(L9) types of chem. reactions

446 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
446
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
8
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
16
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

(L9) types of chem. reactions

  1. 1. Types of Chemical Reactions
  2. 2. Chemical Reactions  A reaction takes place if the following indications are observed: 1. Gases are produced 2. Precipitates are formed 3. Color changes 4. Formation of distinct odor
  3. 3. Combination Reaction  Two or more substances react to form a single product.
  4. 4. 7 Combination Reactions  Combination reactions occur when two or more substances combine to form a compound.  There are three basic types of combination reactions. 1. Two elements react to form a new compound 2. An element and a compound react to form one new compound 3. Two compounds react to form one compound
  5. 5. 8 Combination Reactions 1. Element + Element Compound A. Metal + Nonmetal Binary Ionic Compound sg2s NaCl2ClNa2
  6. 6. 9 Combination Reactions 1. Element + Element Compound A. Metal + Nonmetal Binary Ionic Compound sg2s MgO2OMg2
  7. 7. 10 Combination Reactions 1. Element + Element Compound A. Metal + Nonmetal Binary Ionic Compound s32s AlBr2Br3Al2 
  8. 8. 11 Combination Reactions 1. Element + Element Compound B. Nonmetal + Nonmetal Covalent Binary Compound s104g2s4 OPO5P
  9. 9. 12 Combination Reactions 1. Element + Element Compound B. Nonmetal + Nonmetal Covalent Binary Compound 3g2s4 PCl4Cl6P
  10. 10. 13 Combination Reactions 1. Element + Element Compound B. Nonmetal + Nonmetal Covalent Binary Compound • Can control which product is made with the reaction conditions. chlorinelimitedin AsCl2Cl3As2 s3g2s chlorineexcessin AsCl2Cl5As2 s5g2s
  11. 11. 14 Combination Reactions 1. Element + Element Compound B. Nonmetal + Nonmetal Covalent Binary Compound • Can control which product is made with the reaction conditions. fluorinelimitedin SeFF2Se s4g2s fluorineexcessin SeFF3Se g6g2s
  12. 12. 15 Combination Reactions 2. Compound + Element Compound s5g2s3 AsClClAsCl g6g2s4 SFFSF
  13. 13. 16 Combination Reactions The reaction of oxygen with oxides of nonmetals is an example of this type of combination reaction. g3 &catalyst g2g2 SO2OSO2 g2g2g COOCO 104264 OPO2OP
  14. 14. 17 Combination Reactions 3. Compound + Compound Compound  gaseous ammonia and hydrogen chloride  lithium oxide and sulfur dioxide s4gg3 ClNHHClNH 3222 SOLiSOOLi
  15. 15. Decomposition Reaction
  16. 16. 19 Decomposition Reactions  Decomposition reactions occur when one compound decomposes to form: 1. Two elements 2. One or more elements and one or more compounds 3. Two or more compounds
  17. 17. 20 Decomposition Reactions 1. Compound Element + Element  decomposition of dinitrogen oxide  decomposition of calcium chloride g2g2g2 ON2ON2 g2 yelectricit 2 ClCaCaCl  2s h s BAg2AgBr2 r  decomposition of silver halides
  18. 18. 21 Decomposition Reactions 2. Compound One Element + Compound(s)  decomposition of hydrogen peroxide g22 or Mnor Feνh aq22 OOH2OH2 3 
  19. 19. 22 Decomposition Reactions 3. Compound Compound + Compound  decomposition of ammonium hydrogen carbonate g2g2g3s34 COOHNHHCONH
  20. 20. Decomposition Reactions
  21. 21. 24 Displacement Reactions  Displacement reactions occur when one element displaces another element from a compound.  These are redox reactions in which the more active metal displaces the less active metal of hydrogen from a compound in aqueous solution.  Activity series is given in Table 4-14.
  22. 22. Displacement Reactions
  23. 23. Displacement Reactions
  24. 24. 27 Displacement Reactions 1. [More Active Metal + Salt of Less Active Metal] [Less Active Metal + Salt of More Active Metal]  molecular equation (s)aq3(s)aq3 AgCuNOCu+AgNO
  25. 25. 28 Displacement Reactions  Total ionic equation You do it!  Net ionic equation You do it! (s) - aq3aqs - aq3aq AgNO+CuCu+NO+Ag (s)aq(s)aq AgCuCu+Ag
  26. 26. 29 Displacement Reactions 2. [Active Metal + Nonoxidizing Acid] [Hydrogen + Salt of Acid]  Common method for preparing hydrogen in the laboratory.  HNO3 is an oxidizing acid.  Molecular equation g2aq342aq42(s) H3+)(SOAlSO3H+Al2
  27. 27. 30 Displacement Reactions  Total ionic equation You do it!  Net ionic equation You do it! g2 -2 aq4 3 aq -2 aq4aq(s) H3+SO3+Al2SO3+H6+Al2 g2 3 aqaq(s) H3+Al2H6+Al2
  28. 28. 31 Displacement Reactions  The following metals are active enough to displace hydrogen  K, Ca, Na, Mg, Al, Zn, Fe, Sn, & Pb  Notice how the reaction changes with an oxidizing acid.  Reaction of Cu with HNO3. • H2 is no longer produced.
  29. 29. 32 Displacement Reactions 3. [Active Nonmetal + Salt of Less Active Nonmetal] [Less Active Nonmetal + Salt of More Active Nonmetal]  Molecular equation (aq)s2aqg2 NaCl2INaI2+Cl Total ionic equation You do it! - aqaqs2 - aqaqg2 Cl2+Na2II2+Na2+Cl
  30. 30. 33 Displacement Reactions  Net ionic equation You do it! - aqs2 - aqg2 Cl2II2+Cl
  31. 31. Double Displacement Reactions
  32. 32. 35 Metathesis Reactions  Metathesis reactions occur when two ionic aqueous solutions are mixed and the ions switch partners. AX + BY AY + BX  Metathesis reactions remove ions from solution in two ways: 1. form predominantly unionized molecules like H2O 2. form an insoluble solid  Ion removal is the driving force of metathesis reactions.
  33. 33. 36 Metathesis Reactions 1. Acid-Base (neutralization) Reactions  Formation of the nonelectrolyte H2O  acid + base salt + water
  34. 34. 37 Metathesis Reactions  Molecular equation )(2(aq)(aq)(aq) OH+KBrKOH+HBr  Total ionic equation You do it! )(2 - aqaq - aqaq - aqaq OH+Br+KOH+K+Br+H  Net ionic equation You do it! )(2 - aqaq OHOH+H 
  35. 35. 38 Metathesis Reactions 2. Precipitation reactions are metathesis reactions in which an insoluble compound is formed.  The solid precipitates out of the solution much like rain or snow precipitates out of the air.
  36. 36. 39 Metathesis Reactions  Precipitation Reactions  Molecular equation (s)3)aq(3aq)(32(aq)23 CaCO+KNO2COK+)Ca(NO Total ionic reaction You do it! s3 - aq3aq -2 aq3aq - aq3 2 aq CaCONO2K2 COK2NO2Ca
  37. 37. 40 Metathesis Reactions  Net ionic reaction You do it! (s)3 -2 aq3 2 aq CaCOCO+Ca

×