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comparative study

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  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Convergence, 1952 Jackson Pollock Oil on Canvas 393.7 x 237.5 cm Jackson Pollock (January 28, 1912 - August 11, 1956) was an influential American painter, who was a major figure in the abstract expressionist movement. His style of painting influenced artists, such as Robert Rauschenberg. Pollock was most well-known for his style and technique of painting, which is called “drip painting”. In this comparative study, I will be comparing three different artworks from three different artists, Jackson Pollock, Robert Rauschenberg and Romare Bearden. Though the works created by all three artists are very different, they do fit well together to a large extent. One of the most important techniques that all three artists use is layering. Pollock is well known for his dripping technique, where paint is the main ‘character’ that is being layered on top of each other. Rauschenberg, similarly, utilizes materials of all categories, and layers them on top of each other. For example, layering paper/magazine paper. Although Bearden’s work is less abstract than Pollock’s or Rauschenberg’s, the technique of using found abstract materials and layering them to create less abstract products. The three artists’ inter-relationships are not only found in terms of their use of techniques, but also found in the materials they embrace using. Pollock utilizes house paint, rather than regular paint and would use any applicators he finds around him to create his paintings. Rauschenberg and Bearden, similarly, would embrace all materials around them, and materials found on streets, to create their artworks. Pollock, Jackson. Convergence. 1952. Oil on canvas. Albright-Knox Art Gallery. New York, The United States of America.
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION Estate, 1963 Oil and silkscreen ink on Canvas Robert Rauschenberg 243.2 x 177.2 cm Robert Rauschenberg (October 22, 1925 - May 12, 2008) was a American painter, sculptor and graphic artist. Rauschenberg was well known for his works during the Pop Art movement. “Combines”, which is his work from the 1950s, was very well known for his technique, where he utilizes non-traditional materials and objects to create his artworks. Due to Rauschenberg rejection towards abstract expressionism, he found new ways of creating artworks in many different forms. Ritual Bayou Series, 1971 Mixed Media, Photolithographic collage on Wood Panel Romare Bearden 41.9 x 54 cm Romare Bearden (September 2, 1911 - March 12, 1988) was not only an American artist, but was also a writer. In most of his artworks, he depicted the lives of people from the African-American society. Most of his artworks focuses on reflecting the society in which he lives in. His artworks show a significant shift from oil paint to photomontages and collages. Rauschenberg, Robert. Estate. 1963. Oil and silkscreen ink on canvas. Philadelphia Museum of Art, The United States of America. Bearden, Romare. Ritual Bayou Series. 1971. Mixed Media, Photolithographic collage on Wool Panel. Arizona State University Art Museum, The United States of America.
  4. 4. CONVERGENCE - JACKSON POLLOCK TECHNIQUES AND MATERIALS skills/techniques media/materials method/processes Pollock, Jackson. Convergence. 1952. Oil on canvas. Albright-Knox Art Gallery. New York, The United States of America. Materials: Pollock enjoys using synthetic resin-based paints, called Alkyd Enamels, to ‘drip paint’ his artworks. The synthetic resin-based paints are different than ordinary paint, in which artists use to create paintings; these paints are household paints. Pollock describes his use of these household paint to be “a natural growth out of a need” (Boddy-Evans, 2015). Techniques: Pollock’s techniques are very unique compared to European artists from 16th century. Pollock uses disposed or hardened brushes, sticks, knives and basting syringes as the “paint brush” for his artworks. Pollock states that by using these unconventional applicators, it stops the paint from absorbing the pigments of the paint, which maximizes not only the amount of paint “dripped” onto the canvas, but also the opacity of the colors (Jackson Pollock and Art History, 2015). “Drip painting” is one of the earliest technique of action painting. Action painting was commonly used during the surrealism movement, where artists’ emotions and feelings were expressed directly through their artworks. Through the use of the drip painting technique, Pollock was able to create the abstract means of art (Pennington, 2015). Drip painting is a technique that involves the movement of the artists’ entire body, the movement of the body creates the “drip and splash” effect on the canvas. This technique allows artists to create the abstract, “free-style” and expressive state of art. Pollock once stated that “when I am in my painting, I’m not aware of what I’m doing. It is only after a sort of ‘get acquainted’ period that I see what I have been about. I have no fear of making changes, destroying the image because the painting has a life of its own. I try to let it come through” (Karmel, 1999). Another interesting aspect of Pollock’s work is that he never works on easels. He lays the canvas on the floor or against a wall, which gives him more space to move around while he creates his works (Jackson Pollock and His Paintings, 2015).
  5. 5. ESTATE - ROBERT RAUSCHENBERG TECHNIQUES AND MATERIALS skills/techniques media/materials method/processes Rauschenberg’s search for an unique technique was inspired by not only his enthusiasm for pop culture but also his rejection towards abstract expressionism. His unique technique consists of covering the entire canvas with house paint and ‘junk’ from the streets of New York and other random objects he finds around his working area. After this, Rauschenberg would run larger mechanical objects, such as cars, over the canvas, creating unique textures and lines that cannot be created otherwise. The combination of using different objects and methods of creating ‘drawings’ was known as a series of work called “Combines”. Rauschenberg once said that he “wanted something other than what I could make myself and I wanted to use the surprise and the collectiveness and the generosity of finding surprises. And if it wasn’t a surprise at first, by the time I got through with it, it was. So the object itself was changed by its context and therefore, it became a new thing” (Brooks, 2014). Rauschenberg’s “Combines” series was a breakthrough in the art world because he showed that sculptures and art can be broken down individually and become merged and portrayed into one single piece of artwork. Charlene (1954) and Collection (1954) are pieces of works that led to Rauschenberg’s new technique. These artworks included a combination of real life objects and collage. Rauschenberg, Robert. Estate. 1963. Oil and silkscreen ink on canvas. Philadelphia Museum of Art, The United States of America.
  6. 6. skills/techniques media/materials method/processes Bearden started off as an abstract painter in the 1950s and early 1960s. As his art skills and ideas developed, he later began to experiment with photomontage and collage. This development allowed Bearden to become the iconic figure as a leading contemporary artist. The differences between Bearden and Rauschenberg’s work is most evidently in the ideas they convey, the materials they utilize and the form of their words. Bearden uses magazines and collages them to portray the mundane lives of African-Americans (DeLue, 2012). Unlike Rauschenberg who combines real-life 3D materials with the 2D canvas, Bearden’s method of photomontage and collage creates a Bearden’s work are highly 2-dimensional visual environment. Bearden’s technique was largely influenced by his cultural background; he adopted his technique from the patchworks that was done by Native American slaves. Similar to Rauschenberg, Bearden would use materials he find around him to create his collages (DeLue, 2012). The Dove (1964) was one of him most famous works he has created in the 60s. This artwork was a very basic collage piece. However, in this piece Bearden further extended his method of collage and began to use gouache and pencil. The Dove depicted the noisy and buzzing streets of New York. This piece clearly depicts the urban life in New York. Almost all works by Bearden consists of structured geometric shapes. By doing so, Bearden is able to create a ‘messy’ but clean work. He once said that, “I first put down several rectangles of color some of which… are in the same ratio as…the rectangle that I’m working on. Then I paste a photograph, say, anything just to get me started, maybe a head, at certain, a few, places in the canvas… I try to move up and across the canvas, always moving up and across. If I tear anything, I tear it up and across. What I am trying to do then is establish a vertical and horizontal control of the canvas. I don’t like to get into too many slanting movements” (DeLue, 2012). Many artists have reasons in making art in certain methods; Bearden certainly has his reasons. Bearden once stated that the reason that he enjoys collage as his technique is because he felt that the art did not fully portray and give value to the African American society. By making collages, Bearden said, “I was able to combine abstract art with real images so that people of different cultures could grasp the subject matter of the African American culture: the people” (DeLue, 2012). RITUAL BAYOU SERIES - ROMARE BEARDEN TECHNIQUES AND MATERIALS The Dove, 1964 Romare Bearden Collage and Gouache and Pencil on cardboard 34 x 47.6 cm Bearden, Romare. Ritual Bayou Series. 1971. Mixed Media, Photolithographic collage on Wool Panel. Arizona State University Art Museum, The United States of America. Bearden, Romare. Dove. 1964. Collage and Gouache and Pencil on cardboard. The Museum of Modern Art. New York, The United States of America.
  7. 7. CONVERGENCE - JACKSON POLLOCK ANALYSIS OF THE FORM space movement balance line color emphasis 2Dqualities texture shape size The use of colors and the use of space creates a sense of balance for the entire artwork. The amount of color has been used in equal amounts in the left side, top and bottom of the canvas. This balance also creates a sense of harmony between the different colors used and the amount of 'splattered' paint on the canvas. Because Pollock utilizes oil paint to splatter all the paint on the canvas, the texture of this artwork is rough and layered. By creating these textures, it creates dimensions for the artwork, making it more three-dimensional compared to an artwork that is just flat. The use of different applicators leaves the canvas with lines, circles and swirls of paint in the artwork. Due to the drip painting technique, the artwork does not have clear distinct points of emphasis. The nature of the technique also creates no specific shape or relation to the size of the canvas. The use of armorphic/organic shape in this artwork creates the movement that the audience feel. Each of the shapes created in the artwork is unique, like it is showing the different emotional stages of Pollock when he was creating this piece. The size and scale of this piece is relatively big. Because of its size, it gives the audience a stronger and more emotional impact to the artwork, creating greater attachments between the artwork and the audience. In this painting, there is a mixture between dark colors and bright colors, creating contrast. The use of red represents Pollock's rebellious nature and personality. The painting was created during the Cold War, where people in the society was depressed and suppressed. Thus, the use of bright colors shows Pollock's rejection against the government and the society. By using abstract shapes and lines, Pollock was able to evoke emotions and attack the eye. The combination of thick and thin lines are very interesting in this piece of painting. It is the contrast between the thickness of the lines that makes this entire piece a abstract and expressionism painting. It expresses the idea that no ones’ emotions area always in parallel state. The abstract lines also give the artwork more textures. Due to the nature of Pollock's technique, the lines and the textures made by 'dripping' the paint onto the canvas creates a sense of movement. The movements creates intensity for the artwork, giving a more powerful meaning to the audiences. The entire artwork does not contain any negative spaces. The splatter of paint, the swirls and the lines are being 'splashed' on to every single corner of the canvas, balancing the amount of colors and lines. Because the positive spaces are all being filled up with the same technique and material, Pollocks creates a sense of unity for the artwork. Pollock, Jackson. Convergence. 1952. Oil on canvas. Albright-Knox Art Gallery. New York, The United States of America.
  8. 8. ESTATE - ROBERT RAUSCHENBERG ANALYSIS OF THE FORM The overall usage of colors are very warm toned. The colors are not as bright, yet they are very opaque. By using these colors, it allows the audience to become more engaged. The use of red in the center of the artwork punches the audience, conveying a sense of intense emotions. The colors are also very interesting because there are not colors straight from the jars. In the white, we can identify hues of orange and red, and in the red, we can see hints of orange and maybe black. The colors are delicate, yet being expressed in a free way. color The way that Rauschenberg has connected the images together has created a sense of unity. The images are connected by paint, and the paint is being presented in a naturally fading manner. The use of color also connects the individual parts of the images together, making the entire piece of artwork seem interrelated. All objects are in dark tones and the hues are red/orange. unity/variety This entire artwork is amorphically shaped. There are no outlines and boundaries in this artwork. Everything is very organic and freehanded. This type of shape allows Rauschenberg to bring out the emotional state of this artwork, creating a very intense and overwhelming motion for the audiences to react on. shape This artwork has a selection of textures, and these textures are all elicited through the technique that Rauschenberg has utilized. There are rough and smooth brush strokes left on the artwork, there are textures created through the crumbling of paper etc... These textures not only creates a sense of depth for the entire artwork, but it makes the artwork much more interesting. The contrasting textures brings the artwork to a new level. texture As for space, the author does not expose many negative spaces in this piece of artwork. The majority of space has been covered with objects or painting. The effective use of positive space has allowed the audience to become more engaged with what is happening in the artwork. Audiences may even become overwhelmed because of this. By filling in the entire space, I feel like there is a story to be told, and the story is filled with many emotions. space Rauschenberg, Robert. Estate. 1963. Oil and silkscreen ink on canvas. Philadelphia Museum of Art, The United States of America.
  9. 9. RITUAL BAYOU SERIES - ROMARE BEARDEN ANALYSIS OF THE FORM The lines of this artwork is very clean and definite. Unlike Rauschenberg's artworks, where many blending are being done, Bearden does not blend any of the objects together. Bearden creates a very clean artwork, where he simply layers objects together to create a sense of unity of one specific object. These clean lines shows a clear depiction of the story that Bearden wants to convey to the audiences. line In most, or even all, of Bearden's artwork, the tone of color is bright and the colors are often opaque. Thus, a clear contrast between different colors are made. By doing so, Bearden shows a more 'cartoonistic' look of all his artworks. This makes sense because most of the artworks' theme is to convey the life story of the black American society. The balance in terms of the use of colors creates a sense of harmony for the entire piece. Bearden utilizes a selection of warm toned colors, which are interrelated to create this sense of harmony. The background, being a light color, contrasting with the darker colors in the foreground shows an effective composition and balance. Because there is an even distribution of positive and negative spaces, the entire artwork gives the audience the sense that it is more balanced and harmonized. None of the colors overwhelm or contradicts each other, and the use of dark and light toned colors is also equally distributed. Movements can also be clearly identified in this piece of artwork. The women on the far left seems like is walking towards or raising her hands trying to throw something away, and the women in the front seems like doing some kind of chores. Even the clothes being places behind the women has some sort of liveliness to them. The sense of movement in the artwork makes the entire piece 'alive', which allows the audience to become more engaged. movement balance harmony color All objects/elements placed in this piece is amophically shaped; it has no definite shape to them. These clear cut amorphic shapes makes up the 'story' of the artwork, making the artwork much more interesting. The fact that Bearden puts the same elements in different shapes (the clothes at the bottom of the work) is even more interesting because each element has its own characteristics. It creates a more diverse composition of the piece. Bearden uses a balanced amount of negative and positive spaces. This allows the entire artwork to look clearer and more defined, in the sense that it has a focus on the positive spaces. This again, emphasizes on the 'story' that Bearden wants to convey to the audience. Unlike Rauschenberg's artwork, where it is more abstract, Bearden's artwork is more direct. The tone of the colors are interrelated, and the objects placed in the artwork are similar to each other. Thus, it creates a sense of unity, rather than diversity, in the artwork. Everything in the artwork interacts with each other. The overall texture of this piece of artwork is very smooth and flat. And this is due to the nature of the material being used, which are magazine papers. However, the individual elements itself, made by different patterned magazine paper, has a diversity of textures. For example, the pants that the women on the left is wearing, it has a crumbled texture to it. By doing so, Bearden establishes a richer and deeper artwork that is more interesting. texture shape unity/variety space Bearden, Romare. Ritual Bayou Series. 1971. Mixed Media, Photolithographic collage on Wool Panel. Arizona State University Art Museum, The United States of America.
  10. 10. COMPARISONS OF THE FORM All three artists to expresses their themes, to some extent, in different forms. Texture: The texture of the artworks created by the three artists’ are quite diverse. In Rauschenberg’s Estate, Rauschenberg uses a selection of textures; the contrast between the textures creates unique details for the artwork, making the artwork unique and interesting for the audience. For example, Rauschenberg paints really thick brushstrokes next to the printed images he put onto his canvas. The images itself has many textures to them as well, though they are flat on the canvas. Those textures on the images contrasting with the texture of the image itself creates some more contrast in terms of its textures. However, if we look at Bearden’s Ritual Bayou Series, we can see that the entire artwork lacks textures compared with either Rauschenberg and Pollock’s style of art, even though they use similar techniques. The entire artwork gives the audience a sense of ‘smoothness’, yet giving the audience the feel of dimensions. (Usually the textures will give the artwork either 2D or 3D effects). The texture created in Bearden’s work is most probably due to the nature of the material he used. The use of magazine paper is more likely to create the sense of ‘flatness’ and ‘smoothness’ for the artwork. But if we look at each individual elements of the artwork, there are textures in them. For example, the texture of clothes. The texture of Pollock’s artwork is very different than Bearden and Rauschenberg’s artworks, and this is due to the nature of their difference in techniques. Bearden utilizes a more traditional technique, as explained before, and Pollock and Rauschenberg utilizes a more modern technique, creating artworks that are considered more abstract. The texture of Bearden’s collage is more embedded in the image that he uses, however, in Pollock and Rauschenberg’s artwork, the texture is more explicit or more 3D. Emphasis: As we can see, in Pollock and Rauschenberg’s artwork, there is not emphasis. The artwork as a whole creates a powerful image for the audiences to see. However, if we look at Bearden’s artworks, we see that there are certain aspects of the artwork that is more prominent than others. For example, in his Ritual Bayou Series, the emphasis is placed on small details of the collage, for example, the different textured clothes; it is the actual details of the artwork that creates a clear emphasis for the artwork. Size: Because Bearden’s works are shown in a neater manner, it allows the audience to think that there is an interesting story behind the artwork. Because Rauschenberg tends to use materials of bigger sizes, such as trashes found on streets, or would use the wheel of a car to go through the canvas, the relative size of his artworks are bigger than Bearden’s. Bearden’s artwork are more neat and delicate, in terms of its composition and techniques, therefore, the artwork is to a large extent, smaller. The large scale of Rauschenberg and Pollock’s artwork allows the audience to think of a freer and expressing emotional state. Color: If we look at the colors used by the three artists, we see can see that to some extent, these artists uses colors of similar tones. In Bearden’s artwork, we see that colors are used in a more opaque and concentrated manner, the colors are bright, concentrated, clean and definitive. But when we look at Rauschenberg’s artwork, the color tone shifts from being bright and clean to something darker and more sophisticated. The blending of colors between photographs creates a sense of unity for the entire piece. The inclusion of some bright colors creates dimensions for the artwork, making it more interesting. The colors used in Pollock’s work to some extent seems like it is in between Bearden and Rauschenberg. The ‘undertone’ of the artwork is in a darker toned color, and it is this base that creates contrast with the brighter colors ‘dripped’ on the canvas later.
  11. 11. RAUSCHENBERG, POLLOCK AND BEARDEN FUNCTION AND PURPOSE Abstract expressionism was a movement in the United States that was very popular in New York after World War II. During this time, most artists used abstraction in art to convey their strong emotional state of expressive contents that they otherwise cannot express. This movement allowed artists to shift from traditional European painting techniques to more modern, free-handed and expressive art, drawing a clear distinction between European arts and American arts. Jackson Pollock, being one of the most well known figure during this movement, created artworks that was purely abstract, purely intuitional, purely based on his emotional state of mind. Creating these abstract works allowed Pollock to escape from politics, and focus purely on his state of mind. Like Clement Greenberg’s proposed idea, that a painting should be about “space and color and above all, about painting itself ” (Brooks, 2014). Robert Rauschenberg, who refused the abstract expressionism movement, became the bridge between the postmodernism, social realism and abstract expressionism; in other words, he built a bridge between Jackson Pollock’s 100% abstract artwork and Bearden’s highly personal collages. Rauschenberg once said, “I think a painting is more like the real world if it’s made out of the real world” (Robert Rauschenberg, 2014). Bed, created in 1955 was one of the pieces where Rauschenberg used objects from the real world to make a ‘real world’. Bearden on the other hand, focuses on the unity and cooperation of the people from the African-American society; his artworks focused more towards the cultural aspect of life; the subject matter of his works would always be to convey the mundane life of the African American societies in places that created memories for Bearden (DeLue, 2012). All in all, these three artists can be put into a spectrum, where at either ends of the spectrum are Pollock and Bearden. Rauschenberg is the linkage between these two artists; he was the transition between social realism and abstract expressionism, who was able to abstractly portrayed a social context using materials from the real world. Bed, 1955 Oil and pencil on pillow, quilt and sheet on wood support Robert Rauschenberg 191.1 x 80 x 20.3 cm The Prevalence of Ritual, 1964 Romare Bearden Collotype on Paper n.a Autumn Rhythm (Number 30), 1950 Jackson Pollock Enamel on canvas 266.7 x 525.8 cm Rauschenberg, Robert. Bed. 1955. Oil and pencil on pillow, quilt and sheet on wood support. The Museum of Modern Art. New York, The United States of America. Rauschenberg, Robert. Autumn Rhythm (Number 30). 1950. Enamel on canvas. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, The United States of America. Bearden, Romare. The Prevalence of Ritual. 1964. Collotype on Paper. The Museum of Modern Art. New York, The United States of America.
  12. 12. POLLOCK, RAUSCHENBERG AND BEARDEN CULTURAL SIGNIFICANCE Since the early-mid 1960s, Bearden began to create art in the form of collages and photomontages. During this time period, many governmental reformation and significant historical events occurred, thus, most of Bearden’s artwork reflected the societal state of the social environment that he was living in. One example is shown through one of his most famous pieces, Prevalence of Ritual. In this series of work, Bearden explored the life of southern African Americans. By creating different collages, Bearden was able to show his rejection for the Harmon Foundation, which is an arts organization based in New York, who criticized African Americans for lacking in culture and art and emphasizes that the African American society should begin to “reproduce their culture and art” (DeLue, 2012). Pollock's style of painting is an important and innovative development in the history of arts, his works especially, brought toward abstract expressionism. Abstract expressionism, also known as the post-world war movement, was an art movement developed in the 1940s in the United States. Artworks created since 1940 in the United States largely expressed emotions through subconscious creations; artworks were largely abstract and intuitional. Jackson Pollock was one of the leading figures during the abstract expressionism movement (Pennington, 2015). This artwork was created in the United States. At the time when Pollock created most of his action paintings, the US was very conscious about the threat of Communism and the cold war with Russia. Convergence was one of the few paintings that was able to convey free speech, freedom and liberation. Pollock himself stated "It seems to me that the modern painter cannot express his age, the airplane, the atom bomb, the radio, in the old forms of the Renaissance or any other past culture. Each age finds its own technique” (Jackson Pollock, 2010). What lead Rauschenberg in creating artworks with materials outside of traditional artist materials was his rejection towards abstract expressionism. Rauschenberg effectively built a bridge between abstract expressionism and the pop art movement; he was one of the most important figure in art history that brought back a more representational form of art in the United States (Robert Rauschenberg, 2006). Rauschenberg’s rejection towards abstract expressionism directed him to explore different mediums of materials, he wanted to explore the combination and relationships between sculptures and paintings, which the Europeans did not do, portraying the concept that they can be be combined. In comparison, all three artists developed their artworks depending on the different context they were in. Pollock, being one of the most important leading figure of the abstract expressionism movement, portrayed his expressions and emotions through his subconscious creations; it lead the arts he created to be purely abstract. On the other hand, Rauschenberg’s rejection towards abstract expressionism allowed him to create arts in combinations with abstract and materialistic/realism; he was the bridge between Pollock and Bearden. On the complete opposite spectrum of Pollock, Bearden on the other hand, purely focused on the portrayal of social messages, especially on the African American Society in the United States; and this theme was large influenced by the governmental reformation during the early 1960s.
  13. 13. CONNECTIONS The works that I’ve created are related to Rauschenberg, Pollock and Bearden in many ways, for example, techniques, materials or concepts. In terms of techniques, like Rauschenberg and Bearden, I have found myself fond of layering paint on top of paint, ‘junks’ on top of ‘junks’, creating a multidimensional, sophisticated but a simple piece of artwork. Rauschenberg’s style and technique has deeply influenced my collection of artworks, where I chose to use a combination of real life materials, such as flower peddles, leaves, newspaper and sand to create my artworks; because I believe art can only be made when the it is interrelated with the real world, in other words, the world makes art; Jackson Pollock once said, “I don’t paint nature. I am nature” (Jackson Pollock and His Paintings, 2015). In a sense, my paintings are nature, they depict the reality in the purest, simplest but sophisticated way. Pedals, 2015 Acrylic, newspaper, matt medium and pedals on canvas Kyoka Matsuoka [size] Wonderland, 2015 Acrylic, newspaper, matt medium, pedals and leaves on canvas Kyoka Matsuoka [size] Greener, 2015 Acrylic, newspaper and leaves on canvas Kyoka Matsuoka [size]
  14. 14. CONNECTIONS Pollock was best known for his “action painting” and the technique called “drip painting”. My style of art formulated by experimenting with both of his style of art. In my art studio, I would begin to move around, finding all sorts of objects to apply my paint by using the ‘drip painting’ technique, for example, a knife, a spatula or simply my just splashing paint from the pot. Later, I noticed that my replication of Pollock’s style was not successful, I failed at expressing those intangible abstract emotions and thoughts; which resulted my works lacking in movement and engagement with the audience. And because of this, I covered that piece with lighter colored paint, allowing lines from the base to peak through and then layering more colors on top of the other; which created my multi-dimensional and abstract style of art. To further utilize the ‘drip painting’ technique, I began to pour paint from the top of my canvases and let gravity pull the paint down in all directions. By doing so, I was able to create the contrast between soft blended colors and the harsh lines. Like Bearden, I enjoy exploring the different effects laying 2-dimensional materials, like newspapers, give to my artworks. Moreover, I enjoy discovering the relationships between collage and painting, these two techniques collaborated creates the simple but sophisticated effect I am pursuing in art; just like reality. We are simple human beings that are sophisticated and delicate in the inside; the world is just a simple looking globe, but functions with several complex systems and functions only when these complex systems are at balance. Rushticness, 2015 Acrylic, newspaper, matt medium, gel texture and pedals on canvas Kyoka Matsuoka [size] Nature or Silver?, 2015 Acrylic, newspaper, matt medium, leaves and foil paper on canvas Kyoka Matsuoka [size]
  15. 15. CONNECTIONS As I created more and more artworks in this style, I found myself moving away from using natural components, rather, I see my works moving from nature to abstraction. For example, in my Modern or “Modern” piece, I stopped using leaves or pedals, but I began to experiment with using paint in its most versatile and interesting way; I started to add texture gel, a gel that contains sand, into acrylic paint. By doing so, it allowed me to create a grainy texture to my works, giving my painting the “simple but sophisticated” theme I am looking for. The contrast between the smooth, rough and grainy textures in this piece allowed me to explore the diversity of textures I am able to create in one piece, allowing me to gain insight in the depth and dimensions it can create for paintings. Modern or “Modern”?, 2015 Acrylic, newspaper and texture gel on canvas Kyoka Matsuoka [size] During Holiday, 2015 Acrylic, newspaper, texture gel, flower pedals and leaves on canvas Kyoka Matsuoka [size] Silver Weapon, 2015 Acrylic, newspaper, texture gel and foil paper on canvas Kyoka Matsuoka [size]