Lesson 2: Dimensions Of Language

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Lesson 2: Dimensions Of Language

  1. 1. Lesson Two Dimensions of Language Neijiang Normal University - Week Two - Brent A. Simoneaux
  2. 2. Name Cards Brent Simoneaux 司马搏 Sima Bo 200505401123
  3. 3. Rhetoric 修辞学 `re-tə-rik (noun) : “ The skill of using language in speech or writing in a special way that influences or persuades people”
  4. 4. Subject Purpose Audience The Writing Triangle
  5. 5. Dimensions of Language Cultural Dimension Syntagmatic Dimension Paradigmatic Dimension
  6. 6. Paradigmatic Dimension <ul><li>Vertical ( 垂直的 ) dimension of language </li></ul><ul><li>Lexical choices; choices in diction ( 措辞 ) </li></ul>Paradigmatic Dimension
  7. 7. Syntagmatic Dimension <ul><li>Horizontal ( 平的 ) dimension of language </li></ul><ul><li>Choices in syntax ( 造句 ) </li></ul>Syntagmatic Dimension
  8. 8. Cultural Dimension <ul><li>Readers ’ cultural expectations or assumptions </li></ul><ul><li>Invisible on paper </li></ul>Cultural Dimension
  9. 9. 1. Formal Informal 2. Standard Nonstandard 3. General Specific 4. In Group Out Group Word Categories
  10. 10. <ul><li>Formal: I am applying for the receptionist position advertised in the local paper. I am an excellent candidate for the job because of my significant secretarial experience, good language skills, and sense of organization. </li></ul>Formal Informal
  11. 11. Formal Informal <ul><li>Informal: Hi! I read in the paper that ya'll were looking for a receptionist. I think that I am good for that job because I've done stuff like it in the past, am good with words, and am incredibly well organized. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Formal: I am applying for the receptionist position advertised in the local paper. I am an excellent candidate for the job because of my significant secretarial experience, good language skills, and sense of organization. </li></ul>Formal Informal Informal: Hi! I read in the paper that ya'll were looking for a receptionist. I think that I am good for that job because I've done stuff like it in the past, am good with words, and am incredibly well organized.
  13. 13. <ul><li>Formal </li></ul>Formal Informal Informal Correct and effective use of words <ul><li>Academic writing </li></ul><ul><li>Business letter </li></ul><ul><li>Job application </li></ul><ul><li>Email </li></ul><ul><li>Journal entries </li></ul><ul><li>Personal letter </li></ul><ul><li>Narratives </li></ul><ul><li>Email </li></ul>
  14. 14. Standard Nonstandard Overview Standard refers to common words. Nonstandard refers to slang, jargon, dialectal words, obsolete words, and idiomatic expressions.
  15. 15. Standard Nonstandard Examples Standard Nonstandard <ul><li>am not, is not, has not </li></ul><ul><li>very good </li></ul><ul><li>very </li></ul><ul><li>to play a trick </li></ul><ul><li>you all </li></ul><ul><li>ain’t </li></ul><ul><li>cool </li></ul><ul><li>damn </li></ul><ul><li>to pull one’s leg </li></ul><ul><li>ya’ll </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Standard </li></ul>Standard Nonstandard Nonstandard Correct and effective use of words Closely related to formality <ul><li>Academic writing </li></ul><ul><li>Business letter </li></ul><ul><li>Job application </li></ul><ul><li>Email </li></ul><ul><li>Written </li></ul><ul><li>Journal entries </li></ul><ul><li>Personal letter </li></ul><ul><li>Narratives </li></ul><ul><li>Email </li></ul><ul><li>Spoken </li></ul>
  17. 17. General Specific Overview Generality makes reference to words that involve, relate to, or apply to every member of a class, kind or group. Specificity makes reference to words that are encompassed by a more general catergory.
  18. 18. Examples General Specific General Specific <ul><li>animal </li></ul><ul><li>laugh </li></ul><ul><li>big </li></ul><ul><li>scientist </li></ul><ul><li>tiger, horse, fox </li></ul><ul><li>chuckle, giggle, roar </li></ul><ul><li>huge, large, vast </li></ul><ul><li>physicist, chemist, </li></ul><ul><li>biologist </li></ul>
  19. 19. Correct and effective use of words General Specific General Specific <ul><li>Summary </li></ul><ul><li>Generalization </li></ul><ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>Explanation </li></ul>
  20. 20. Jargon ( 行话 ) In Group Out Group Jargon ( 行话 ) is any in-group or specialized language used by small groups of like-minded individuals. This terminology is usually specialized to the function of the group, and will be used by and among group members as a sign of belonging, status, and for keeping out outsiders.
  21. 21. Example In Group Out Group Individuals who study linguistics will use words like quantifier, voiceless labiodental fricative, diglossia, intensifier, minimal pair and metonymy . To non-linguists, these words have different meanings or no meanings at all.
  22. 22. Example In Group Out Group Situation One : If you are writing a paper explaining concepts in linguistics to an audience of non-linguists, you might introduce and explain a few important terms. But you wouldn't use those terms without an explanation or in a way your audience wouldn't understand.
  23. 23. Example In Group Out Group Situation Two : If you are writing a conference paper for a group of linguists or a term paper for a college-level linguistics course, you should use in-group jargon to help show that you understand the concepts and can discuss them in ways other linguists can.
  24. 24. 1. Native texts 2. Dictionaries 3. Thesauri ( 类属词典 ) Reference Tools
  25. 25. Next Week Sentence Expansion
  26. 26. The Writing Assignment Write one paragraph in which you describe your future career goals and intellectual interests to the faculty of the English Department. Write another paragraph in which you describe your future career goals and intellectual interests to a Canadian third-year university student. Length : 200 - 300 words total Due at the beginning of next week’s class.
  27. 27. The Reading Assignment Preview Chapter 3, pgs 43-56 for next week’s class
  28. 28. Office Hours Every Tuesday 1:15 – 2:30 pm Building 5, Second Floor
  29. 29. Web site http://njtcwriting.wordpress.com
  30. 30. Web site
  31. 31. Web site
  32. 32. Web site
  33. 33. Radio show Every Thursday 12:30 – 1:30 pm
  34. 34. Turn in your homework .

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