Registering a GI in coffee from Mont Ziama, Guinée


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Presentation hold by Marie Antoinette Haba, Head of cooperation and development, Ministry of Agriculture and focal point on GIs of OAPI, at the Brussels Briefing ‘Geography of food: reconnecting with origin in the food system’, organized by CTA on 15th May 2013.
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Registering a GI in coffee from Mont Ziama, Guinée

  1. 1. Brussels Briefing n. 31Geography of food: reconnecting with origin in the foodsystem15th May 2013http://brusselsbriefings.netLessons learned from the process of registering a GIin coffee from Mont Ziama, GuinéeMarie Antoinette Haba, Ministry of Agriculture,Guinea
  2. 2. Support Project for the Implementation ofGeographical Indications for OAPI(PAMPIG)ZIAMA-MACENTA COFFEEDEVELOPMENT PROCESS INTERMS OF GEOGRAPHICALINDICATIONSPresented by: Mrs SANOUSSI Marie Antoinette HABA, focal pointGeographical IndicationsBriefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May 2013 2
  3. 3. I. The importance of GI African countries possess an important agricultural and agrifoodbiodiversity potential. These products, the quality of which isclosely linked to their origins, are identified with the regionalnames they come from. Our countries’ current vulnerable economy forces us to explorenew opportunities in developing their products. GeographicalIndication is a tool that allows typical quality products to benefitfrom legal protection in reference to geographical origin. Bearing in mind all these issues and the important potential oftypical quality products abundant in our countries, numerousinitiatives have come about in Africa, within the framework oftechnical partnerships such as the technical support from theAfrican Intellectual Property Organization (OAPI), F AO andother technical partners.Briefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May 2013 3
  4. 4. II. Initiatives in Sub-Saharan Africa FAO initiativesIn 2002, the FAO set up a ‘Trust Fund for Food Security and Food Safety’and in 2006, the Italian Cooperation, via its Directorate General forDevelopment Cooperation (DGCS), within the framework of this Fund,decided to finance a number of projects on food safety and thevalorization of agricultural products via transformation andcommercialization in 7 West African countries: Gambia, Guinea,Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Senegal and Sierra Leone.Some results: Setting-up of regional workshops; Development of support tools; Development of 23 case studies in different parts of the world, and inparticular 5 in Africa: Tea in Rwanda, Rice in Kovie (Togo), Violet fromGalmi (Niger), Shallot from the Dogon Country (Mali), Honey fromCasamance (Senegal).Briefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May 2013 4
  5. 5. II. Initiatives in Sub-Saharan Africa (continued) Guide for promoting quality linked to origins and sustainablegeographical indications: ‘Territories, products, localstakeholders: links to quality’ broadcast in several countries andwithin workshops. Many projects with the research network SinerGI and technicalcooperation projects in North Africa (Morocco, Tunisia) and inSub-Saharan Africa (Mali, Sierra Leone, Senegal, Guinea Bissau,Republic of Guinea). Another project is under way in Benin. In Guinea Bissau, Mali, Senegal and Sierra Leone and incollaboration with Slow Food, the sub-regional project for thepromotion of local products in order to preserve food traditionand biodiversity is being developed.Briefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May 2013 5
  6. 6. II. Initiatives in Sub-Saharan Africa (continued) OAPI initiatives The African Intellectual Property Organization (OAPI) currentlyincludes 16 countries. To all Member States, OAPI is the common office for IntellectualProperty. It is governed by the Bangui Agreement of 1999, which is itscommon law. Procedure is centralized: all presentation to OAPI bears the valueof national presentation in each Member StateBriefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May 2013 6•Mali•Burkina Faso•Cameroon•Central African Republic•Congo•Ivory Coast•Gabon•Guinea•Guinea Bissau•Mauritania•Niger•Senegal•Chad•Togo
  7. 7. II. Initiatives in Sub-Saharan Africa (continued) OAPI possesses a protection framework, specially designed for GI,via its Appendix VI, which defines GI as ‘[...] indications that serveto identify a product as originating from a certain territory in aregion or a locality of said territory, in the case whereby a quality,reputation or any other determining characteristic of the productcan be essentially attributable to that geographical origin’. OAPI avails these States with a sui generis system, characterizedby the producers recording the name, this recording therebycreating exclusive rights to the former to use the name forcommercial purposes. The GI is protected as such and from thenon, can no longer be used by third parties even if the true origin ofthe product is used by a counterfeiter, used in another language oryet, slightly distorted by using words relocating said product.Briefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May 2013 7
  8. 8. III. Why start a pilot project on GI?Findings:1. Since the coming into effect of the Bangui Agreement of 1977revised in 1999, OAPI has not received any application forregistration of products originating from its Member States,despite the existence of ‘informal’ African geographicalindications that greatly contribute to the socio-economic wealthof the territories where they are anchored;3. The official recognition of geographical indications (GI) wouldboth recognize and protect their heritage and allow manyproducts to assert their identity, to structure economicorganizations and to develop added value; Bearing this in mind, in 2000, the OAPI Member States decidedto implement a pilot project on geographical indications as toolsfor local development.Briefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May 2013 8
  9. 9. IV. History1. 2000- Birth of the idea for a pilot project / Conakry Workshop /OMPI,INAO,INPI,OAPI2. From 2001 to 2003- choice of four pilot countries (Burkina Faso, Cameroon, IvoryCoast, Guinea);- training in France of pilot countries’ managers (INAO);- involvement proposal to Ministries of Agriculture.3. Framing the Project/INPI, MAE,MAP,OMPI/ 2003 - 2004- seeking OAPI and its Member States via an approach initiationbases on concrete product examples;- Expert mission by INAO and CIRAD in the pilot countries- naming of GI focal pointsBriefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May 2013 9
  10. 10. IV. History (continued)4. Preparation for the Ministerial meeting on the fringes of theCA / OAPI 25th session in Ouagadougou in 2005 Presentation of focal points; Continued product identifying; Shaping of pilot countries’ focal points;5. Ministerial meeting on the fringes of the CA / OAPI 25thsession in Ouagadougou in 2005 Adoption of a 4-year plan of action for GI; Adoption of the declaration of Ouagadougou on GI in order to setup National Committees and find the necessary funding6. Funding request proposal submitted to financial donors in20067. 2008, Signature of PAMPIG funding convention betweenOAPI/AFDBriefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May 2013 10
  11. 11. V. Support Project to GI Implementation (PAMPIG)General objectives of PAMPIG The purpose of the PROJECT is to support members of OAPIin conquering niche markets through GeographicalIndications States, and thus contribute to rural developmentby improving and securing the earnings of the producersinvolved.The project specifically aims to:1. Assist producers of the Member States in an identificationand recognition exercise of domestic products eligible forGeographical Indications;2. Contribute to OAPI capacity building and national publicand private partners to ensure the promotion and protectionof Geographical Indications.Briefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May 2013 11
  12. 12. VI. Components of PAMPIGBriefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May 2013 12Component 1•Project management•training in developingspecifications andprocurement;•OAPI executives weretrained, including theproject manager.Component 2•Technical assistance•Support for pilot products•Call for new productsproposal•Annual regional workshops•Regional actions
  13. 13. VI. Components of PAMPIG (continued) COMPONENT 21. Technical assistance- recruitment March - April 2010- support the starting-up, review of the plan of action,validation and implementation (permanent mission – 4months);- remote support (remote ad-hoc missions , travelling) .2. Support for pilot products- Oku white honey (Cameroon);- Penja pepper (Cameroon);- Korhogo cloth (Ivory Coast);- Ziama Macenta coffee (Guinea).Briefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May 2013 13
  14. 14. VI. Components of PAMPIG (continued) COMPONENT 23. Support for pilot products- identifying stakeholders and sector diagnosis;- raising awareness with producers, building structures;- support in the preparation of specifications, defining thegeographical area, development of methods of control,marketing and promotion strategy;- Building a case for GI.4. Call for new products proposal110 products reported including 79 with usable data, adozen (12) providing enough informationto possibly justify a more in-depth approach.Briefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May 2013 14
  15. 15. VII. Support for Ziama-Macenta Coffee OAPI and CIRAD support mission in August 2010 Structuring of a national system (GI National Committee) Strengthening the capacity of national stakeholders, presentation ofPAMPIG action plan and the level of implementation Sector diagnosis and identifying Ziama-Macenta stakeholders andalongside them, validating a plan of action for the recognition ofthis pilot product in terms of GI. Launch of a tender in 2011 by OAPI Characterization of the sector and the product, raising awarenesswith the stakeholders, organization of the group representing GI, Organization of missions and work by international experts, Establish a control plan and a marketing strategy, Develop and validate the approach, the specifications, thedelimitation, the control system and marketing strategy with thegroup representative of the GIBriefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May 201315
  16. 16. VII. Support for Ziama-Macenta Coffee (continued) Choice by IRAM - Institut de Recherches etdApplications des Méthodes de Développement(Institute for research and application in developmentmethods)Implementation support in partnership with: MGE- Maison guinéenne de l’entrepreneur (Guineanentrepreneurs association) lRAG- Institut de recherche agronomique deGuinée (Guinean Agricultural Research Institute) ANPROCA- Agence nationale pour la promotion du conseilagricole (National Agency Promoting Rural and AgriculturalConsulting)Briefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May 2013 16
  17. 17. VIII. Results Sector stakeholders for Ziama-Macenta coffee areidentified Groups representative of the Ziama-Macenta coffee GI areestablished : ADECAM is created 26th July 2012 Instructors and producers are trained in running a coffee-plantation and post-harvest treatments; In basic accounting tools, inventory tracking, material tracking; Production zones are determined and characterized A control system is established and validated by the GIAssociation Ziama-Macenta coffee specifications are established,validated by the GI Association A commercial strategy for the GI Association for Ziama-Macenta coffee is established alongside with, that year, a contract toexport 40 tons of coffee to P. Jobin & CieBriefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May 2013 17
  18. 18. IX. Product characteristics GI applicantADECAM – Association de défense du café Ziama-Macenta(Association for the defense of Z-M coffee)Address: MacentaPresident: M. Sidiki CAMARA Product nameCafé Ziama-Macenta (Z-M coffee) Nature of the productIt is a Robusta coffee.The coffee comes from exclusively Robusta clones or hybrids;therefore both traditional varieties and clones (119, 477, 529et 594)These are plantations with an upper stratum providing shade onall plotsBriefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May 2013 18
  19. 19. IX. Product characteristics (continued)Ziama-Macenta coffee has features much closer to those of anArabica coffee: The prepared drink has a tangy and slightly bitter flavor, a strong, fine andpersistent aroma. Grain density is determined at humidity factors of 12%. Due to the slowgrowth of the berries, the grains are particularly dense. The green coffee is sold in jute bags inscribed with ‘Ziama-Macenta coffeeGeographical Indication’ and a label with the name and logo of the GIAssociation, the reference numbers of the producers and the date ofpackaging sewn onto the bag.Briefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May 201313 19State ofproductShape Size and density Color SmellGreencoffeeHalf-circleSlightlytaperedGradesDensity Yellow,green andyellow-green(brown)Green (raw)coffee flavoredsmellG1 700 to710g/dm30,9 to 1,5 gG2 0,6 to 1 g
  20. 20. X. Geographical area Municipalities found in the geographical area in the immediatevicinity of the forest perimeter of the Ziama mountain, with astrong influence on microclimate through high cloudinessassociated with heavy rainfall, cloud cover and high altitudecombined with low temperatures; The GI area for Ziama-Macenta coffee is located in the Macentaprefecture and the municipalities of Daro, Fassankoni,Kouankan, Macenta, NZébéla, Orémai, Ségbédou, Sérédou andVassérédou (107 villages). With an elongated shape to theNorth-South over a length of 78 km and 55 km wide on theEast-West side, with longitudes ranging between 9 ° and 10 °west and between 8 ° and 9 ° north in latitude; Cherryproduction area is within the scope of influence of the forest ofMount Ziama; Total surface area of 360,200 ha, including the Ziama forestreserve;Briefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May 2013 20
  21. 21. X. Geographical area (continued)Briefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May 2013 21
  22. 22. X. Geographical area (end) Potential arable and farming land, besides forest reserve, is 220700 ha; Vegetation dominated by a dense rain forest and/or secondaryforest Ferrallitic brown forest soils with a dense canopy resting on agranite substrate with dolerite intrusions Number of days of rain spread over nine months from 260 to280 days, with a total rainfall of 2000-3000 mm / annum; Average temperature of 25 ° C, average relative humidity levelsof 80%, altitude = or> to 450 m <.Briefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May 2013 22
  23. 23. XI. Links to origins All operations take place within the geographical area(planting, harvesting, sorting, drying, packaging, storage ofcoffee ‘shells’, hulling, winnowing, sorting commercial coffee,grading, bagging of commercial coffee); Prior commitment from licensed operators in the industry toproduce and market Ziama-Macenta coffee with the GIAssociation and recording with the GI Association and theinspection body; Traceability system to know the volumes produced and soldduring the various industry stages according to internal andexternal audit lists to be kept for two years and be availablefor consultation at all times; Products placed in 60 kg jute bags, labeled by downstreamoperators responsible for bagging;Briefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May 201323
  24. 24. XII. Product reputation The botanical species Coffea canephora, the Robusta wasdiscovered in West Africa between Uganda and Guinea. Somevarieties were discovered in Forest Guinea and the Macentaregion and developed during the colonial period. According tothe testimony of elders, collectors spent much time in Macentato increase the quality of their mixture. Macenta Coffee thusacquired a reputation among importers and roasters duringthis period. To this day, the coffee from this area of Macenta is used toenhance the base note of coffees from other parts of thecountry and Ivory Coast. Senegalese traders, great Robustacoffee consumers, recognize the superior quality of Macentacoffee, which they place ahead of ‘Ivory Coast’ quality and thatof other regions of Forest Guinea .Briefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May 2013 24
  25. 25. XIII. SpecificationsCOMMITMENT Operators who have signed a contract with the GI Associationcan produce, process, sell GI Ziama-Macenta coffee Production plots are those located within the GI defined area Origins: must be coffees deriving from clones or hybrids thatare exclusively Robusta and traditional varieties (localcultivars) and introduced clones: clones 119, 477, 529, 588 and594. Plantations must not, in any case, include the speciesExcelsa and Liberica. Shading: Plantations are managed under the shade producedby trees in the upper stratum of native species, possiblylegumes, providing continuous shading to the entire plot.Briefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May 201325
  26. 26. XIII. Specifications (continued) Shading: Farmers whose plots do not meet this criterion,have 5 years as of the date of commitment to plant the suitablespecies of their choice. Maintenance: Regularly pruned Coffea (suckering, pruning,pruning of dead wood) in order to obtain plants that areaerated , balanced and built on 3-4 branches. Weeding: Plots that are cleared regularly in order to obtain alow ground cover by spontaneous vegetation or by theintroduction of ameliorative plants. The use of herbicides isprohibited in order to preserve the quality and adhere to theprinciples of organic soil fertility. Renewal: Renewal of plants that are too old is recommended,either by coppicing or by planting seedlings.Briefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May 201326
  27. 27. XIII. Specifications (continued) Fertilizer: Organic fertilization is recommended, either fromthe recycling of vegetation produced on the plot, or fromimported organic matter such as manure, various plant waste,compost, etc. ... Supplemented with mineral fertilizers isrecommended for seedlings Crop Protection: Use of natural insecticides is required, theuse of chemical insecticides is prohibited.ADECAM has an obligation to educate and to provide naturalinsecticides. Crop protection is achieved via preventivemeasures (phytosanitary pruning, use of saws, ...), the use oftraps, repellents and the use of natural insecticides such asthose listed in Appendix * of the Specifications. Harvest date is set according to the villages and the criteria fordefining optimal maturity set by the association must berespected.Briefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May 2013 27
  28. 28. XIII. Specifications (continued) Harvest criteria:Briefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May 201328•Only red cherries are picked inseveral passages. Black, green orthose cherries that fell to theground should never be added tothose picked from the tree.•Post-harvest sorting: - Byimmersion where the denseberries fall to the bottom of thewater and empty or incompleteberries float to the surface and –manually on racks, green,fermented and over-ripe cherriesare eliminated
  29. 29. XIII. Specifications (continued)Briefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May 2013 29•In the sun, on racksduring 21 days, with 2 to 3shakings a day, as perharvesting.•For a plantation of one(1) ha, a rack of 20 m².•The racks are put awayor covered with lightplastic sheeting in case ofrain or at night.•Drying facilities
  30. 30. XIII. Specifications (continued) Storage of coffee On the plantation: In husk form or green, in a roomprotected from the rain, in new nylon bags, with no directcontact with the ground, isolated from products other thancoffee, from any contaminants, and protected from insectsand rodents. The collector or processor: In husk form or green, in aroom protected from the rain and humidity, with no directcontact with the ground or walls in order to allow for properventilation. An area demarcated as ‘Ziama Macenta GI Coffee’ is set asidein the room and the floors, walls and ceiling are cleanedregularly. Records of this cleaning must be issued and filed. It is required to record all movement, those of the originsand destination of all consignments.Briefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May 2013 30
  31. 31. XIII. Specifications (continued) Transport Transport of coffee husks must never be associated withany other product (chemical, fuel, oil, peanuts, etc. ...) andmust be provided by trucks with waterproof tarpaulin andnever transported with passengers or any other products. Cleaning Prior to transportation the truck must be thoroughlycleaned; cleaning must be recorded and the results notingthe visual cleanliness and absence of any smells must bedocumented Processing operations: Any transformation (sorter,cleaner, calibrator ...) for Ziama Macenta coffee usingfacilities must be preceded by a thorough and documentedcleaning, and the results filed.Briefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May 201331
  32. 32. XIII. Specifications (continued) Traceability Registration: Each industry operator must keep a writtenrecord of the consignment’s origin, its weight, its recipient,the amount provided to the recipient, the date of entry (orharvest) and the release date Identification: All coffee consignments, as soon as theharvest takes place, should be identified as ‘Ziama Macentacoffee’ and must bear their defined batch number (seebelow) Number: All batches must have a number allowing to traceback to the origin of any consignment Control system Operators may file a commitment declaration on their ownbehalf, or as a member of a group with the GI Association.Briefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May 2013 32
  33. 33. XIII. Specifications (continued) The Association examines the declaration and should it beincomplete, it is returned within 15 days of reception. The Association then transfers the commitment to anexternal certification body, which in turn reviews it. Afterverification, any partial or total refusal must be justifiedand must allow for the operator, within a period of 1month, to provide any additional information needed. Upon favorable opinion by the external certification body,any modification in the commitment declaration will entaila new application. the operator is registered on the list of authorized operators(as available from the GI Association, the external certifierand the National GI Committee).Briefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May 2013 33
  34. 34. XIII. Specifications (continued) Control relating to specifications and product controlBriefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May 2013 34
  35. 35. XIII. Specifications (continued) Self-monitoring: Any operator must perform self-checks ontheir activities and keep, for two years, all documentsrelated to these self-checks Internal Control: Conducted by the GI Association staff orinternal committees having received an engagement letterfrom the GI Association. The checklists are kept for twoyears and must be available for perusal at any time by thecertifying body. The minutes must be prepared in twocopies, 1 for the operator, 1 for ADECAM. External control: Is conducted by the certifying body andrandomly onsite, at the request of importers. If necessary,organoleptic tests are performed according to the protocoldefined by the IRAG.Briefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May 2013 35
  36. 36. XIV. GI FileThe file for GI protection must be submitted to OAPIand must include: Protection request from the GI Association GI Specifications Delimitation plan for the production area Control System Marketing Strategy Validation minutes from the National CommitteeBriefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May 2013 36
  37. 37. XV. PAMPIG Shortcomings1. Delays in the implementation of institutions andprocedures (Member States);2. Low government involvement in the process ofrecognition and promotion of products;3. Lack of technical support (testing andcertification, marketing);4. An impaired product (Korhogo cloth).Briefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May 2013 37
  38. 38. XVI. Suggestions1. Continued OAPI action in setting up Institutions andprocedures;2. Continued awareness of stakeholders and authorities;3. More GI visibility in SNL activities;4. Strengthening the collaboration between SNL and focalpoints in GI promotional activities at a national level;5. Training of technicians towards the sustainability of the GIprocess (structuring groups, process qualification,certification, inspection for certification of products etc.);6. Research funding support for new products.Briefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May 2013 38
  39. 39. XVII. Strategic Outlook1. Establishment or strengthening in each MemberState of a control system for the use of GIprotected geographical names;2. Implementation within the OAPI of anexamination system with regards applications forGI registration content;3. Implementation within the Organization of abiennial training module on GI.Briefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May 2013 39
  40. 40. THANK YOU FOR YOURATTENTIONBriefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May 2013 40