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Chapter 2 The Evolution Of Management Theory Written In Different Manner


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Chapter 2 The Evolution Of Management Theory Written In Different Manner

  1. 1. MANAGEMENT YESTERDAY AND TODAY Chapter 2 2.1 © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.
  2. 2. LEARNING OBJECTIVES <ul><li>You should be able to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss management’s relationship to other academic fields of study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain the value of studying management history </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify some major pre-twentieth-century contributions to management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summarize the contributions of the scientific management advocates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe the contributions of the general administrative theorists </li></ul></ul>2.2
  3. 3. LEARNING OBJECTIVES (continued) <ul><li>You should be able to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Summarize the quantitative approach to management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe the contributions of the early organizational behaviour advocates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain the importance of the Hawthorne Studies to management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe the effects of: globalization, workforce diversity, entrepreneurship, e-business, need for innovation and flexibility, quality management, learning organizations, and knowledge management </li></ul></ul>2.3
  4. 4. MANAGEMENT’S CONNECTION TO OTHER FIELDS OF STUDY <ul><li>Academic Disciplines that Affected Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anthropology - work on cultures and social environments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economics - concern about the allocation and distribution of scarce resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Philosophy - examines the nature of things </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political science - effect of political environment on individuals and groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychology - seeks to measure, explain, and change human behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sociology - studies people in relation to their fellow human beings </li></ul></ul>2.4
  5. 5. DEVELOPMENT OF MAJOR MANAGEMENT THEORIES Historical Background Scientific Management General Administrative Theorists Quantitative Approach Management Theories Industrial Revolution Adam Smith Early Advocates Hawthorne Studies Organizational Behaviour Early Examples of Management 2.5 © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.
  6. 6. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF MANAGEMENT <ul><li>Organizations Have Existed for Thousands of Years </li></ul><ul><li>Significant Pre-Twentieth-Century Events </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adam Smith </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>division of labour - breakdown of jobs into narrow and repetitive tasks increased productivity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial Revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>substitution of machine power for human power </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>large organizations required formal management </li></ul></ul></ul>2.6
  7. 7. SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT <ul><li>F.W. Taylor - Principles of Scientific Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of scientific methods to define the “one best way” for a job to be done </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perspective of improving the productivity and efficiency of manual workers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applied the scientific method to shop floor jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Frank and Lillian Gilbreth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of motion pictures to study hand-and-body movements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Therbligs - classification system for 17 basic hand motions </li></ul></ul>2.7
  8. 8. TAYLOR’S FOUR PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT (Exhibit 2.2) 2.8 <ul><li>Develop a science for each element of an individual’s work, which will replace the old rule-of-thumb method. </li></ul><ul><li>Scientifically select and train, teach, and develop the worker. (Previously, workers chose their own work and trained themselves as best they could.) </li></ul><ul><li>Heartily cooperate with the worker so as to ensure that all work is done in accordance with the principles of the science that has been developed. </li></ul><ul><li>Divide all work and responsibility equally between management and workers. Management takes over all work for which it is better fitted than the workers. (Previously almost all the work and the greater part of the responsibility were thrown on the workers.) </li></ul>
  9. 9. GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE THEORISTS <ul><li>Henri Fayol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concerned with making the overall organization more effective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed theories of what constituted good management practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>proposed a universal set of management functions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>published principles of management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>fundamental, teachable rules of management </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>2.9
  10. 10. PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT (Exhibit 2.3) 2.10
  11. 11. GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE THEORISTS (continued) <ul><li>Max Weber </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed a theory of authority structures and relations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bureaucracy - ideal type of organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>division of labour </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>clearly defined hierarchy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>detailed rules and regulations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>impersonal relationships </li></ul></ul></ul>2.11
  12. 12. IDEAL BUREAUCRACY (Exhibit 2.4) 2.12
  13. 13. QUANTITATIVE APPROACH TO MANAGEMENT <ul><li>Operations Research (Management Science) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of quantitative techniques to improve decision making </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>applications of statistics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>optimization models </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>computer simulations of management activities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linear programming - improves resource allocation decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical-path scheduling analysis - improves work scheduling </li></ul></ul>2.13
  14. 14. TOWARD UNDERSTANDING ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR <ul><li>Organizational Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Study of the actions of people at work </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hawthorne Studies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Started in 1924 at Western Electric Company </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elton Mayo - studies of job design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changed the dominant view that employees were no different from any other machines </li></ul></ul>2.14
  15. 15. EARLY ADVOCATES OF OB (Exhibit 2.5) 2.15
  16. 16. CURRENT TRENDS AND ISSUES <ul><li>Globalization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All organizations are faced with the opportunities and challenges of operating in a global market </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Workforce Diversity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heterogeneous workforce in terms of gender, race, ethnicity, age, and other characteristics that reflect differences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>workforce is getting older </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>high degree of immigration in Canada </li></ul></ul></ul>2.16
  17. 17. CURRENT TRENDS AND ISSUES (continued) <ul><li>Entrepreneurship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three important themes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pursuit of opportunities - capitalizing on environmental change to create value </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Innovation and uniqueness - introducing new approaches to satisfy unfulfilled market needs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>growth - not content to remain small </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will continue to be important in all societies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will influence profit and not-for-profit organizations </li></ul></ul>2.17
  18. 18. CURRENT TRENDS AND ISSUES (continued) <ul><li>Managing in an E-Business World </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E-business - comprehensive term describing the way an organization does its work by using electronic (Internet-based) linkages with key constituencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E-business - any form of business exchange or transaction in which parties interact electronically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intranet - an internal organizational communication system that uses Internet technology and is accessible only by organizational employees </li></ul></ul>2.18
  19. 19. TYPES OF E-COMMERCE TRANSACTIONS E-Commerce 2.19 © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Business-to-Consumer (B2C) Electronic retailing Government-to-Business (G2B) All transactions between companies and government agencies Business-to-Business (B2B) All transactions between a company and its suppliers Consumer-to-Consumer (G2C) Electronic markets formed by Web-based auctions
  20. 20. CATEGORIES OF E-BUSINESS INVOLVEMENT © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 2.20 Total E-Business Organization E-business units within traditional organization E-Business-Enhanced Organization E-business tools and applications used within tradi- tional organization E-Business-Enabled Organization Organization’s entire work processes revolve around e-business model
  21. 21. CURRENT TRENDS AND ISSUES (continued) <ul><li>Need for Innovation and Flexibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Without a constant flow of new ideas, an organization is doomed to obsolescence or even worse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be flexible to accommodate changing customers’ needs, appearance of new competitors, and shifting employees from project to project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Total Quality Management (TQM) - philosophy of management based on continual improvement and responding to customer needs and expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer - refers to internal and external entities that interact with the organization’s product or service </li></ul></ul>2.21
  22. 22. WHAT IS TQM? (Exhibit 2.8) 2.22
  23. 23. CURRENT TRENDS AND ISSUES (continued) <ul><li>Learning Organizations and Knowledge Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning organization - one that has developed the capacity to continuously learn, adapt, and change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create learning capabilities throughout the organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge management - involves cultivating a learning culture where organizational members systematically gather knowledge and share it with others in the organization so as to achieve better performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>managers must transform themselves from bosses to team leaders--listening, coaching, motivating and nurturing </li></ul></ul>2.23