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Dan Glover Indirect theories of copyright liability

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Here is a copy of the presentation I gave at Osgoode's inaugural IP Intensive Program. The slides deal with theories of indirect infringement in Canada, the United States and the United Kingdom, and with the safe harbours that also govern the behaviour of Internet intermediaries.

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Osgoode IP Intensive Program - Indirect Infringement and the Internet              1




McCarthy Tétrault Advance™
Building Capabilities for Growth




Osgoode IP Intensive Program –
Indirect Infringement and the Internet
Daniel G.C. Glover, McCarthy Tétrault LLP
 McCarthy Tétrault LLP / mccarthy.ca / September 2011                    10692141
Osgoode IP Intensive Program - Indirect Infringement and the Internet            2


      What Is Indirect Infringement?
“The Copyright Act does not expressly render anyone liable for infringement
committed by another. … The absence of such express language in the copyright
statute does not preclude the imposition of liability for copyright infringements on
certain parties who have not themselves engaged in the infringing activity. For
vicarious liability is imposed in virtually all areas of the law, and the concept
of contributory infringement is merely a species of the broader problem of
identifying the circumstances in which it is just to hold one individual
accountable for the actions of another.”
  Sony Corp. v. Universal City Studios, Inc., 464 U.S. 417 at 434-35 (1984)

 Indirect infringement may occur when a third party
facilitates an infringement, but does not directly carry it out.
   BitTorrent Tracker = Air Traffic Controller for online
  infringement, but it doesn’t fly or land the plane
 What level or kind of participation is enough?


      McCarthy Tétrault LLP / mccarthy.ca
Osgoode IP Intensive Program - Indirect Infringement and the Internet                      3


Between Scylla and Charybdis
Public                                                                  Public interest
interest in                                                             in the
obtaining a                                                             encouragement
                                                                        & dissemination
just reward
                                                                        of works of the
for the                                                                 arts & intellect
creator
                                                                        Théberge, 2002




     The Legislator’s Three Goals: 1) Encourage the good
     actors; 2) Capture the bad actors (even in disguise); 3)
     Make the ones in between just a little bit nervous
McCarthy Tétrault LLP / mccarthy.ca
Osgoode IP Intensive Program - Indirect Infringement and the Internet            4

      The Restricted Acts
3. (1) … “copyright” … means the sole right to produce or reproduce the work or any
substantial part thereof in any material form whatever, to perform the work or any
substantial part thereof in public or, if the work is unpublished, to publish the work or
any substantial part thereof, and includes the sole right
           (a) to produce, reproduce, perform or publish any translation of the work,
           (b) … to convert [a dramatic work] into a novel or other non-dramatic work,
           (c) … to convert [a non-dramatic work] into a dramatic work, by way of
performance in public or otherwise,
           (d) … to make any sound recording, cinematograph film or other contrivance
by means of which [a] work may be mechanically reproduced or performed,
           (e) … to reproduce, adapt and publicly present [a] work as a
cinematographic work,
           (f) … to communicate [a] work to the public by telecommunication,
           (g) to present at a public exhibition… an artistic work …,
           (h) … to rent out [a] computer program, and
           (i) … to rent out a sound recording …,
and to authorize any such acts.
27. (1) It is an infringement of copyright for any person to do, without the consent of
the owner of the copyright, anything that by this Act only the owner of the copyright
has the right to do.
       McCarthy Tétrault LLP / mccarthy.ca
Osgoode IP Intensive Program - Indirect Infringement and the Internet   5


   What Does Authorization Mean?
“‘Authorize’ means to ‘sanction, approve and countenance’…
Countenance in the context of authorizing copyright infringement
must be understood in its strongest dictionary meaning, namely,
‘[g]ive approval to; sanction, permit; favour, encourage’…
Authorization is a question of fact that depends on the
circumstances of each particular case and can be inferred from
acts that are less than direct and positive, including a sufficient
degree of indifference... However, a person does not authorize
infringement by authorizing the mere use of equipment that
could be used to infringe copyright. Courts should presume
that a person who authorizes an activity does so only so far as it
is in accordance with the law.”
     • CCH Canadian Ltd. v. Law Society of Upper Canada,
       [2004] 1 S.C.R. 339 at para. 38

   McCarthy Tétrault LLP / mccarthy.ca
Osgoode IP Intensive Program - Indirect Infringement and the Internet   6

    The Commonwealth Track Record
 Vigneux (PC, 1945): Defendant hires out a record player to a
  restaurant and supplies it with records via weekly rental  Not liable
 Muzak (SCC, 1953): Defendant lets broadcasting system and
  supplies electric compositions to be played  Not liable
 Ames (Eng. Ch, 1981): Defendant shop provides record library
  service and sells blank tapes  Not liable
 Amstrad (HL, 1988): Defendant manufactures, advertises and sells
  audio systems that record at high speed from prerecorded cassettes
  on to blank tapes  Not liable
    Lead speech of Lord Templeman: “From the point of view of
      society the present position is lamentable. Millions of breaches of
      the law must be committed by home copiers every year… A law
      which is treated with such contempt should be amended or
      repealed.”
 Sirius (FCA 2010): Defendant supplies satellite radio receivers that
  automatically copy radio programs unless subscriber turns off default
  setting  Liable because of automatic copying feature

    McCarthy Tétrault LLP / mccarthy.ca
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Dan Glover Indirect theories of copyright liability

  • 1. Osgoode IP Intensive Program - Indirect Infringement and the Internet 1 McCarthy Tétrault Advance™ Building Capabilities for Growth Osgoode IP Intensive Program – Indirect Infringement and the Internet Daniel G.C. Glover, McCarthy Tétrault LLP McCarthy Tétrault LLP / mccarthy.ca / September 2011 10692141
  • 2. Osgoode IP Intensive Program - Indirect Infringement and the Internet 2 What Is Indirect Infringement? “The Copyright Act does not expressly render anyone liable for infringement committed by another. … The absence of such express language in the copyright statute does not preclude the imposition of liability for copyright infringements on certain parties who have not themselves engaged in the infringing activity. For vicarious liability is imposed in virtually all areas of the law, and the concept of contributory infringement is merely a species of the broader problem of identifying the circumstances in which it is just to hold one individual accountable for the actions of another.” Sony Corp. v. Universal City Studios, Inc., 464 U.S. 417 at 434-35 (1984)  Indirect infringement may occur when a third party facilitates an infringement, but does not directly carry it out.  BitTorrent Tracker = Air Traffic Controller for online infringement, but it doesn’t fly or land the plane  What level or kind of participation is enough? McCarthy Tétrault LLP / mccarthy.ca
  • 3. Osgoode IP Intensive Program - Indirect Infringement and the Internet 3 Between Scylla and Charybdis Public Public interest interest in in the obtaining a encouragement & dissemination just reward of works of the for the arts & intellect creator Théberge, 2002 The Legislator’s Three Goals: 1) Encourage the good actors; 2) Capture the bad actors (even in disguise); 3) Make the ones in between just a little bit nervous McCarthy Tétrault LLP / mccarthy.ca
  • 4. Osgoode IP Intensive Program - Indirect Infringement and the Internet 4 The Restricted Acts 3. (1) … “copyright” … means the sole right to produce or reproduce the work or any substantial part thereof in any material form whatever, to perform the work or any substantial part thereof in public or, if the work is unpublished, to publish the work or any substantial part thereof, and includes the sole right (a) to produce, reproduce, perform or publish any translation of the work, (b) … to convert [a dramatic work] into a novel or other non-dramatic work, (c) … to convert [a non-dramatic work] into a dramatic work, by way of performance in public or otherwise, (d) … to make any sound recording, cinematograph film or other contrivance by means of which [a] work may be mechanically reproduced or performed, (e) … to reproduce, adapt and publicly present [a] work as a cinematographic work, (f) … to communicate [a] work to the public by telecommunication, (g) to present at a public exhibition… an artistic work …, (h) … to rent out [a] computer program, and (i) … to rent out a sound recording …, and to authorize any such acts. 27. (1) It is an infringement of copyright for any person to do, without the consent of the owner of the copyright, anything that by this Act only the owner of the copyright has the right to do. McCarthy Tétrault LLP / mccarthy.ca
  • 5. Osgoode IP Intensive Program - Indirect Infringement and the Internet 5 What Does Authorization Mean? “‘Authorize’ means to ‘sanction, approve and countenance’… Countenance in the context of authorizing copyright infringement must be understood in its strongest dictionary meaning, namely, ‘[g]ive approval to; sanction, permit; favour, encourage’… Authorization is a question of fact that depends on the circumstances of each particular case and can be inferred from acts that are less than direct and positive, including a sufficient degree of indifference... However, a person does not authorize infringement by authorizing the mere use of equipment that could be used to infringe copyright. Courts should presume that a person who authorizes an activity does so only so far as it is in accordance with the law.” • CCH Canadian Ltd. v. Law Society of Upper Canada, [2004] 1 S.C.R. 339 at para. 38 McCarthy Tétrault LLP / mccarthy.ca
  • 6. Osgoode IP Intensive Program - Indirect Infringement and the Internet 6 The Commonwealth Track Record  Vigneux (PC, 1945): Defendant hires out a record player to a restaurant and supplies it with records via weekly rental  Not liable  Muzak (SCC, 1953): Defendant lets broadcasting system and supplies electric compositions to be played  Not liable  Ames (Eng. Ch, 1981): Defendant shop provides record library service and sells blank tapes  Not liable  Amstrad (HL, 1988): Defendant manufactures, advertises and sells audio systems that record at high speed from prerecorded cassettes on to blank tapes  Not liable  Lead speech of Lord Templeman: “From the point of view of society the present position is lamentable. Millions of breaches of the law must be committed by home copiers every year… A law which is treated with such contempt should be amended or repealed.”  Sirius (FCA 2010): Defendant supplies satellite radio receivers that automatically copy radio programs unless subscriber turns off default setting  Liable because of automatic copying feature McCarthy Tétrault LLP / mccarthy.ca
  • 7. Osgoode IP Intensive Program - Indirect Infringement and the Internet 7 Can the Common Law Fill the Gap? “Copyright legislation simply creates rights and obligations upon the terms and in the circumstances set out in the statute. This creature of statute has been known to the law of England at least since the days of Queen Anne when the first copyright statute was passed. It does not assist the interpretive analysis to import tort concepts. The legislation speaks for itself and the actions of the appellant must be measured according to the terms of the statute.” ¬ Compo Co. v. Blue Crest Music Inc., [1980] 1 S.C.R. 357 at 372-373 “The fact that in this country … the law of copyright, like the law relating to passing off, has been stretched to give protection to creative talents and activities the protection of which was probably never in the contemplation, and indeed in some cases cannot have been in the contemplation, of those who from time to time have been responsible for the framing of successive statutes. Language can be and has been stretched beyond the limits that most people would attribute to the words used in successive Copyright Acts, but there must be a breaking point. The question is whether it has been reached.” ¬ CBS v. Ames, [1982] Ch. 91 (UK 1982) McCarthy Tétrault LLP / mccarthy.ca
  • 8. Osgoode IP Intensive Program - Indirect Infringement and the Internet 8 The Creator’s “Ocean Problem” “Chasing individual consumers is time consuming and is a teaspoon solution to an ocean problem.” - Randal C. Picker, "Copyright as Entry Policy: The Case of Digital Distribution," 47 Antitrust Bull. 423, 442 (2002)  In 1911, copying and distributing a work required major effort. Infringers were not a moving target and facilitators not a concern.  Creating a novel, software, or film remains labour- and capital-intensive.  Now, intermediaries profit by facilitating the making of infringing copies. In doing so, they usually need not infringe copyright directly.  Thanks to the Internet, direct infringement can take place anywhere, often invisibly, and at a minimal cost.  Yet the current Act targets the old actors and activities, not the new. If you use “specifically designed plates” to infringe, watch out (s. 27(4))! If you run a BitTorrent tracker in Toronto, the Act has no easy answers. McCarthy Tétrault LLP / mccarthy.ca
  • 9. Osgoode IP Intensive Program - Indirect Infringement and the Internet 9 The Host’s Ocean Problem Introduction to Digital Britain, Final Report (2009) “On 26 August 1768, when Captain James Cook set sail for Australia, it took 2 years and 320 days before he returned to describe what he found there. “Yesterday, on 15 June 2009, 20 hours of new content were posted on YouTube every minute*, 494 exabytes of information were transferred seamlessly across the globe, over 2.6 billion mobile minutes were exchanged across Europe, and millions of enquiries were made using a Google algorithm.” (1 EB = 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 bytes of information) * We’re now up to 48 hours of new content posted on YouTube every minute (7.9 years/day) McCarthy Tétrault LLP / mccarthy.ca
  • 10. Osgoode IP Intensive Program - Indirect Infringement and the Internet 10 Varieties of Indirect Infringement ¬ Common design = where two or more persons act in concert with one another pursuant to a common design in the infringement  Incandescent Gas Light Company, Ld. v. The New Incandescent Mantle Company, (1898) 15 R.P.C. 8: Defendant A sells fittings downstairs, and Defendant B upstairs in the same building sells the mantles to go with the fittings. ¬ Aid and abet = where a person knows that another's conduct constitutes a breach of duty and gives substantial assistance or encouragement to the other  Pirate Bay, Finreactor: “By providing a website with advanced search functions and easy uploading and downloading facilities, and by putting individual filesharers in touch with one other through the tracker linked to the site, the operation … has … facilitated and, consequently, aided and abetted these offences.” McCarthy Tétrault LLP / mccarthy.ca
  • 11. Osgoode IP Intensive Program - Indirect Infringement and the Internet 11 Varieties of Indirect Infringement (cont.) ¬ Contributory liability = where a person induces, causes or contributes to infringing conduct of another with knowledge of the infringing conduct  Limewire: 93% of files made available & 98.8% of files requested for download likely to be infringing. Software distributed with awareness of the purpose to which it would be put, and was marketed to encourage it. No meaningful steps taken to mitigate infringement. ¬ Vicarious liability = where a person is liable for indirect infringement because the person has the right and ability to supervise infringing conduct and has a direct financial interest in such activities  Fonovisa v. Cherry Auction, 76 F.3d 259 (9th Cir. 1996): Defendant ran a swap meet where independent vendors sold bootleg Latin music tapes. Promotion of the meet, collection of rental and admission fees, and being “in a position to police the vendors” supported liability. McCarthy Tétrault LLP / mccarthy.ca
  • 12. Osgoode IP Intensive Program - Indirect Infringement and the Internet 12 Round One – VCRs/Cassette Tapes “Now, the question comes, well, all right, what is wrong with the VCR. One of the Japanese lobbyists … has said that the VCR is the greatest friend that the American film producer ever had. … I say to you that the VCR is to the American film producer and the American public as the Boston Strangler is to the woman home alone.” ¬ Jack Valenti, Motion Picture Assn. of America, at hearings before Subcommitee on Courts, Civil Liberties and the Administration of Justice, 1982 The Results: ¬ Amstrad: Since authorise under the 1911 Act means “to grant, or purport to grant, expressly or by implication, the right to do the act complained of”, the defendants by selling a high-speed twin-tape recorder might facilitate the copying by purchasers of material in breach of copyright but did not "authorise" it. There was no common design because all Amstrad did was sell the recorder to purchasers with unknown purposes. There was no contributory liability because the recorders might be used for lawful purposes and there were no positive acts of inducement. ¬ Sony: U.S. Supreme Court rules that sale of the VTRs to the general public does not constitute contributory infringement of respondents' copyrights because (a) on the record, users’ time-shifting of a free TV program was a fair use; (b) the VTRs were therefore capable of substantial noninfringing uses. McCarthy Tétrault LLP / mccarthy.ca
  • 13. Osgoode IP Intensive Program - Indirect Infringement and the Internet 13 Round Two – Grokster “While there is doubtless some demand for free Shakespeare, the evidence shows that substantive volume is a function of free access to copyrighted work. Users seeking Top 40 songs, for example, or the latest release by Modest Mouse, are certain to be far more numerous than those seeking a free Decameron, and Grokster and StreamCast translated that demand into dollars.” - United States Supreme Court, MGM v. Grokster 545 U.S. (2004) “Napster Inc. has announced that it will soon begin charging you a fee. That’s if the courts don’t order it shut down first. What will you do to get around it?” - StreamCast proposed advertisement cited by Supreme Court The Result: One who distributes a device with the object of promoting its use to infringe copyright, as shown by clear expression or other affirmative steps taken to foster infringement, going beyond mere distribution with knowledge of third-party action, is liable for the resulting acts of infringement by third parties using the device, regardless of the device’s lawful uses. McCarthy Tétrault LLP / mccarthy.ca
  • 14. Osgoode IP Intensive Program - Indirect Infringement and the Internet 14 Round Three – User-Posted Content 1) Viacom v. YouTube 2) Capitol v. MP3Tunes  YT operates “User-posted content” site.  Defendant operates storage locker and  On start-up, founder states in email that if it integrated “sideloading” site. “just removed the obviously copyright  Users populate lockers and stream infringing stuff,” traffic would “go from 100,000 music to PCs or other devices. views a day to about 20,000 views.”  Defendant sells subscriptions for  YT implements policy to take down content storage space on locker site. only after receipt of demand letter.  Sideloading site points to many  Users could be counted upon to upload infringing files (as high as 97%) and duplicate files following takedown provides lists of “most popular songs”.  Competitors screened uploaded videos for  One click allows for storage of sideload unauthorized copyrighted content. songs in locker.  YT rejected request to implement digital  Defendant takes down sideload links fingerprinting technology. on receipt of notice, but does not trace  In 2006, YT did internal study that found through to lockers. that most viewed videos were 70%+  Defendant does not seek out titles copyrighted, with only 10% licensed. described in non-compliant notice.  YouTube users now upload 48hrs of  Officers and employees of Defendant content per minute. personally sideload infringing songs. McCarthy Tétrault LLP / mccarthy.ca
  • 15. Osgoode IP Intensive Program - Indirect Infringement and the Internet 15 Hosting Safe Harbours – Canada 2.4 (1) For the purposes of communication to the public by telecommunication, … (b) a person whose only act in respect of the communication of a work or other subject-matter to the public consists of providing the means of telecommunication necessary for another person to so communicate the work or other subject-matter does not communicate that work or other subject-matter to the public However… “copyright liability may well attach if the activities of the Internet Service Provider cease to be content neutral, e.g. if it has notice that a content provider has posted infringing material on its system and fails to take remedial action.” - SOCAN v. CAIP, [2004] 2 S.C.R. 427 at para. 124 And… New ISP safe harbours are expected in copyright legislation this fall. McCarthy Tétrault LLP / mccarthy.ca
  • 16. Osgoode IP Intensive Program - Indirect Infringement and the Internet 16 Hosting Safe Harbour – DMCA § 512. Limitations on liability relating to material online (c) Information Residing on Systems or Networks At Direction of Users.—(1) In general. — A service provider shall not be liable for monetary relief, or, except as provided in subsection (j), for injunctive or other equitable relief, for infringement of copyright by reason of the storage at the direction of a user of material that resides on a system or network controlled or operated by or for the service provider, if the service provider— (A) (i) does not have actual knowledge that the material or an activity using the material on the system or network is infringing; (ii) in the absence of such actual knowledge, is not aware of facts or circumstances from which infringing activity is apparent; or (iii) upon obtaining such knowledge or awareness, acts expeditiously to remove, or disable access to, the material; (B) does not receive a financial benefit directly attributable to the infringing activity, in a case in which the service provider has the right and ability to control such activity; and (C) upon notification of claimed infringement as described in paragraph (3), responds expeditiously to remove, or disable access to, the material that is claimed to be infringing or to be the subject of infringing activity. … (m) Protection of Privacy.— Nothing in this section shall be construed to condition the applicability of subsections (a) through (d) on—(1) a service provider monitoring its service or affirmatively seeking facts indicating infringing activity McCarthy Tétrault LLP / mccarthy.ca
  • 17. Osgoode IP Intensive Program - Indirect Infringement and the Internet 17 DMCA Eligibility Conditions § 512. (i) Conditions for Eligibility.— (1) Accommodation of technology.— The limitations on liability established by this section shall apply to a service provider only if the service provider— (A) has adopted and reasonably implemented, and informs subscribers and account holders of the service provider’s system or network of, a policy that provides for the termination in appropriate circumstances of subscribers and account holders of the service provider’s system or network who are repeat infringers; and (B) accommodates and does not interfere with standard technical measures. McCarthy Tétrault LLP / mccarthy.ca
  • 18. Osgoode IP Intensive Program - Indirect Infringement and the Internet 18 The U.S. “Red Flag” Doctrine “If the service provider becomes aware of a ‘red flag’ from which infringing activity is apparent, it will lose the limitation of liability if it takes no action.’” - H.R. Rep. No. 105-551(II), at 53. “The Court does not read section 512 to endorse business practices that would encourage content providers to turn a blind eye to the source of massive copyright infringement while continuing to knowingly profit, indirectly or not, from every single one of these same sources until a court orders the provider to terminate each individual account.” - Perfect 10, Inc. v. Cybernet Ventures, Inc., 213 F. Supp. 2d 1146, 1177 (C.D. Cal. 2002) “If investigation of ‘‘facts and circumstances’’ is required to identify material as infringing, then those facts and circumstances are not ‘‘red flags’’ ’. That observation captures the reason why awareness of pervasive copyright- infringing, however flagrant and blatant, does not impose liability on the service provider. It furnishes at most a statistical estimate of the chance any particular posting is infringing – and that is not a ‘red flag’ marking any particular work. - Viacom v. YouTube, 2010 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 62829 McCarthy Tétrault LLP / mccarthy.ca
  • 19. Osgoode IP Intensive Program - Indirect Infringement and the Internet 19 The U.S. “Red Flag” Doctrine  “The case law interpreting the statutory ‘red flag’ standard suggests the flag may need to be an immense crimson banner before the service provider’s obligation to intervene comes into play.” - Jane C. Ginsburg, “User-Generated Content Sites and Section 512 of the US Copyright Act”  “When a website traffics in pictures that are titillating by nature, describing photographs as ‘illegal’ or ‘stolen’ may be an attempt to increase their salacious appeal, rather than an admission that the photographs are actually illegal or stolen. We do not place the burden of determining whether photographs are actually illegal on a service provider.” - Perfect 10, Inc. v. CCBill LLC, 481 F.3d 751, 763 (9th Cir. 2007) McCarthy Tétrault LLP / mccarthy.ca
  • 20. Osgoode IP Intensive Program - Indirect Infringement and the Internet 20 A Challenge to the “Red Flag” “A ‘red flag’ standard that demands greater certainty from the outset risks allowing the service provider to ‘turn a blind eye’ to infringements because the provider could claim that the possibility that some files might not be infringing means that infringement can never be ‘apparent’ as to any file. By the same token, section 512(m)’s dispensation of service providers from ‘affirmatively seeking facts indicating infringing activity’, should not entitle the service provider to passive- aggressive ignorance.” - Jane C. Ginsburg, “User-Generated Content Sites and s. 512 of the US Act” “Congress clearly signaled its intention to trigger this exclusion whenever one encounters any combination of ‘facts or circumstances’ sufficient to raise a ‘red flag’ warning the service provider that it is likely hosting acts of infringement. And the flexible character of this exclusion is further confirmed by Congress’s choice to trigger the exclusion once ‘infringing activity’—not particular and identifiable acts of infringement— becomes apparent. “Indeed, requiring item-specific, location-specific knowledge to establish ‘aware[ness] of facts or circumstances from which infringing activity is apparent,’ converts the awareness exclusion into a superfluity, because it would be satisfied only when the ‘knowledge’ exclusion also is satisfied.” - Viacom Appellate Brief, 2d Cir, December 2010 McCarthy Tétrault LLP / mccarthy.ca
  • 21. Osgoode IP Intensive Program - Indirect Infringement and the Internet 21 Back to Neutrality? “The legal rules should enable us to have it both ways … An entrepreneur who adopts what I’ll call a passive-aggressive approach to user conduct that the entrepreneur reasonably should anticipate (and indeed may intend) will collectively be infringing on a large scale may in fact be building its business at the expense of authors and right owners. In that event, it should not matter how anodyne in the abstract the technology may be; by failing to take steps to forestall ‘massive’ infringement, the entrepreneur may in fact be encouraging unlawful user conduct, and may thereby be exposing itself to liability, at least under common law principles of secondary liability.” - Jane C. Ginsburg, “User-Generated Content Sites” McCarthy Tétrault LLP / mccarthy.ca
  • 22. Osgoode IP Intensive Program - Indirect Infringement and the Internet 22 Bill C-32 Enablement Provision The Stated Goal:  To crack down on “wealth destroyers” attacking the creative industries The Amendment: 27 (2.3) It is an infringement of copyright for a person to provide, by means of the Internet or another digital network, a service that the person knows or should have known is designed primarily to enable acts of copyright infringement if an actual infringement of copyright occurs by means of the Internet or another digital network as a result of the use of that service. The Question:  Does the enablement provision in Bill C-32 meet the stated goal? McCarthy Tétrault LLP / mccarthy.ca
  • 23. Osgoode IP Intensive Program - Indirect Infringement and the Internet 23 Questions? McCarthy Tétrault LLP / mccarthy.ca
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