Augmenting Education: The Collision of Real and Virtual Worlds [VRA]


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This presentation explores augmented reality and potential uses within arts education. The presentation has been enhanced from the previous October 2012 presentation. Videos have been added, new examples have been provided, further explanations have been added to the notes, and the information has been tailored to the VRA audience.

Presented as part the Visual Resources Association’s 31st Annual Conference session, “Enhancing Education Beyond the Classroom Experience via Visualization Technologies.”

The PowerPoint presentation with embedded videos can also be downloaded as a zipped file at [Note: Viewing the presentation with embedded videos has been known to be problematic. Depending on your version of PowerPoint and your operating system, the videos may or may not play.]

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  • Caudell, T. and Mizell, D. Augmented reality: An application of heads-up display technology to manual manufacturing processes. In Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, volume 25, pages 659–659. IEEE INSTITUTE OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS, 1992.[Tom Caudell and David Mizell]
  • Educause 2011 Horizon Report Things You Should Know About Augmented Reality - Educause
  • Educause 2011 Horizon Report Things You Should Know About Augmented Reality - Educause
  • Augmented Reality: A class of displays on the reality-virtuality continuumPaul Milgram, HaruoTakemura, Akira Utsumi, Fumio Kishino milgrams VR-AR continuum.png
  • like this are still being tested today. However, the increase of broadband networks, the processing power of mobile devices, and the adoption of cloud-based processing and services has given rise to augmented reality solutions for much smaller devices.
  • Smart phones and tablets act as a “magic window” into the virtual world overlaid on the real world. However, prototypes like MIT’s SixthSense, can project information onto real world objects. For example, the system can recognize books and project Amazon ratings as well as other information right onto the real world book.
  • Information from third parties like Wikipedia and user-generated content are combined in a single application and visible in specific locations. Notice the radar in the upper-right corner. The application tells you what other points of interest are nearby. In this case, the application Tagwhat indicates that there are a number of user-generated points (those in blue) and Wikipedia points (those in gold) nearby and in what direction they are in relation to the direction of the user.
  • Geo-located Tweets or geo-located posts on Facebook can be viewed through a number of AR browsers including Tagwhat. By moving discourse outside the classroom and at the convenience of students, educators deepen the learning experience. By directing people to additional resources such as lectures, institutions can further broaden their knowledge base.
  • Markers are symbols that trigger particular actions. Actions can include the appearance to two-dimensional imagery, thee-dimensional models as seen here from the Getty Museum, or even videos.
  • More information about VMFA and The Martin Agency’s QR code campaign and augmented reality can be viewed at
  • Other systems use the actual object as the trigger. In this slide we can see additional information about the object, RISD Fleet Library’s clock, by holding up a smart mobile device. The markerless technique works best with static imagery.
  • DAIM is pronounced “Dime.” Additionally, typography become sculptural. Users can walk in and through the object to obtain a greater appreciation of the spatial relationship the object has within its environment.
  • Imagine being able to understand a work of digital art by walking around and through the piece as well as see it created in 3-dimensions before your eyes long after the artist has completed the work. Students and patrons can gain a greater understanding and appreciation of the work through augmented reality.
  • “Augmented Reality for Art, Design and Cultural Heritage—System Design and Evaluation” by Jurjen Caarls, Pieter Jonker, Yolande Kolstee, Joachim Rotteveel, and Wim van Eck“Manipulation of real objects that influence (through RFID) the virtual world is “magic” for many people.“ - Jurjen Caarls et al.Dutcheese exhibition at the SaloneInternazionale del Mobile 2008 in Milan, Italy.
  • Dutcheese exhibition at the SaloneInternazionale del Mobile 2008 in Milan, Italy.
  • Sgraffito in 3Dat The Boijmans van Beuningen Museum, Rotterdam, Netherlands. 2008-2009.
  • “66% of those ages 18-29 own smart phones” – The Pew Research Center's Internet & American Life Project, Sept. 2012.*While searches can be conducted in Twitter for hashtags, it is not known if the same is true for any of the augmented reality applications.
  • mobility combined with voice and image recognition make Google Glass an interesting development. Google glass was introduced in 2012, and will begin shipping to a limited number of buyers in 2013. Currently, the product relies on being tethered to a networked mobile device.In the image at the top illustrates how Google Glass can recognize imagery (in this case a movie poster), make a recommendation to purchase tickets, and then the user could respond user his or her voice.
  • image on the left is an illustration of the contact lens developed at the University of Washington. The image on the right illustrates how may we may see information via contacts in the future.
  • This may also be an interesting case for Massive, Open Online Courses (MOOCs).
  • Most of the AR browser apps include third party content like geo-located tweets.Aurasmaempowers users to swap one image for another or an image for a video.Another popular app not included above is Acrossair.I found it to be too focused on marketing. NearestWiki works on the Acrossair browser, shows geo-located wiki info, and is a paid app. Other apps like Tagwhat include Wikipedia information for free.
  • Augmenting Education: The Collision of Real and Virtual Worlds [VRA]

    1. 1. Augmenting Education:The Collision of Real and Virtual Worlds Presented as part the Visual Resources Association’s 31st Annual Conference session, “Enhancing Education Beyond the Classroom Experience via Visualization Technologies.” Bryan Loar Senior Director, Research & Knowledge Management
    2. 2. WHAT’S AR? Bryan Loar +
    3. 3. Augmented Reality By DanieleCivello Detail of Google Glass By zugaldia augmented reality game bibliotheek deventer ByAugmented Reality Brings 3-D to Retail By nilsmengedoht Concept Art Tijdmachine By TijdmachineIntelFreePress Augmented Reality (AR) is the augmentation of the visual field of a user by enhancing the current field of vision with additional information- Caudell and Mizell Bryan Loar +
    4. 4. [SlideShare: See next slide for video]MOVABLESCREENALLARD PIERSON MUSEUM, AMSTERDAM Bryan Loar +
    5. 5. AR’sEDUCATIONALVALUE ACTIVE NOT PASSIVE New understanding based on interactions with virtual objects Objects too large or too small to be manipulated can be brought into a student‟s personal space at a scale and in a form easy to understand and work with SITUATED LEARNINGThe ability to transfer learning from one context to another is a significant skill, one that AR can facilitate in its overt use of context and layering FORMAL + INFORMALLEARNING Contribute to the evolution of a learning ecology that transcends educational institutions Bryan Loar +
    6. 6. AR’sIMPORTANCE TO THE VISUAL RESOURCES FIELDMETADATA PATRON TRAININGHow should they be treated? A work? An image? What about “didactic works” like video? As with e-readers, information professionals in public workplaces and educators may be asked to have a deep understanding of the technology in order toVRA Core: Many elements exist to handle AR digital objects, but can it adequately describe the object? train patrons.Cataloging Cultural Objects (CCO): The same questions arise. WORKFLOW In the not too distant future, educators, image professionals, librarians, and informationGetty Research Institute‟s Art & Architecture Thesaurus (AAT): Does the appropriate controlled vocabulary professionals could be using augmented reality exist? Virtual reality exists but not augmented reality. glasses to enhance their current responsibilities. Bryan Loar +
    7. 7. Real Environment Augmented Reality (AR) Augmented Virtuality (AV) Virtual Environment OSU Fine Arts Library - Nike By Global kids Screens By NMC Second Bryan Loar Life [Modified] 3 m.MIXED REALITYCONTINUUM Bryan Loar +
    8. 8. BEGINNINGS Ivan Sutherland‟s work at MIT starting in 1966 led to the first head-mounted display exhibited in 1968. The 1968 display‟s translucent properties made Sutherland, Ivan E. A Head-Mounted Three-Dimensional Display. Proceedings of the AFIPS Fall Joint Computer it a precursor to Conference Washington, D.C.: Thompson Books, 1968, p. 757-764. AR.AR& Virtual Reality (VR) share acommon ancestry. Bryan Loar +
    9. 9. EARLYMOBILITYIn the late 1990‟s,researchers like WaynePiekarski began todevelop mobile ARsolutions. Some of thehardware could bepurchased ready to use,some modified, andsome created. Many ofthese systems used abackpack design tocarry the array ofnecessary equipment. Tinmith-Endeavour backpack By Wayne Piekarski Bryan Loar +
    10. 10. ARTOOLS TODAY Bryan Loar +
    11. 11. HEAD “Utilizing Vuzix‟s patented quantum optic see-thru technology, the STAR 1200XL enables you to see the real world directly through itsMOUNTED transparent widescreen video displays. Computer content, such as text, images and video, are overlaid on the displays in full colorDISPLAYS 2D or 3D in a display overlay equivalent to a 75-inch flat panel display, as seen from 10 feet (~3m).” - Vuzix Bryan Loar +
    12. 12. Exploring In Situ with Layar By Mosman CouncilMOBILE DEVICES junaio on iPad 2 - Augmented Reality 2.0 By metaioARPatti Maes Projects [Detail] By jurvetson Bryan Loar +
    14. 14. GEO- LOCATED ARTagWhat AR App - SW Portland By Robin M. Ashford Bryan Loar +
    15. 15. I thought the ATTENTION: Meet the artist sculptor today at noon Museum patrons‟ demonstrated and hear a talk … experience can be technical ability enhanced withand executed their additional information, vision well. including time-sensitive information. Jane Doe 12:35 4/3/13 Twitter Students can produce geo-located, @Jane, why? asynchronous discourse.John Smith 10:07 4/4/13 Twitter AR CAMPUS RISD Sculpture By Mr. Ducke EXPLORATION Bryan Loar +
    16. 16. The Getty Museums Augmented Reality Demo By The MARKERSGetty Museum “The Augsburg Display Cabinet, the Getty Museum‟s 17th-century „cabinet of curiosities‟… [SlideShare: See next slide for video] [The] “AR feature is intended to generate excitement for what museums are all about: discovery and wonder.” - Anne Martens, J. Paul Getty Trust Bryan Loar +
    17. 17. EXHIBITMARKERS Picasso en AcciónBy algargosIncrease engagement andunderstanding by using markers toenhance students‟ and museumpatrons‟ knowledge.Markers can be placed on exhibitionplacards, posters or other associated AR fiduciary marker mockup of the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts (VMFA) and The Martin Agency‟s poster for VMFA‟s exhibit Picasso:ephemera. Masterpieces from the Musée National Picasso, Paris. Bryan Loar +
    18. 18. “The same spherical clock hangs from the high domed ceiling, much like a similar clock hangs in the converted train station in Paris that is now the Musee d‟Orsay. The clock is one of several remnants of the historic bank building that decorate the interior of what is now the Rhode Island School of Design‟s Fleet Library.” http://www.browndailyherald.c om/2013/02/12/risd-library- fuses-modern-style-with-old- architecture/MARKERLESS Clock by dose.daily Bryan Loar +
    19. 19. INSTRUCTION EVERYWHERE A teacher, creator, or Appreciating Art Lecture Series - Sculpture as Contemporary Art By student can create nhbnhb1 videos that give greater insight to objects in situ where specific points need to be stressed or where little-to-no information exists. The power of seeing the object in situ combined with a deeper understanding can lead to more in-depth discussions.Arthur Carter Sculpture By Brown UniversityMARKERLESS Bryan Loar +
    20. 20. TODAY’SARPIONEERS Bryan Loar +
    21. 21. AUGMENTEDTYPOGRAPHY Graffiti artist DAIM partnered with the creative agency Jung von Matt/next GmbH to create an innovative form of typography that can be viewed 360 degrees. The process brings a kinetic element to the creation of "Tagged in Motion" (en) - digital light writing By daimorg digital typography. Bryan Loar +
    22. 22. AUGMENTEDTYPOGRAPHYFiduciary markers, ahead-mounted display(HMD), software, and3 cameras were usedto create 3-D graffiti "Tagged in Motion" (en) - digital light writing By daimorg Bryan Loar +
    23. 23. AUGMENTEDTYPOGRAPHYThe video feed is fedthrough a computer and [SlideShare: See next slide for video]the software recognizesthe markers. Bryan Loar +
    24. 24. T(ether) “A Spatially- and Body- Aware Window for Collaborative Editing and Animation of 3D VirtualT(ether) – a Spatially- and Body-Aware Window for Collaborative Editing and Animation of 3D Virtual Objects By TangibleMedia Group Objects” – Tangible Media Group Tangible Media Group MIT Media Lab Bryan Loar +
    25. 25. T(ether) T(ether) – a Spatially- and Body-Aware Window for Collaborative Editing and Animation of 3D Virtual Objects By Tangible Media Group Object size, shape, and location can be altered by the use of a glove with markers. Bryan Loar +
    26. 26. T(ether) [SlideShare: See next slide for video]Multiple collaborators can manipulate their own objects as well as other‟s objects. Bryan Loar +
    27. 27. ARDESIGN & CULTURALHERITAGEStudents explore changing thetextiles of virtual curtains in a realroom by selecting real materialswith radio frequency identification(RFID) tags in them. Because theyhave virtualized the real textile andtheir system recognizes the ids,real and virtual worlds are uniquelyintertwined. Figure 15: Touching the RFID tagged textiles at the pole changes the texture of the virtual curtains in the room. By Jurjen Caarls et al. Bryan Loar +
    28. 28. ARDESIGN & CULTURALHERITAGEVirtual furniture designs with somethat are animated to demonstratethe assembly process. Figure 17: Virtual furniture designs; some are animated to show the assembly process. By Jurjen Caarls et al. Bryan Loar +
    29. 29. ARDESIGN &CULTURAL Figure 21. The rapid prototypes can be touched. By Jurjen Caarls et al.HERITAGE Figure 23. Screen-based AR as low cost solution.Fragile museum artifacts were scanned in a CT By Jurjen Caarls et al.scanning system, replicas were constructed, and 3-Dvirtual models were created.Patrons could touch and study the replicas giving thema greater understanding of the artifact.Using markers and replicated artifact shards, patrons Figure 20. AR visualization of cultural heritage using acould see how the objects could have appeared. rapid prototyped earthenware piece with marker. By Jurjen Caarls et al. Bryan Loar +
    30. 30. ARCHALLENGESCHALLENGES TO INCORPORATING AUGMENTED REALITYDEVICE AVAILABILITY Not all students or patrons can be expected to have smart mobile devices. SOLUTIONS: In academic settings, create teams ensuring one person has a smart mobile device. In cultural institutions, some have used mounted displays while others have created auditoriums filled with tablets that have a large range of movement but their housing is tethered to the seating.APP FATIGUE Students and patrons may not want to download another app. SOLUTION: Demonstrate the added value of the information provided through guided demonstrations or pre-recorded video.AUTHORITY If everyone is submitting user-generated content, then some of that content may not be relevant. SOLUTION: Create a unique hashtag to gather the information and weed out the rest.*OFF-SITE ACCESS Not all student have transportation to visit sites off campus. SOLUTION: Keep sites on campus as much as possible. This will also give the student a deeper appreciation of the school. Bryan Loar +
    31. 31. AR TOMORROW Bryan Loar +
    32. 32. GOOGLE GLASSProject Glass: One day... [Detail] By GoogleProject Glass eyewear By robpegoraro Google Glass By Stuck in Customs Bryan Loar +
    33. 33. CONTACT In 2011, researchers under Babak Parviz at the University of Washington successfullyLENSES tested a 1-pixel lens “powered by a remote radio frequency transmitter in free space…on a live rabbit.” (Lingley et al., 2011)A single-pixel wireless contact lens display By A R Lingleyet al. Raygun Studio Bryan Loar +
    34. 34. Imagine working with students where only part of the class is present in real life and the rest are virtual holograms visible through a head- mounted display (HMD). Now imagine projects where their actionsarerecorded and your interaction does not have to be at the same time (i.e. asynchronous collaboration throughMIXED MASS AR)COLLABORATION Bryan Loar +
    35. 35. Explore ARToday! Why wait for tomorrow‟s tools. Begin exploring augmented reality today!Many apps are available for both iPhones and Android-based smart phones. Aurasma Wikitude Junaio Tagwhat SlinGooz Bryan Loar +
    36. 36. THANK YOU Find this presentation & more at bryanloar.comFor more resources on AR, please go to All images and videos were used for educational, non-commercial purposes only. Bryan Loar +