocialNetwork Storage e ent IdPServices Services Services Services Experiment Publisher Grid res. PubMed My Apps.NB Source: SURFnet
    44. 44. 6. eScience and Big Data for CitizenScience and Community 44
    45. 45. Extending science and education to the community• Community anchor Internet Exchange Points help clear the bottleneck of content peering – Co-hosting of CDN caching boxes – Managed by NREN – Examples include KAREN (New Zealand), BCnet and UNINETT (Norway)• Minimize tromboning of R&E traffic to homes and schools• Can support extension of Eduroam to community WiFi spots and/or community last mile networks• Allows for M2M traffic and anywhere, anytime traffic to propagate through the community Community IXP managed by NREN 45
    46. 46. 7. How to pay for it all 46
    47. 47. $1 billion funding program• Green revolving funds are either part of a university endowment program or publicly traded entities. –• They make investments in energy efficiency and GHG reduction initiatives. Payback typically 32%• ICT can represent up to 40% of the electrical energy consumption at university and growing• The obvious low hanging fruit is to move, as much as possible the closet clusters and campus data center facilities to commercial clouds. Next is network infrastructure such as routing and servers• Other obvious money saving practices are to power laptop and cell phone charging stations with roof top solar panels or micro windmills, deploy solar/wind powered WiFi nodes, and use on the move electric charging for campus utility vehicles, etc• Campus IT folk and NRENs need to educate managers of such funds the IT and networking can play a much more significant role in reducing energy consumption and GHG emissions 47 then traditional facilities based solutions
    48. 48. Cyber-infrastructure in a Carbon Constrained World
    49. 49. Let’s Keep The Conversation Going E-mail list BlogspotBill St. Arnaud Twitter