1
The Periodic Table
Chemical Periodicity
Additional Informations…
2
3
4
Chapter Goals
1. More About the Periodic Table
Periodic Properties of the Elements
2. Atomic Radii
3. Ionization Energy
...
The Periodic Table
Summarizes
Atomic numbers.
Atomic weights.
Physical state (solid/liquid/gas).
Type (metal/non-metal/met...
The Periodic Table
6
The Periodic Table
7
8
9
10
11
12
More About the Periodic Table
Establish a classification scheme of the elements
based on their electron configurations....
13
More About the Periodic Table
Representative Elements
 Are the elements in A groups
on periodic chart.
These elements ...
14
More About the Periodic Table
d-Transition Elements
 Elements on periodic chart in B
groups.
 Sometimes called transi...
15
More About the Periodic Table
f - transition metals
 Sometimes called inner transition
metals.
Electrons are being add...
16
Periodic Properties
of the Elements
Atomic Radii
Atomic radii describes the
relative sizes of atoms.
Atomic radii incre...
17
Atomic Radii
The reason the atomic radii decrease across a period is due
to shielding or screening effect.
 Effective ...
18
Atomic Radii
Example 6-1: Arrange these elements based
on their atomic radii.
 Se, S, O, Te
You do it!
O < S < Se < Te
19
Atomic Radii
Example 6-2: Arrange these elements based
on their atomic radii.
 P, Cl, S, Si
You do it!
Cl < S < P < Si
20
Atomic Radii
Example 6-3: Arrange these elements based
on their atomic radii.
 Ga, F, S, As
You do it!
F < S < As < Ga
21
Ionization Energy
First ionization energy (IE1)
 The minimum amount of energy required to remove the
most loosely boun...
22
Ionization Energy
Second ionization energy (IE2)
 The amount of energy required to remove the
second electron from a g...
23
Ionization Energy
Periodic trends for Ionization
Energy:
1. IE2 > IE1
It always takes more
energy to remove a second
el...
24
First Ionization Energies
of Some Elements
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20...
25
Ionization Energy
Example 6-4: Arrange these elements based
on their first ionization energies.
 Sr, Be, Ca, Mg
You do...
26
Ionization Energy
Example 6-5: Arrange these elements based
on their first ionization energies.
 Al, Cl, Na, P
You do ...
27
Ionization Energy
First, second, third, etc. ionization energies
exhibit periodicity as well.
Look at the following tab...
28
Ionization Energy
Group
and
element
IA
Na
IIA
Mg
IIIA
Al
IVA
Si
IE1
(kJ/mol)
496 738 578 786
IE2
(kJ/mol)
4562 1451 181...
29
Ionization Energy
The reason Na forms Na+ and not Na2+ is
that the energy difference between IE1 and
IE2 is so large.
...
30
Electron Affinity
Electron affinity is the amount of energy absorbed
when an electron is added to an isolated gaseous
a...
31
Electron Affinity
Mg(g) + e- + 231 kJ/mol Mg-
(g)
EA = +231 kJ/mol
Br(g) + e- Br-
(g) + 323 kJ/mol
EA = -323 kJ/mol
Two...
32
Electron Affinity
General periodic trend for electron affinity is
 the values become more negative from left to right
...
33
Electron Affinities of Some Elements
-400
-350
-300
-250
-200
-150
-100
-50
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17...
34
Electron Affinity
35
Electron Affinity
Example 6-8: Arrange these elements based
on their electron affinities.
 Al, Mg, Si, Na
You do it!
S...
36
Ionic Radii
Cations (positive ions) are always smaller than
their respective neutral atoms.
Element Li Be
Atomic
Radius...
37
Ionic Radii
Anions (negative ions) are always larger
than their neutral atoms.
Element N O F
Atomic
Radius(Å)
0.75 0.73...
38
Ionic Radii
Cation (positive ions) radii decrease from left to
right across a period.
 Increasing nuclear charge attra...
39
Ionic Radii
Anion (negative ions) radii decrease from left to
right across a period.
 Increasing electron numbers in h...
Ionic radius
Cations are smaller than the atoms from
which they form
 Fewer electrons mean increased effective
nuclear ch...
Ionic Radius
41
42
Ionic Radii
Example 6-9: Arrange these elements based
on their ionic radii.
 Ga, K, Ca
You do it!
K1+ < Ca2+ < Ga3+
43
Ionic Radii
Example 6-10: Arrange these elements
based on their ionic radii.
 Cl, Se, Br, S
You do it!
Cl1- < S2- < Br...
44
Electronegativity
Electronegativity is a measure of the relative tendency of an atom to
attract electrons to itself whe...
45
Electronegativity
Example 6-11: Arrange these elements based
on their electronegativity.
 Se, Ge, Br, As
You do it!
Ge...
46
Periodic Trends
It is important that you understand and know
the periodic trends described in the previous
sections.
 ...
47
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(L5)the periodic table

  1. 1. 1 The Periodic Table Chemical Periodicity
  2. 2. Additional Informations… 2
  3. 3. 3
  4. 4. 4 Chapter Goals 1. More About the Periodic Table Periodic Properties of the Elements 2. Atomic Radii 3. Ionization Energy 4. Electron Affinity 5. Ionic Radii 6. Electronegativity
  5. 5. The Periodic Table Summarizes Atomic numbers. Atomic weights. Physical state (solid/liquid/gas). Type (metal/non-metal/metalloid). Periodicity Elements with similar properties are arranged in vertical groups. 5
  6. 6. The Periodic Table 6
  7. 7. The Periodic Table 7
  8. 8. 8
  9. 9. 9
  10. 10. 10
  11. 11. 11
  12. 12. 12 More About the Periodic Table Establish a classification scheme of the elements based on their electron configurations. Noble Gases  All of them have completely filled electron shells. Since they have similar electronic structures, their chemical reactions are similar.  He 1s2  Ne [He] 2s2 2p6  Ar [Ne] 3s2 3p6  Kr [Ar] 4s2 4p6  Xe [Kr] 5s2 5p6  Rn [Xe] 6s2 6p6
  13. 13. 13 More About the Periodic Table Representative Elements  Are the elements in A groups on periodic chart. These elements will have their “last” electron in an outer s or p orbital. These elements have fairly regular variations in their properties.
  14. 14. 14 More About the Periodic Table d-Transition Elements  Elements on periodic chart in B groups.  Sometimes called transition metals. Each metal has d electrons.  ns (n-1)d configurations These elements make the transition from metals to nonmetals. Exhibit smaller variations from row-to-row than the representative elements.
  15. 15. 15 More About the Periodic Table f - transition metals  Sometimes called inner transition metals. Electrons are being added to f orbitals. Electrons are being added two shells below the valence shell! Consequently, very slight variations of properties from one element to another. Outermost electrons have the greatest influence on the chemical properties of elements.
  16. 16. 16 Periodic Properties of the Elements Atomic Radii Atomic radii describes the relative sizes of atoms. Atomic radii increase within a column going from the top to the bottom of the periodic table. Atomic radii decrease within a row going from left to right on the periodic table.  This last fact seems contrary to intuition.  How does nature make the elements smaller even though the electron number is increasing?
  17. 17. 17 Atomic Radii The reason the atomic radii decrease across a period is due to shielding or screening effect.  Effective nuclear charge, Zeff, experienced by an electron is less than the actual nuclear charge, Z.  The inner electrons block the nuclear charge’s effect on the outer electrons. Moving across a period, each element has an increased nuclear charge and the electrons are going into the same shell (2s and 2p or 3s and 3p, etc.).  Consequently, the outer electrons feel a stronger effective nuclear charge.  For Li, Zeff ~ +1  For Be, Zeff ~ +2
  18. 18. 18 Atomic Radii Example 6-1: Arrange these elements based on their atomic radii.  Se, S, O, Te You do it! O < S < Se < Te
  19. 19. 19 Atomic Radii Example 6-2: Arrange these elements based on their atomic radii.  P, Cl, S, Si You do it! Cl < S < P < Si
  20. 20. 20 Atomic Radii Example 6-3: Arrange these elements based on their atomic radii.  Ga, F, S, As You do it! F < S < As < Ga
  21. 21. 21 Ionization Energy First ionization energy (IE1)  The minimum amount of energy required to remove the most loosely bound electron from an isolated gaseous atom to form a 1+ ion. Symbolically: Atom(g) + energy ion+ (g) + e- Mg(g) + 738kJ/mol Mg+ + e-
  22. 22. 22 Ionization Energy Second ionization energy (IE2)  The amount of energy required to remove the second electron from a gaseous 1+ ion. Symbolically:  ion+ + energy ion2+ + e- Mg+ + 1451 kJ/mol Mg2+ + e- •Atoms can have 3rd (IE3), 4th (IE4), etc. ionization energies.
  23. 23. 23 Ionization Energy Periodic trends for Ionization Energy: 1. IE2 > IE1 It always takes more energy to remove a second electron from an ion than from a neutral atom. 2. IE1 generally increases moving from IA elements to VIIIA elements. Important exceptions at Be & Mg, N & P, etc. due to filled and half-filled subshells. 3. IE1 generally decreases moving down a family. IE1 for Li > IE1 for Na, etc.
  24. 24. 24 First Ionization Energies of Some Elements 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Atomic Number Ionization Energy (kJ/mol) H He Li Be B C N O F Ne Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar K Ca
  25. 25. 25 Ionization Energy Example 6-4: Arrange these elements based on their first ionization energies.  Sr, Be, Ca, Mg You do it! Sr < Ca < Mg < Be
  26. 26. 26 Ionization Energy Example 6-5: Arrange these elements based on their first ionization energies.  Al, Cl, Na, P You do it! Na < Al < P < Cl
  27. 27. 27 Ionization Energy First, second, third, etc. ionization energies exhibit periodicity as well. Look at the following table of ionization energies versus third row elements.  Notice that the energy increases enormously when an electron is removed from a completed electron shell.
  28. 28. 28 Ionization Energy Group and element IA Na IIA Mg IIIA Al IVA Si IE1 (kJ/mol) 496 738 578 786 IE2 (kJ/mol) 4562 1451 1817 1577 IE3 (kJ/mol) 6912 7733 2745 3232 IE4 (kJ/mol) 9540 10,550 11,580 4356
  29. 29. 29 Ionization Energy The reason Na forms Na+ and not Na2+ is that the energy difference between IE1 and IE2 is so large.  Requires more than 9 times more energy to remove the second electron than the first one. The same trend is persistent throughout the series.  Thus Mg forms Mg2+ and not Mg3+.  Al forms Al3+.
  30. 30. 30 Electron Affinity Electron affinity is the amount of energy absorbed when an electron is added to an isolated gaseous atom to form an ion with a 1- charge. Sign conventions for electron affinity.  If electron affinity > 0 energy is absorbed.  If electron affinity < 0 energy is released. Electron affinity is a measure of an atom’s ability to form negative ions. Symbolically: atom(g) + e- + EA ion-(g)
  31. 31. 31 Electron Affinity Mg(g) + e- + 231 kJ/mol Mg- (g) EA = +231 kJ/mol Br(g) + e- Br- (g) + 323 kJ/mol EA = -323 kJ/mol Two examples of electron affinity values:
  32. 32. 32 Electron Affinity General periodic trend for electron affinity is  the values become more negative from left to right across a period on the periodic chart.  the values become more negative from bottom to top up a row on the periodic chart. Measuring electron affinity values is a difficult experiment.
  33. 33. 33 Electron Affinities of Some Elements -400 -350 -300 -250 -200 -150 -100 -50 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Atomic Number ElectronAffinity(kJ/mol) Electron Affinity H He Li Be B C N O F Ne Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar K Ca
  34. 34. 34 Electron Affinity
  35. 35. 35 Electron Affinity Example 6-8: Arrange these elements based on their electron affinities.  Al, Mg, Si, Na You do it! Si < Al < Na < Mg
  36. 36. 36 Ionic Radii Cations (positive ions) are always smaller than their respective neutral atoms. Element Li Be Atomic Radius (Å) 1.52 1.12 Ion Li+ Be2+ Ionic Radius (Å) 0.90 0.59 Element Na Mg Al Atomic Radius (Å) 1.86 1.60 1.43 Ion Na+ Mg2+ Al3+ Ionic Radius (Å) 1.16 0.85 0.68
  37. 37. 37 Ionic Radii Anions (negative ions) are always larger than their neutral atoms. Element N O F Atomic Radius(Å) 0.75 0.73 0.72 Ion N3- O2- F1- Ionic Radius(Å) 1.71 1.26 1.19
  38. 38. 38 Ionic Radii Cation (positive ions) radii decrease from left to right across a period.  Increasing nuclear charge attracts the electrons and decreases the radius. Ion Rb+ Sr2+ In3+ Ionic Radii(Å) 1.66 1.32 0.94
  39. 39. 39 Ionic Radii Anion (negative ions) radii decrease from left to right across a period.  Increasing electron numbers in highly charged ions cause the electrons to repel and increase the ionic radius. Ion N3- O2- F1- Ionic Radii(Å) 1.71 1.26 1.19
  40. 40. Ionic radius Cations are smaller than the atoms from which they form  Fewer electrons mean increased effective nuclear charge on those that remain Anions are larger than the atoms from which they form  More electrons mean that there is more electron-electron repulsion so the size of the ion increases relative to that of the atom 40
  41. 41. Ionic Radius 41
  42. 42. 42 Ionic Radii Example 6-9: Arrange these elements based on their ionic radii.  Ga, K, Ca You do it! K1+ < Ca2+ < Ga3+
  43. 43. 43 Ionic Radii Example 6-10: Arrange these elements based on their ionic radii.  Cl, Se, Br, S You do it! Cl1- < S2- < Br1- < Se2-
  44. 44. 44 Electronegativity Electronegativity is a measure of the relative tendency of an atom to attract electrons to itself when chemically combined with another element.  Electronegativity is measured on the Pauling scale.  Fluorine is the most electronegative element.  Cesium and francium are the least electronegative elements. For the representative elements, electronegativities usually increase from left to right across periods and decrease from top to bottom within groups.
  45. 45. 45 Electronegativity Example 6-11: Arrange these elements based on their electronegativity.  Se, Ge, Br, As You do it! Ge < As < Se < Br
  46. 46. 46 Periodic Trends It is important that you understand and know the periodic trends described in the previous sections.  They will be used extensively in Chapter 7 to understand and predict bonding patterns.
  47. 47. 47 End

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