READ! READ! READ!
A newspaper is better than a magazine. A
seashore is a better place than the street. At first
it is better to run than to walk. You may have to
try several times. It takes some skill but is easy to
learn. Even young children can enjoy it. Once
successful, complications are minimal. Birds
seldom get too close. Rain, however, soaks in
very fast. Too many people doing the same thing
can also cause problems. One needs lots of room.
If there are no complications it can be very
peaceful. A rock will serve as an anchor. If things
break loose from it, however, you will not get a
• “…the transaction with a text. The reader
brings meaning to a text in order to create
meaning from it.” (Galda, 1993)
• “…to comprehend the meaning of something
written, or printed by looking at or
interpreting the printed or written characters.”
Processes That Affect Reading
• Reading is a social process.
– It is affected by one’s
attitudes, loyalties, conflicts, and prejudices. It is
augmented by social acceptance, self-
reliance, and cooperation in a group.
• Reading is a psychological process.
– How he feels about oneself and about others
affects the reading process. Emotional stability
determines one’s comfort in the reading situation.
• Reading is a physiological process.
– One needs skills in auditory and visual
discrimination, verbal expression, syntactical
maturity, eye-hand coordination, and motor skills
to execute all the mechanical skills associated with
• Reading is a
– It utilizes perceptual
clues: size, shape,
of sounds and
relationships of the
parts of a whole,
• Reading is a linguistic process.
– It requires sound-symbol
relationships, understanding of
intonation, stress, rhythm, pausing, and tone
– It is dependent on contextual meanings and
grasping ideas in whole thought units.
• Reading is an intellectual
– It is dependent on
vocabulary, memory, verb
al reasoning, perceiving
, critical judgment, and
Factors of Effective Reading
Skimming and Scanning
– Means reading only small parts of a text in order
to get an overview of the organization of the text
and its main idea.
How to Skim
• Make sure that you know what information
you are looking for, ask yourself a question,
and look for a keyword.
• Move your eyes quickly from line to line, and
from sentence to sentence.
• When you think you have found what you are
looking for, stop.
• Read slowly the part of the line or sentence
that tells you what you want to know.
• Think about the question you were trying to
• Does the information you found answer the
question? If not, quickly read the passage
again to look for the information you need.
• Jot down the answer to the question you’ve
– Involves looking quickly through a text to find a
specific word or piece of information. Instead of
reading every word on a page, readers move eyes
quickly, searching for what is needed.
Guidelines for Scanning
• Understand the organization of the material
• Stay focused on what you are looking for
• Use whatever clues are available to speed
• Confirm your information
• The procedure is actually quite simple. First you arrange
things into groups. Of course, one pile may be sufficient
depending on how much there is to do. If you have to go
somewhere else due to lack of facilities, that is the next step;
otherwise you are pretty well set. It is important not to
overdo things. That is, it is better to do too few things at once
than too many. In the short run this may not seem
important, but complications can arise. A mistake can prove
expensive as well. At first the whole procedure will seem
complicated. Soon, however, it will become just another facet
of life. It is difficult to foresee any end to the necessity for this
task in the immediate future, but one can never tell. After the
procedure is completed, one arranges the materials into
different groups again. Then they can be put into their
appropriate places. Eventually they will all be used once
more, and the whole cycle will have to be repeated.
However, that is part of life.