SMALL SENSORS. BIG DATA.FROM CLARITY TO INSIGHT IN THE WORLD OF THE SENSOR WEB
Barry Smyth, INSIGHT Centre for Data Analyt...
In a typical lifetime ...
Tuesday 1 October 13
1 billion breaths 2.5 billion heart
beats 100 million litres oxygen
100 trillion cells 50,000 litres
water 70 tonnes food ...
1 billion breaths 2.5 billion heart
beats 100 million litres oxygen
100 trillion cells 50,000 litres
water 70 tonnes food ...
1 billion breaths 2.5 billion heart
beats 100 million litres oxygen
100 trillion cells 50,000 litres
water 70 tonnes food ...
1 billion breaths 2.5 billion heart
beats 100 million litres oxygen
100 trillion cells 50,000 litres
water 70 tonnes food ...
1 billion breaths 2.5 billion heart
beats 100 million litres oxygen
100 trillion cells 50,000 litres
water 70 tonnes food ...
1 billion breaths 2.5 billion heart
beats 100 million litres oxygen
100 trillion cells 50,000 litres
water 70 tonnes food ...
1 billion breaths 2.5 billion heart
beats 100 million litres oxygen
100 trillion cells 50,000 litres
water 70 tonnes food ...
1 billion breaths 2.5 billion heart
beats 100 million litres oxygen
100 trillion cells 50,000 litres
water 70 tonnes food ...
1 billion breaths 2.5 billion heart
beats 100 million litres oxygen
100 trillion cells 50,000 litres
water 70 tonnes food ...
1 billion breaths 2.5 billion heart
beats 100 million litres oxygen
100 trillion cells 50,000 litres
water 70 tonnes food ...
1 billion breaths 2.5 billion heart
beats 100 million litres oxygen
100 trillion cells 50,000 litres
water 70 tonnes food ...
1 billion breaths 2.5 billion heart
beats 100 million litres oxygen
100 trillion cells 50,000 litres
water 70 tonnes food ...
1 billion breaths 2.5 billion heart
beats 100 million litres oxygen
100 trillion cells 50,000 litres
water 70 tonnes food ...
1 billion breaths 2.5 billion heart
beats 100 million litres oxygen
100 trillion cells 50,000 litres
water 70 tonnes food ...
1 billion breaths 2.5 billion heart
beats 100 million litres oxygen
100 trillion cells 50,000 litres
water 70 tonnes food ...
1 billion breaths 2.5 billion heart
beats 100 million litres oxygen
100 trillion cells 50,000 litres
water 70 tonnes food ...
1 billion breaths 2.5 billion heart
beats 100 million litres oxygen
100 trillion cells 50,000 litres
water 70 tonnes food ...
1 billion breaths 2.5 billion heart
beats 100 million litres oxygen
100 trillion cells 50,000 litres
water 70 tonnes food ...
1 billion breaths 2.5 billion heart
beats 100 million litres oxygen
100 trillion cells 50,000 litres
water 70 tonnes food ...
1 billion breaths 2.5 billion heart
beats 100 million litres oxygen
100 trillion cells 50,000 litres
water 70 tonnes food ...
1 billion breaths 2.5 billion heart
beats 100 million litres oxygen
100 trillion cells 50,000 litres
water 70 tonnes food ...
1 billion breaths 2.5 billion heart
beats 100 million litres oxygen
100 trillion cells 50,000 litres
water 70 tonnes food ...
1 = 10bytes
18
exabyte
Tuesday 1 October 13
1 = 10bytes
18
exabyte
1000,000,000,000,000,000
Tuesday 1 October 13
1 = 10bytes
18
exabyte
20,000 x all of the printed material in the
US Library of Congress.
Or all of the words spoken by h...
1 = 10bytes
18
exabyte
6 !
hours
But, we now create this
much information every
Tuesday 1 October 13
Connecting atoms & bits.
From algorithms to data.
Tuesday 1 October 13
A PARADIGM
SHIFT
algorithm
data
algorithm
data
Tuesday 1 October 13
VS
IT’S NOT (JUST) ABOUT
THE DATA
N = all
Messy & Diverse
Reusable
Correlation
N = small
Clean & Uniform
Disposable
Causat...
computation
sensors
dev
data
Tuesday 1 October 13
THE WORLD’S FIRST
SUPERCOMPUTER
Brainchild of Seymour Cray, in 1964 the
closet-sized CDC 6600 was the biggest,
baddest com...
MOORE’S MAGICAL
LAWS
In 1965, Intel co-founder, Gordon Moore,
noted a doubling of “computing power”
every 1-2 years and pr...
Tuesday 1 October 13
A SELF-FULFILLING
PROPHECY?
CDC
6600
[1964]
IBM
PC
[1981]
iPHONE
5S
[2013]
0.05
FLOPs/$
200
FLOPs/$
8M
FLOPs/$
x4,000 x40,...
TO PUT THIS INTO
PERSPECTIVE ...
The iPhone 5S is about 60,000 times
more powerful that the Apollo 11’s
guidance computer....
IF MOORE’S LAW
APPLIED TO CARS?
“If the auto industry had moved
at the same speed ...
...your car today would
cruise comfo...
RAY
KURZWEIL
“A computer that once fit in a building,
when I was a student, now fits in my
pocket and is one thousand times ...
MEMORY, DISK SIZE,
BANDWIDTH, PIXELS,...
All subject to Moore’s Law like
improvements over the past 30 years...
... except...
Tuesday 1 October 13
THE RISE OF THE
SENSOR
WEB
Tuesday 1 October 13
UBIQUITOUS
COMPUTING
Mark Weiser’s 1988 vision for
a Post-PC world saw computing
evolve from a terminal-based
paradigm to ...
THE EMERGING
SENSOR WEB
Tabs
Pads
Boards
Smart Sensors
The Internet of Things
Wearable Computing
Tuesday 1 October 13
A MATERIALS SCIENCE
DETOUR
Chemistry & Physics Novel Materials &
Structures
Common Materials Next Generation
Sensors
Tuesd...
NOKIA’S MORPH
CONCEPT DEVICE
Tuesday 1 October 13
CHALLENGES OF
PHYSICAL SENSING
Conventional sensors (thermistors, flow
meters, photoreceptors).
Biofouling & Calibration.
R...
SWEAT
SENSING
Microfluidic, Lab-on-a-Chip, Wearable.
pH sensitive dye &
photo-detector.
Accurate, continuous,
realtime
Athl...
UNIVERSAL MOBILE
SENSING PLATFORM
Tuesday 1 October 13
UNIVERSAL MOBILE
SENSING PLATFORM
C A M E R A
M
I
C
R
O
P
H
O
N
ES P E E D
L I G H T
O R I E N T A T I O N
H
U
M
I
D
I
T
Y...
Connectivity
high-speed data
Mobility
location-aware
Power
always on
Tuesday 1 October 13
THE QUANTIFIED SELF
MOVEMENT
A data-rich approach to everyday living.
Gordon Bell (Microsoft) and the My Life Bits
project...
7 YEARS3 MONTHS2 WEEKS
1 PERSON12M PHOTOS1TB
Tuesday 1 October 13
Activities
classification
summarisation
Lifestyle
behaviours
preferences
Events
segmentation
clustering
Tuesday 1 October 13
Tuesday 1 October 13
THE DISRUPTION OF
HEALTHCARE
Always-on personal sensing, 24/7/365
The Creative Disruption of Healthcare
Activity and exerc...
THERE’S
AN APP
FOR THAT
Tuesday 1 October 13
EXERCISE
& FITNESS
Runkeeper iPhone/Android
Running, Walking, Biking, ...
Age, gender, weight, ...
Location, pace, duratio...
TRACKING
SLEEP
Basic ‘sleep tracking’
based on motion.
Duration vs Movement
Sleep Quality (≈ time/move)
Sleep Notes / Wake...
MOOD &
FOCUS
The Melon Headband
Uses EEG to track brain
activity to assess ‘focus’.
Tagging, location, and
activity inform...
FOOD &
NUTRITION
Meal logging and nutritional
analysis.
Manual vs Semi-Automatic.
Calorie goals and
diet plans.
Integrated...
HEART RATE SENSING
Using smartphone camera with your
finger. No external sensor required.
Detecting colour changes due to
c...
BLOOD
GLUCOSE
External blood glucose sensor
automatically syncs
readings with app.
Readings tagged with
mealtime, exercise...
MOBILE
SPIROMETRY
Using a mobile phone
microphone to evaluate
lung function.
FVC, FEV, PEF measures.
Audio Features Machin...
MOBILE
SPIROMETRY
Using a mobile phone
microphone to evaluate
lung function.
FVC, FEV, PEF measures.
Audio Features Machin...
SENSORS
& SPORTS
Profs Brian Caulfield & Niall Moyna (@
CLARITY)
Player Health vs Performance Analysis
Rugby, Athletics, Cy...
AUTOMATIC TACKLE
CLASSIFICATION
GPS +
Accelerometer
Tuesday 1 October 13
CONSUMER-DRIVEN
HEALTHCARE?
Towards preventative, sensor-based,
data-driven healthcare.
Sparse checkups 24/7/365 Sensing
T...
ALWAYS ON
MOBILE
SENSING
Tuesday 1 October 13
SC
ALIN
G
Tuesday 1 October 13
vertical scalingTuesday 1 October 13
vertical scalingTuesday 1 October 13
horizontal scalingTuesday 1 October 13
horizontal scalingTuesday 1 October 13
PARTICIPATORYSENSINGTuesday 1 October 13
ASTHMOPOLIS SMART
INHALER
Tuesday 1 October 13
PARTICIPATORY
SENSING
Tuesday 1 October 13
HACKING YOUR
COMMUTE
GPS & Navigation Assistants
Map Apps Rule the World
TomTom, Garmin, Google, Apple,
Nokia, ...
Tuesday...
CROWDSOURCED
MAPPING (WAZE)
Free smartphone app.
Real-time sensing of users’
location, time, speed etc.
x millions of user...
Tuesday 1 October 13
Tuesday 1 October 13
CITIZEN SENSING
PUBLIC TRANSPORT
Roadify (iPhone App)
Status updates for public
transport experiences.
Train, bus, subway,...
TURNING PEOPLE INTO
SENSORS
Participatory/Citizen Sensing
Big, messy data real-time insights.
The smartphone as a mobile s...
FROM REAL
TO VIRTUAL
SENSORS
Tuesday 1 October 13
MINING THE
DATA EXHAUST
From Real to Virtual Sensors
Page Views, Read Times, Mouse Movements,
Search Queries, Result Click...
THE ORIGINAL BIG DATA
COMPANY
Mining relevance & reputation from links.
Search logs as sensor data.
Tuesday 1 October 13
PAGERANK GOOGLE’S
BIG IDEA
The importance of a page as a ranking signal.
Estimating importance from in-links ...
... and P...
GOOGLE’S
BIGGER IDEA
$40billion
Google’s real Bigger Idea was that it’s
search engine could sense our
intentions through o...
SEARCH LOGS AS
SENSOR DATA
“... Web search ... can be likened
to a large-scale distributed network
of sensors for identify...
SENSING DRUG SIDE-
EFFECTS
82M
Queries
6M
Users
Tuesday 1 October 13
SENSING
FLU TRENDS
Identified trigger terms correlated we known
past outbreaks. Tracked real-time occurrence
of these terms...
TURNING BROWSERS
INTO BUYERS
Understanding user preferences.
Making personalized suggestions.
Tuesday 1 October 13
items
users
Tuesday 1 October 13
items
users
Correlations between the ratings
patterns of users denote user
similarity ...
People like you have also liked ...
items
users
Conversely correlations between
the ratings patterns of items denote
item similarity ...
If you liked X then y...
MINING USER-
GENERATED REVIEWS
Tuesday 1 October 13
USER-GENERATED
REVIEWS
+‘ves
staff
location
bed
service
breakfast
-‘ves
noise
elevators
carpet
health club
public transpor...
OPINION
AMPLIFICATION
Twitter, FaceBook as a source of
real-time opinions.
Raw Text Sentiment Opinion
These days Twitter d...
Participatory sensing as collective
intelligence
Human Intelligence + Brute-Force
Computation
TOWARDS COLLECTIVE
INTELLIGE...
DEALING WITH EMAIL
SPAM
Back in 2000 Yahoo had a
problem ...
Bots registering free email
accounts for the purpose of
bulk ...
Yahoo! Mail CAPTCHA
Tuesday 1 October 13
250m
CAPTCHAS
PER DAY
150kPERSON-HOURS
PER DAY
7mPERSON
HOURS
45CAPTCHA
DAYS!
Tuesday 1 October 13
What if we could
do something more with all of this
‘CAPTCHA time’?
Tuesday 1 October 13
Tuesday 1 October 13
99.1%
word-level
accuracy
1.2bn
CAPTCHAS
in year 1
440m
words
17m
books
Tuesday 1 October 13
GAMES WITH A
PURPOSE
In 2003 there were 9bn hours of solitaire
played on PCs...
... and these days there are around 70m
ho...
FOLD.IT - MOLECULAR
GAME PLAY
Tuesday 1 October 13
HOW WELL DOES IT
ALL WORK?
In 2011, players of Foldit helped to decipher
the crystal structure of the Mason-Pfizer
monkey v...
BIG DATA OR
BIG BROTHER?
Tuesday 1 October 13
THE END OF THE AGE
OF PRIVACY?
“Technology is neither good nor bad, nor is
it neutral”
Public by Default.
The Price of Fre...
THE END OF
ANONYMITY
The Case of AOL Searcher No. 4417749.
20M anonymized queries, 600k users as
research data (AOL, 2006)...
THE PANOPTICON
STATE?
Zamyatin’s dystopian glass-walled future
of government surveillance.
NSA Prism programme.
Tuesday 1 ...
A shift in the data ownership model a new asset
class for personal data?
Owned by the individual shared with services.
Clo...
THE BIG DATA WORLD
OF THE SENSOR WEB
Tuesday 1 October 13
N = ALL
MESSYCORRELATION
Tuesday 1 October 13
THE OPTION-VALUE OF BIG DATA
DATA-DRIVEN EVERYTHING
POWER TO THE PEOPLE
Tuesday 1 October 13
THE OPTION-VALUE OF
BIG DATA
Reuse & Recycle
From Primary to Secondary Uses of Data
The Unintended Consequences of Data
Tu...
DATA-DRIVEN
EVERYTHING
Social Science, Linguistics, Anthropology, Cultural
Studies, Journalism, Political Science,
Humanit...
GOOGLE’S N-GRAM
VIEWER
Acerbi A, Lampos V, Garnett P, Bentley RA (2013) The Expression
of Emotions in 20th Century Books. ...
DATA-DRIVEN
EVERYTHING
Michel J-P, Shen YK, Aiden AP, Veres A, Gray MK, et al. (2011)
Quantitative analysis of culture usi...
POWER TO THE PEOPLE
Personal Data & Personal Analytics
People as Sensors in Participatory
Sensing
Human Computation & Coll...
Creating a Data-Driven Society
Tuesday 1 October 13
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Small sensors-big-data-barry-smyth-ria-2013

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A talk for the Royal Irish Academy (September, 2013) covering Big Data in the world of the Sensor Web. In this talk we explore the origins of the Big Data Revolution and how it and the world of the Sensor Web has the potential to transform all aspects of how we live, work and play.

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Small sensors-big-data-barry-smyth-ria-2013

  1. 1. SMALL SENSORS. BIG DATA.FROM CLARITY TO INSIGHT IN THE WORLD OF THE SENSOR WEB Barry Smyth, INSIGHT Centre for Data Analytics @barrysmyth, barry.smyth@ucd.ie Tuesday 1 October 13
  2. 2. In a typical lifetime ... Tuesday 1 October 13
  3. 3. 1 billion breaths 2.5 billion heart beats 100 million litres oxygen 100 trillion cells 50,000 litres water 70 tonnes food 70 million calories 3 years toilet 1 billion km 1 year traffic 50,000 kms walking 0.5 million kWh 250 tonnes coal 50 tonnes waste 12 years work 500 days sick 150,000 yawns 28 years asleep 2 years reading 9 years of TVTuesday 1 October 13
  4. 4. 1 billion breaths 2.5 billion heart beats 100 million litres oxygen 100 trillion cells 50,000 litres water 70 tonnes food 70 million calories 3 years toilet 1 billion km 1 year traffic 50,000 kms walking 0.5 million kWh 250 tonnes coal 50 tonnes waste 12 years work 500 days sick 150,000 yawns 28 years asleep 2 years reading 9 years of TVTuesday 1 October 13
  5. 5. 1 billion breaths 2.5 billion heart beats 100 million litres oxygen 100 trillion cells 50,000 litres water 70 tonnes food 70 million calories 3 years toilet 1 billion km 1 year traffic 50,000 kms walking 0.5 million kWh 250 tonnes coal 50 tonnes waste 12 years work 500 days sick 150,000 yawns 28 years asleep 2 years reading 9 years of TVTuesday 1 October 13
  6. 6. 1 billion breaths 2.5 billion heart beats 100 million litres oxygen 100 trillion cells 50,000 litres water 70 tonnes food 70 million calories 3 years toilet 1 billion km 1 year traffic 50,000 kms walking 0.5 million kWh 250 tonnes coal 50 tonnes waste 12 years work 500 days sick 150,000 yawns 28 years asleep 2 years reading 9 years of TVTuesday 1 October 13
  7. 7. 1 billion breaths 2.5 billion heart beats 100 million litres oxygen 100 trillion cells 50,000 litres water 70 tonnes food 70 million calories 3 years toilet 1 billion km 1 year traffic 50,000 kms walking 0.5 million kWh 250 tonnes coal 50 tonnes waste 12 years work 500 days sick 150,000 yawns 28 years asleep 2 years reading 9 years of TVTuesday 1 October 13
  8. 8. 1 billion breaths 2.5 billion heart beats 100 million litres oxygen 100 trillion cells 50,000 litres water 70 tonnes food 70 million calories 3 years toilet 1 billion km 1 year traffic 50,000 kms walking 0.5 million kWh 250 tonnes coal 50 tonnes waste 12 years work 500 days sick 150,000 yawns 28 years asleep 2 years reading 9 years of TVTuesday 1 October 13
  9. 9. 1 billion breaths 2.5 billion heart beats 100 million litres oxygen 100 trillion cells 50,000 litres water 70 tonnes food 70 million calories 3 years toilet 1 billion km 1 year traffic 50,000 kms walking 0.5 million kWh 250 tonnes coal 50 tonnes waste 12 years work 500 days sick 150,000 yawns 28 years asleep 2 years reading 9 years of TVTuesday 1 October 13
  10. 10. 1 billion breaths 2.5 billion heart beats 100 million litres oxygen 100 trillion cells 50,000 litres water 70 tonnes food 70 million calories 3 years toilet 1 billion km 1 year traffic 50,000 kms walking 0.5 million kWh 250 tonnes coal 50 tonnes waste 12 years work 500 days sick 150,000 yawns 28 years asleep 2 years reading 9 years of TVTuesday 1 October 13
  11. 11. 1 billion breaths 2.5 billion heart beats 100 million litres oxygen 100 trillion cells 50,000 litres water 70 tonnes food 70 million calories 3 years toilet 1 billion km 1 year traffic 50,000 kms walking 0.5 million kWh 250 tonnes coal 50 tonnes waste 12 years work 500 days sick 150,000 yawns 28 years asleep 2 years reading 9 years of TVTuesday 1 October 13
  12. 12. 1 billion breaths 2.5 billion heart beats 100 million litres oxygen 100 trillion cells 50,000 litres water 70 tonnes food 70 million calories 3 years toilet 1 billion km 1 year traffic 50,000 kms walking 0.5 million kWh 250 tonnes coal 50 tonnes waste 12 years work 500 days sick 150,000 yawns 28 years asleep 2 years reading 9 years of TVTuesday 1 October 13
  13. 13. 1 billion breaths 2.5 billion heart beats 100 million litres oxygen 100 trillion cells 50,000 litres water 70 tonnes food 70 million calories 3 years toilet 1 billion km 1 year traffic 50,000 kms walking 0.5 million kWh 250 tonnes coal 50 tonnes waste 12 years work 500 days sick 150,000 yawns 28 years asleep 2 years reading 9 years of TVTuesday 1 October 13
  14. 14. 1 billion breaths 2.5 billion heart beats 100 million litres oxygen 100 trillion cells 50,000 litres water 70 tonnes food 70 million calories 3 years toilet 1 billion km 1 year traffic 50,000 kms walking 0.5 million kWh 250 tonnes coal 50 tonnes waste 12 years work 500 days sick 150,000 yawns 28 years asleep 2 years reading 9 years of TVTuesday 1 October 13
  15. 15. 1 billion breaths 2.5 billion heart beats 100 million litres oxygen 100 trillion cells 50,000 litres water 70 tonnes food 70 million calories 3 years toilet 1 billion km 1 year traffic 50,000 kms walking 0.5 million kWh 250 tonnes coal 50 tonnes waste 12 years work 500 days sick 150,000 yawns 28 years asleep 2 years reading 9 years of TVTuesday 1 October 13
  16. 16. 1 billion breaths 2.5 billion heart beats 100 million litres oxygen 100 trillion cells 50,000 litres water 70 tonnes food 70 million calories 3 years toilet 1 billion km 1 year traffic 50,000 kms walking 0.5 million kWh 250 tonnes coal 50 tonnes waste 12 years work 500 days sick 150,000 yawns 28 years asleep 2 years reading 9 years of TVTuesday 1 October 13
  17. 17. 1 billion breaths 2.5 billion heart beats 100 million litres oxygen 100 trillion cells 50,000 litres water 70 tonnes food 70 million calories 3 years toilet 1 billion km 1 year traffic 50,000 kms walking 0.5 million kWh 250 tonnes coal 50 tonnes waste 12 years work 500 days sick 150,000 yawns 28 years asleep 2 years reading 9 years of TVTuesday 1 October 13
  18. 18. 1 billion breaths 2.5 billion heart beats 100 million litres oxygen 100 trillion cells 50,000 litres water 70 tonnes food 70 million calories 3 years toilet 1 billion km 1 year traffic 50,000 kms walking 0.5 million kWh 250 tonnes coal 50 tonnes waste 12 years work 500 days sick 150,000 yawns 28 years asleep 2 years reading 9 years of TVTuesday 1 October 13
  19. 19. 1 billion breaths 2.5 billion heart beats 100 million litres oxygen 100 trillion cells 50,000 litres water 70 tonnes food 70 million calories 3 years toilet 1 billion km 1 year traffic 50,000 kms walking 0.5 million kWh 250 tonnes coal 50 tonnes waste 12 years work 500 days sick 150,000 yawns 28 years asleep 2 years reading 9 years of TVTuesday 1 October 13
  20. 20. 1 billion breaths 2.5 billion heart beats 100 million litres oxygen 100 trillion cells 50,000 litres water 70 tonnes food 70 million calories 3 years toilet 1 billion km 1 year traffic 50,000 kms walking 0.5 million kWh 250 tonnes coal 50 tonnes waste 12 years work 500 days sick 150,000 yawns 28 years asleep 2 years reading 9 years of TVTuesday 1 October 13
  21. 21. 1 billion breaths 2.5 billion heart beats 100 million litres oxygen 100 trillion cells 50,000 litres water 70 tonnes food 70 million calories 3 years toilet 1 billion km 1 year traffic 50,000 kms walking 0.5 million kWh 250 tonnes coal 50 tonnes waste 12 years work 500 days sick 150,000 yawns 28 years asleep 2 years reading 9 years of TVTuesday 1 October 13
  22. 22. 1 billion breaths 2.5 billion heart beats 100 million litres oxygen 100 trillion cells 50,000 litres water 70 tonnes food 70 million calories 3 years toilet 1 billion km 1 year traffic 50,000 kms walking 0.5 million kWh 250 tonnes coal 50 tonnes waste 12 years work 500 days sick 150,000 yawns 28 years asleep 2 years reading 9 years of TVTuesday 1 October 13
  23. 23. 1 billion breaths 2.5 billion heart beats 100 million litres oxygen 100 trillion cells 50,000 litres water 70 tonnes food 70 million calories 3 years toilet 1 billion km 1 year traffic 50,000 kms walking 0.5 million kWh 250 tonnes coal 50 tonnes waste 12 years work 500 days sick 150,000 yawns 28 years asleep 2 years reading 9 years of TVTuesday 1 October 13
  24. 24. 1 billion breaths 2.5 billion heart beats 100 million litres oxygen 100 trillion cells 50,000 litres water 70 tonnes food 70 million calories 3 years toilet 1 billion km 1 year traffic 50,000 kms walking 0.5 million kWh 250 tonnes coal 50 tonnes waste 12 years work 500 days sick 150,000 yawns 28 years asleep 2 years reading 9 years of TVTuesday 1 October 13
  25. 25. 1 = 10bytes 18 exabyte Tuesday 1 October 13
  26. 26. 1 = 10bytes 18 exabyte 1000,000,000,000,000,000 Tuesday 1 October 13
  27. 27. 1 = 10bytes 18 exabyte 20,000 x all of the printed material in the US Library of Congress. Or all of the words spoken by humans. Ever! Tuesday 1 October 13
  28. 28. 1 = 10bytes 18 exabyte 6 ! hours But, we now create this much information every Tuesday 1 October 13
  29. 29. Connecting atoms & bits. From algorithms to data. Tuesday 1 October 13
  30. 30. A PARADIGM SHIFT algorithm data algorithm data Tuesday 1 October 13
  31. 31. VS IT’S NOT (JUST) ABOUT THE DATA N = all Messy & Diverse Reusable Correlation N = small Clean & Uniform Disposable Causation Tuesday 1 October 13
  32. 32. computation sensors dev data Tuesday 1 October 13
  33. 33. THE WORLD’S FIRST SUPERCOMPUTER Brainchild of Seymour Cray, in 1964 the closet-sized CDC 6600 was the biggest, baddest computer of the age. 5,500 kgs, 480 kb RAM, 3M FLOPs, $60m Tuesday 1 October 13
  34. 34. MOORE’S MAGICAL LAWS In 1965, Intel co-founder, Gordon Moore, noted a doubling of “computing power” every 1-2 years and predicted that this would continue for at least 10 years... ... this became known as Moore’s Law. Tuesday 1 October 13
  35. 35. Tuesday 1 October 13
  36. 36. A SELF-FULFILLING PROPHECY? CDC 6600 [1964] IBM PC [1981] iPHONE 5S [2013] 0.05 FLOPs/$ 200 FLOPs/$ 8M FLOPs/$ x4,000 x40,000 Tuesday 1 October 13
  37. 37. TO PUT THIS INTO PERSPECTIVE ... The iPhone 5S is about 60,000 times more powerful that the Apollo 11’s guidance computer. Tuesday 1 October 13
  38. 38. IF MOORE’S LAW APPLIED TO CARS? “If the auto industry had moved at the same speed ... ...your car today would cruise comfortably at a million miles an hour and probably get a half a million miles per gallon of gasoline. But it would be cheaper to throw your Rolls Royce away Tuesday 1 October 13
  39. 39. RAY KURZWEIL “A computer that once fit in a building, when I was a student, now fits in my pocket and is one thousand times more powerful despite being a million times less expensive.” Tuesday 1 October 13
  40. 40. MEMORY, DISK SIZE, BANDWIDTH, PIXELS,... All subject to Moore’s Law like improvements over the past 30 years... ... except for battery power / energy density. Tuesday 1 October 13
  41. 41. Tuesday 1 October 13
  42. 42. THE RISE OF THE SENSOR WEB Tuesday 1 October 13
  43. 43. UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING Mark Weiser’s 1988 vision for a Post-PC world saw computing evolve from a terminal-based paradigm to one in which computing and computation would simply disappear into the fabric of our world. Tabs, Pads, Boards Smart Dust, the Internet of Things, Wearable Computing Tuesday 1 October 13
  44. 44. THE EMERGING SENSOR WEB Tabs Pads Boards Smart Sensors The Internet of Things Wearable Computing Tuesday 1 October 13
  45. 45. A MATERIALS SCIENCE DETOUR Chemistry & Physics Novel Materials & Structures Common Materials Next Generation Sensors Tuesday 1 October 13
  46. 46. NOKIA’S MORPH CONCEPT DEVICE Tuesday 1 October 13
  47. 47. CHALLENGES OF PHYSICAL SENSING Conventional sensors (thermistors, flow meters, photoreceptors). Biofouling & Calibration. Robustness, Reliability, Energy & Communications. Cost, Cost, Cost. Tuesday 1 October 13
  48. 48. SWEAT SENSING Microfluidic, Lab-on-a-Chip, Wearable. pH sensitive dye & photo-detector. Accurate, continuous, realtime Athletic performance Cystic Fibrosis Tuesday 1 October 13
  49. 49. UNIVERSAL MOBILE SENSING PLATFORM Tuesday 1 October 13
  50. 50. UNIVERSAL MOBILE SENSING PLATFORM C A M E R A M I C R O P H O N ES P E E D L I G H T O R I E N T A T I O N H U M I D I T Y T E M P E R A T U R E L O C A T I O N T O U C H M O T I O N D I R E C T I O NF I N G E R P R I N T S Tuesday 1 October 13
  51. 51. Connectivity high-speed data Mobility location-aware Power always on Tuesday 1 October 13
  52. 52. THE QUANTIFIED SELF MOVEMENT A data-rich approach to everyday living. Gordon Bell (Microsoft) and the My Life Bits project Digitizing everyday life. SenseCam Tuesday 1 October 13
  53. 53. 7 YEARS3 MONTHS2 WEEKS 1 PERSON12M PHOTOS1TB Tuesday 1 October 13
  54. 54. Activities classification summarisation Lifestyle behaviours preferences Events segmentation clustering Tuesday 1 October 13
  55. 55. Tuesday 1 October 13
  56. 56. THE DISRUPTION OF HEALTHCARE Always-on personal sensing, 24/7/365 The Creative Disruption of Healthcare Activity and exercise, sleep and moods, food, blood glucose, heart rate, pulse ox, lung function, ... Tuesday 1 October 13
  57. 57. THERE’S AN APP FOR THAT Tuesday 1 October 13
  58. 58. EXERCISE & FITNESS Runkeeper iPhone/Android Running, Walking, Biking, ... Age, gender, weight, ... Location, pace, duration, climb, calories, heart rate,... Tuesday 1 October 13
  59. 59. TRACKING SLEEP Basic ‘sleep tracking’ based on motion. Duration vs Movement Sleep Quality (≈ time/move) Sleep Notes / Wakeup Moods Comparative Analytics Tuesday 1 October 13
  60. 60. MOOD & FOCUS The Melon Headband Uses EEG to track brain activity to assess ‘focus’. Tagging, location, and activity information helps users to better assess what impacts their focus. Tuesday 1 October 13
  61. 61. FOOD & NUTRITION Meal logging and nutritional analysis. Manual vs Semi-Automatic. Calorie goals and diet plans. Integrated weight tracking. Tuesday 1 October 13
  62. 62. HEART RATE SENSING Using smartphone camera with your finger. No external sensor required. Detecting colour changes due to capillary blood-flow. Tagging, comparative analytics etc Tuesday 1 October 13
  63. 63. BLOOD GLUCOSE External blood glucose sensor automatically syncs readings with app. Readings tagged with mealtime, exercise etc. Analysis and visualization of trends, logs, stats. Tuesday 1 October 13
  64. 64. MOBILE SPIROMETRY Using a mobile phone microphone to evaluate lung function. FVC, FEV, PEF measures. Audio Features Machine Learning. Mean 5.1% error wrt clinical spirometry suitable for home-based monitoring. Tuesday 1 October 13
  65. 65. MOBILE SPIROMETRY Using a mobile phone microphone to evaluate lung function. FVC, FEV, PEF measures. Audio Features Machine Learning. Mean 5.1% error wrt clinical spirometry suitable for home-based monitoring. Tuesday 1 October 13
  66. 66. SENSORS & SPORTS Profs Brian Caulfield & Niall Moyna (@ CLARITY) Player Health vs Performance Analysis Rugby, Athletics, Cycling, Equestrian, Archery, Boxing, GAA, ... Tuesday 1 October 13
  67. 67. AUTOMATIC TACKLE CLASSIFICATION GPS + Accelerometer Tuesday 1 October 13
  68. 68. CONSUMER-DRIVEN HEALTHCARE? Towards preventative, sensor-based, data-driven healthcare. Sparse checkups 24/7/365 Sensing The data is ours to share ... Apps vs Prescriptions? Tuesday 1 October 13
  69. 69. ALWAYS ON MOBILE SENSING Tuesday 1 October 13
  70. 70. SC ALIN G Tuesday 1 October 13
  71. 71. vertical scalingTuesday 1 October 13
  72. 72. vertical scalingTuesday 1 October 13
  73. 73. horizontal scalingTuesday 1 October 13
  74. 74. horizontal scalingTuesday 1 October 13
  75. 75. PARTICIPATORYSENSINGTuesday 1 October 13
  76. 76. ASTHMOPOLIS SMART INHALER Tuesday 1 October 13
  77. 77. PARTICIPATORY SENSING Tuesday 1 October 13
  78. 78. HACKING YOUR COMMUTE GPS & Navigation Assistants Map Apps Rule the World TomTom, Garmin, Google, Apple, Nokia, ... Tuesday 1 October 13
  79. 79. CROWDSOURCED MAPPING (WAZE) Free smartphone app. Real-time sensing of users’ location, time, speed etc. x millions of users = social mapping + traffic flow, alerts, hazards, ... Tuesday 1 October 13
  80. 80. Tuesday 1 October 13
  81. 81. Tuesday 1 October 13
  82. 82. CITIZEN SENSING PUBLIC TRANSPORT Roadify (iPhone App) Status updates for public transport experiences. Train, bus, subway, ferry, parking, ... Opinions Alerts, Recommendations, Delays, ... Tuesday 1 October 13
  83. 83. TURNING PEOPLE INTO SENSORS Participatory/Citizen Sensing Big, messy data real-time insights. The smartphone as a mobile sensor platform... ... and the willingness of people to contribute to data to causes that matter Tuesday 1 October 13
  84. 84. FROM REAL TO VIRTUAL SENSORS Tuesday 1 October 13
  85. 85. MINING THE DATA EXHAUST From Real to Virtual Sensors Page Views, Read Times, Mouse Movements, Search Queries, Result Clicks, Social Connections, Share, Comments, Likes, Posts, Emails, IMs, ... Tuesday 1 October 13
  86. 86. THE ORIGINAL BIG DATA COMPANY Mining relevance & reputation from links. Search logs as sensor data. Tuesday 1 October 13
  87. 87. PAGERANK GOOGLE’S BIG IDEA The importance of a page as a ranking signal. Estimating importance from in-links ... ... and PageRank was clever way to count in-links to accurate estimate importance. Tuesday 1 October 13
  88. 88. GOOGLE’S BIGGER IDEA $40billion Google’s real Bigger Idea was that it’s search engine could sense our intentions through our queries and click ... ... and that it could match this demand with real-time supply through its search adverts. Tuesday 1 October 13
  89. 89. SEARCH LOGS AS SENSOR DATA “... Web search ... can be likened to a large-scale distributed network of sensors for identifying potential side effects of drugs. There is a potential public health benefit in listening to such signals, and integrating them with other sources of information.” “Web-Scale Pharmacovigilance: Listening to Signals from the Crowd” J Am Med Inform Assoc. (2013) Tuesday 1 October 13
  90. 90. SENSING DRUG SIDE- EFFECTS 82M Queries 6M Users Tuesday 1 October 13
  91. 91. SENSING FLU TRENDS Identified trigger terms correlated we known past outbreaks. Tracked real-time occurrence of these terms, location by location to deliver accurate* regional outbreak maps that correlated well with verified CDC data. Tuesday 1 October 13
  92. 92. TURNING BROWSERS INTO BUYERS Understanding user preferences. Making personalized suggestions. Tuesday 1 October 13
  93. 93. items users Tuesday 1 October 13
  94. 94. items users Correlations between the ratings patterns of users denote user similarity ... People like you have also liked ... Tuesday 1 October 13
  95. 95. items users Conversely correlations between the ratings patterns of items denote item similarity ... If you liked X then you might like Y... Tuesday 1 October 13
  96. 96. MINING USER- GENERATED REVIEWS Tuesday 1 October 13
  97. 97. USER-GENERATED REVIEWS +‘ves staff location bed service breakfast -‘ves noise elevators carpet health club public transport Chicago Hotels Tuesday 1 October 13
  98. 98. OPINION AMPLIFICATION Twitter, FaceBook as a source of real-time opinions. Raw Text Sentiment Opinion These days Twitter data has been used to predict election outcomes, box office success, and musical talent ... Tuesday 1 October 13
  99. 99. Participatory sensing as collective intelligence Human Intelligence + Brute-Force Computation TOWARDS COLLECTIVE INTELLIGENCE Tuesday 1 October 13
  100. 100. DEALING WITH EMAIL SPAM Back in 2000 Yahoo had a problem ... Bots registering free email accounts for the purpose of bulk spam. How to recognise real people from the spambots? Luis Von Ahn Manuel Blum Tuesday 1 October 13
  101. 101. Yahoo! Mail CAPTCHA Tuesday 1 October 13
  102. 102. 250m CAPTCHAS PER DAY 150kPERSON-HOURS PER DAY 7mPERSON HOURS 45CAPTCHA DAYS! Tuesday 1 October 13
  103. 103. What if we could do something more with all of this ‘CAPTCHA time’? Tuesday 1 October 13
  104. 104. Tuesday 1 October 13
  105. 105. 99.1% word-level accuracy 1.2bn CAPTCHAS in year 1 440m words 17m books Tuesday 1 October 13
  106. 106. GAMES WITH A PURPOSE In 2003 there were 9bn hours of solitaire played on PCs... ... and these days there are around 70m hours of FarmVille played every week! It only took about 20m hours of human effort to build the Panama Canal! Tuesday 1 October 13
  107. 107. FOLD.IT - MOLECULAR GAME PLAY Tuesday 1 October 13
  108. 108. HOW WELL DOES IT ALL WORK? In 2011, players of Foldit helped to decipher the crystal structure of the Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (M-PMV) retroviral protease, an AIDS-causing monkey virus. Players “produced” an accurate 3D model of the enzyme in just 10 days! This structure had eluded scientists for some 15 years. Khatib, F. et al. (2011). "Crystal structure of a monomeric retroviral protease solved by protein folding game players". Nature Structural & Molecular Biology 18 (10): 1175 Tuesday 1 October 13
  109. 109. BIG DATA OR BIG BROTHER? Tuesday 1 October 13
  110. 110. THE END OF THE AGE OF PRIVACY? “Technology is neither good nor bad, nor is it neutral” Public by Default. The Price of Free? Ownership of Personal Data? Tuesday 1 October 13
  111. 111. THE END OF ANONYMITY The Case of AOL Searcher No. 4417749. 20M anonymized queries, 600k users as research data (AOL, 2006). User No. 4417749 = 62 year old Thelma Arnold of Lilburn, Ga. Tuesday 1 October 13
  112. 112. THE PANOPTICON STATE? Zamyatin’s dystopian glass-walled future of government surveillance. NSA Prism programme. Tuesday 1 October 13
  113. 113. A shift in the data ownership model a new asset class for personal data? Owned by the individual shared with services. Cloud storage (e.g. DropBox) as a shareable repository of personal data... CONTROLLING PERSONAL DATA Tuesday 1 October 13
  114. 114. THE BIG DATA WORLD OF THE SENSOR WEB Tuesday 1 October 13
  115. 115. N = ALL MESSYCORRELATION Tuesday 1 October 13
  116. 116. THE OPTION-VALUE OF BIG DATA DATA-DRIVEN EVERYTHING POWER TO THE PEOPLE Tuesday 1 October 13
  117. 117. THE OPTION-VALUE OF BIG DATA Reuse & Recycle From Primary to Secondary Uses of Data The Unintended Consequences of Data Tuesday 1 October 13
  118. 118. DATA-DRIVEN EVERYTHING Social Science, Linguistics, Anthropology, Cultural Studies, Journalism, Political Science, Humanities ... All impacted by Big Data Thinking... Tuesday 1 October 13
  119. 119. GOOGLE’S N-GRAM VIEWER Acerbi A, Lampos V, Garnett P, Bentley RA (2013) The Expression of Emotions in 20th Century Books. PLoS ONE 8(3) Tuesday 1 October 13
  120. 120. DATA-DRIVEN EVERYTHING Michel J-P, Shen YK, Aiden AP, Veres A, Gray MK, et al. (2011) Quantitative analysis of culture using millions of digitized books. Science 331: 176–182 Lieberman E, Michel J-P, Jackson J, Tang T, Nowak MA (2007) Quantifying the evolutionary dynamics of language. Nature 449: 713–716 Richards, Daniel Rex. "The content of historical books as an indicator of past interest in environmental issues." Biodiversity and Conservation (2013): 1-9. Lampos, Vasileios, et al. "Analysing Mood Patterns in the United Kingdom through Twitter Content." arXiv preprint arXiv:1304.5507 (2013). Tuesday 1 October 13
  121. 121. POWER TO THE PEOPLE Personal Data & Personal Analytics People as Sensors in Participatory Sensing Human Computation & Collective Intelligence Tuesday 1 October 13
  122. 122. Creating a Data-Driven Society Tuesday 1 October 13

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