Brussels Briefing n. 31Geography of food: reconnecting with origin in the foodsystem15thMay 2013http://brusselsbriefings.n...
ACP - Brussels Policy Briefing no.31 GIs and other tools for protecting the originand tradition of products:Factors of suc...
GIs and other instrumentsfor protecting producers’assets in the origin andtradition of their productsFactors of Successin ...
ContentsContents Legal options forprotecting the origin andtradition of the products Traditional knowledge Trademarks ...
Legal options availableLegal options availableTraditional knowledgeTrademarksCollective marksCertification marksGeogr...
Traditional knowledgeTraditional knowledgeKnowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous peoples andlocal communities...
TrademarksTrademarks Article 15.1 WTO TRIPS defines a trademark as ‘anysign, or any combination of signs, capable of dist...
Collective marks and certification marksCollective marks and certification marksCollective marks are signs which distingu...
Scope of protection…Scope of protection…Trademarks, collective marks and certification marksensure the protection of geog...
..and a positive example..and a positive example Jamaican Blue Mountain Coffee is a classification ofcoffee grown in the ...
GIs in a nutshellGIs in a nutshellArticle 22.1 WTO TRIPS defines GIs as ‘Indications thatidentify a good as originating i...
Benefits of GIs in ACP countriesBenefits of GIs in ACP countriesEnhancement of resources: export of GI products,reputatio...
Concrete aspects of establishing GI protectionConcrete aspects of establishing GI protectionIdentifying links between the...
Examples of origin quality productsExamples of origin quality products Zanzibar cloves (clous de girofles), Konyagi andKi...
Examples of origin quality productsExamples of origin quality products Sidamo coffee from Ethiopia,
Examples of origin quality productsExamples of origin quality products Rooibos tea and Karoo lamb from South Africa,
Examples of origin quality productsExamples of origin quality products Beurre de karité du plateau massif from Burkina Fa...
Examples of origin quality productsExamples of origin quality products Miel blanc d’Oku and Poivre blanc de Penja fromCam...
Examples of origin quality productsExamples of origin quality products Shama shea butter and Fine Flavour Cocoa from Ghana,
Examples of origin quality productsExamples of origin quality products Rwanda Mountain Coffee, Pineapples and Café Diam...
Examples of origin quality productsExamples of origin quality products Rodrigues Lime, while chilis and pickles from Maur...
examples of origin quality productsexamples of origin quality products Products of Kenya: Mount Kenya Roses and NgoroNgor...
Examples of origin quality productsExamples of origin quality products Gabon sweet potato (which is five times sweeter th...
Examples of origin quality productsExamples of origin quality products High-grade cotton from Chad; Kivu and Ituri for c...
Examples of origin quality productsExamples of origin quality products Korhogo fabrics from Corte D’Ivoire; The Mananara...
State of play in ACP countriesState of play in ACP countriesThere are ACP countries where GIs are recognised as aseparate...
Factors of successFactors of successEstablishing a sui generis protection of GIs ensuring astrong IPR protectionEstablis...
Thanks!bernard.oconnor@nctm.it
MILANOVia Agnello, 1220121 MilanoTel.: +39 02 725511Fax.:+39 02 72551501VERONAStradone Porta Palio, 7637122 VeronaTel.: +3...
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GIs and other instruments for protecting producers' assets in the origin and tradition of their products: factors of success in ACP countries

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Presentation hold by Bernard O’Connor, from O'Connor European Lawyers, at the Brussels Briefing ‘Geography of food: reconnecting with origin in the food system’, organized by CTA on 15th May 2013.
More on: http://brusselsbriefings.net/

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  • GIs and other instruments for protecting producers' assets in the origin and tradition of their products: factors of success in ACP countries

    1. 1. Brussels Briefing n. 31Geography of food: reconnecting with origin in the foodsystem15thMay 2013http://brusselsbriefings.netGIs and other instruments for protecting producers’assets in the origin and tradition of their products:factors of success in ACP countriesBernard O’Connor, O’Connor European Lawyers
    2. 2. ACP - Brussels Policy Briefing no.31 GIs and other tools for protecting the originand tradition of products:Factors of success in ACP countriesBernard O’Connor
    3. 3. GIs and other instrumentsfor protecting producers’assets in the origin andtradition of their productsFactors of Successin ACP Countries
    4. 4. ContentsContents Legal options forprotecting the origin andtradition of the products Traditional knowledge Trademarks GIs Examples of origin qualityproducts State of play of protectionin ACP countries
    5. 5. Legal options availableLegal options availableTraditional knowledgeTrademarksCollective marksCertification marksGeographical indicationsPublic labelsIndependent labels
    6. 6. Traditional knowledgeTraditional knowledgeKnowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous peoples andlocal communities concerning plants, animals, minerals, soils,combinations of organic and inorganic matters, processes andtechnologies, means of enhancing individual health, cultureTraditional knowledge is not written and takes the form ofstories, songs, folklore, cultural values, beliefs, rituals, communitylaw, culinary recipes and agricultural practicesFirst explicit reference to traditional knowledge in theConvention on Biological Diversity (1992)A positive example of protection: the Hoodia Cactus caseSui generis protection of traditional knowledge in Panama
    7. 7. TrademarksTrademarks Article 15.1 WTO TRIPS defines a trademark as ‘anysign, or any combination of signs, capable of distinguishingthe goods or services of one undertaking from those of otherundertakings, shall be capable of constituting a trademark.’ To qualify for trademark protection, a sign must bedistinctive and non-deceptive for consumers Protection ensured thought registration Under certain conditions, a geographical name can beregistered as a trademark, i.e. if the trademark hasacquired a ‘secondary meaning’ (Schwartauer inGermany), or when the mark has acquired a fancifulmeaning (Mont Blanc for pens)
    8. 8. Collective marks and certification marksCollective marks and certification marksCollective marks are signs which distinguish thegeographical origin, material, mode of manufacture or othercommon characteristics of goods or services of differententerprises using the collective mark. The owner may beeither an association of which those enterprises aremembers or any other entity, including a public institutionor a cooperativeCertification marks are given for compliance with definedstandards, but are not confined to any membership. Theybe used by anyone who can certify that the productsinvolved meet certain standards defined by the owner ofthe certification mark
    9. 9. Scope of protection…Scope of protection…Trademarks, collective marks and certification marksensure the protection of geographical names based onprivate initiativeGenerally, third parties are not prevented from using theregistered geographical name in a translated version, orfrom using the same name with a delocalising expression(like ‘style’, ‘kind’, ‘type’)Important financial resources are required, mainly becauseof registration fees. As a private mechanism, the costs ofenforcement thought trademarks, as well as costs linked tothe trial or to the monitoring of compliance with definedstandards, are covered by the owners
    10. 10. ..and a positive example..and a positive example Jamaican Blue Mountain Coffee is a classification ofcoffee grown in the Blue Mountains of Jamaica. JamaicanBlue Mountain Coffee is a globally protectedcertification mark, meaning only coffee certified by theCoffee Industry Board of Jamaica can be labeled as such. The Coffee Industry Regulations Act allows for fiveclassifications depending on factors such as size,appearance, and defects allowed Over the last several decades, this coffee has developeda reputation that has made it one of the most expensiveand sought-after coffees in the world. 80% of allJamaican Blue Mountain Coffee is exported to Japan
    11. 11. GIs in a nutshellGIs in a nutshellArticle 22.1 WTO TRIPS defines GIs as ‘Indications thatidentify a good as originating in the territory of a Party or aregion or locality in that territory, where a given quality,reputation or other characteristic of the good is essentiallyattributable to its geographical origin.’QualityCharacteristicsReputationGeographical areaProduction specification
    12. 12. Benefits of GIs in ACP countriesBenefits of GIs in ACP countriesEnhancement of resources: export of GI products,reputation and traditional knowledge, increase ofproduction and of the local jobsPublic authorities interest: consumers interest, publiccontrolSocial data: rural depopulation, social networks andcollaborationEnvironment: protection of soils against erosion anddesertification, biological diversityUnder sui generis law, solid protection against directcommercial use, including in case of delocalisingexpressions, imitation and evocation
    13. 13. Concrete aspects of establishing GI protectionConcrete aspects of establishing GI protectionIdentifying links between the product and its geographicalarea of originAdopting a collective approachEnsuring quality and satisfy consumers’ expectationsCoherent policy, effective legal protection and proactivemarketing strategyCertification bodies and control procedures (and bearingthe costs)
    14. 14. Examples of origin quality productsExamples of origin quality products Zanzibar cloves (clous de girofles), Konyagi andKilimanjaro coffee, Rift Valley Coffee from Tanzania;
    15. 15. Examples of origin quality productsExamples of origin quality products Sidamo coffee from Ethiopia,
    16. 16. Examples of origin quality productsExamples of origin quality products Rooibos tea and Karoo lamb from South Africa,
    17. 17. Examples of origin quality productsExamples of origin quality products Beurre de karité du plateau massif from Burkina Faso,
    18. 18. Examples of origin quality productsExamples of origin quality products Miel blanc d’Oku and Poivre blanc de Penja fromCameroon.
    19. 19. Examples of origin quality productsExamples of origin quality products Shama shea butter and Fine Flavour Cocoa from Ghana,
    20. 20. Examples of origin quality productsExamples of origin quality products Rwanda Mountain Coffee, Pineapples and Café Diama from Guinea,
    21. 21. Examples of origin quality productsExamples of origin quality products Rodrigues Lime, while chilis and pickles from Mauritius, Karakoel pelt from Namibia, Senegal Yett, West NileDistrict cotton, Waragi & West Nile Honey from Uganda.
    22. 22. examples of origin quality productsexamples of origin quality products Products of Kenya: Mount Kenya Roses and NgoroNgoro Mountain Coffee, Mt. Kenya coffee, Gathuthi tea,Kisii tea, Kericho tea, Mombasa mango, Machakos mango,Asembo mango, Muranga bananas and Kisii bananas, Mololamb, Kitengela ostrich meat, Omena fish and Mursik milk,Naivasha wine, Kakamega Papaya, Kakamega omukombera,Tilapia fish from Lake Victoria and Tilapia fish from LakeTurkana. Handicrafts would include Kisii soapstone, Akambacarvings, Maasai attire and beads.
    23. 23. Examples of origin quality productsExamples of origin quality products Gabon sweet potato (which is five times sweeter thanthe normal potato and has one of the highest sucrosecontent)
    24. 24. Examples of origin quality productsExamples of origin quality products High-grade cotton from Chad; Kivu and Ituri for coffee from Congo; Zimbabwe tobacco and Chipinga coffee;
    25. 25. Examples of origin quality productsExamples of origin quality products Korhogo fabrics from Corte D’Ivoire; The Mananara vanilla from Madagascar and manyothers…
    26. 26. State of play in ACP countriesState of play in ACP countriesThere are ACP countries where GIs are recognised as aseparated type of intellectual property and sui generis protectionof GIs is in place, i.e. Algeria, Barbados, Burkina Faso, Colombia,Cuba, El Salvador, Guatemala, Guinea, Ivory Cost, Jamaica,Morocco, Panama, Senegal, St LuciaThere are ACP countries that not have specific laws for theprotection of GIs but protect them as certification marks,collective trademarks or just ordinary trademarks, i.e. a big part ofAfricaThere are then many countries which do not have registered orprotected GIs. Therefore, there is a large number of GIs whichare not protected in the countries of origin, but are recognised bythe general public as indicators of quality traditional goodsproduced in specified geographical places
    27. 27. Factors of successFactors of successEstablishing a sui generis protection of GIs ensuring astrong IPR protectionEstablishing control and certification systems managed byindependent authorities (i.e. the Darjeeling Tea Association)Producers group proactivity about marketing strategy andproduction (i.e. Café de Colombia and Arrowroot fromSaint Vincent and Grenadine)Strong commitment amongst producers (Argan oil)
    28. 28. Thanks!bernard.oconnor@nctm.it
    29. 29. MILANOVia Agnello, 1220121 MilanoTel.: +39 02 725511Fax.:+39 02 72551501VERONAStradone Porta Palio, 7637122 VeronaTel.: +39 045 8097000Fax.:+39 045 8097010LONDONSt Michaels House1 George Yard, Lombard StreetEC3V 9DF Londontel. +44 (0) 20 73759900fax +44 (0) 20 79296468BRUSSELSAvenue de la Joyeuse Entrée,11040 BrusselsTel.: +32 (0)2 2854685Fax.:+32 (0)2 2854690ROMAVia delle Quattro Fontane, 16100184 RomaTel..: +39 06 6784977Fax.: +39 06 6790966SHANGHAI28th Floor, Hong Kong Plaza283, Huaihai Zhong Road200021 ShanghaiTel: +86 21 5116 2805Fax: + 86 21 5116 2905OurOur OfficesOffices

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