Existing global and regional legal frameworks for origin-branding, and protecting geographical indications and traditional products


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Presentation held by Marie-Paule Rizo, Head, Industrial Design and Geographical Indications Law Section, WIPO, at the Brussels Briefing ‘Geography of food: reconnecting with origin in the food system’, organized by CTA on 15th May 2013.
More on: http://brusselsbriefings.net/

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Existing global and regional legal frameworks for origin-branding, and protecting geographical indications and traditional products

  1. 1. Brussels Briefing n. 31Geography of food: reconnecting with origin in the foodsystem15th May 2013http://brusselsbriefings.netExisting global and regional legal frameworks fororigin-branding and protecting geographicalindications and traditional productsMarie-Paule Rizo, WIPO
  2. 2. WorldIntellectualPropertyOrganizationGeographical Indications asDistinctive Signs for Collective Use:Developing Brands for Origin-ProductsMarie-Paule RizoHead of Industrial Design andGeographical Indication Law Section
  3. 3. Five multilateral treaties applicable to GIs:WIPO: Paris Convention for the Protection ofIndustrial Property(1883)Madrid Agreement on the Repression of False or Deceptive Indications ofSource on Goods (1891)Lisbon Agreement for the Protection of Appellations of Origin and theirInternational Registration (1958)Madrid Agreement and Protocol for the International Registration ofMarks (1891 and 1989)WTO: TRIPS Agreement (1994)International legal framework
  4. 4. The TRIPS Agreement« Members should provide the legal means for interested parties toprevent:the use of any means in the designation or presentation of a goodthat indicates or suggest that the good… originates in ageographical area other than the true place of origin in a mannerwhich misleads the public as to the geographical origin of thegood;any use which constitutes an act of unfair competition… »General standard of protection(Art. 22.2)
  5. 5. How to protect GIs?Legislation on unfair competitionCollective or certification marksSui generis systemAdministrative systems (labelling, etc.)
  6. 6. Different modes of protection can complement each otherROQUEFORT (PDO)
  7. 7. Why protect GIs at the international levelWhere do you market the products identified by theGI?Territoriality principle in IP law
  8. 8. How to protect GIs at theinternational level?Bilateral treatiesRegionally: EU, OAPIMultilateral treatiesMadrid System for the International Registration of MarksLisbon Agreement for the International Registration ofAppellations of Origin
  9. 9. Lisbon Union: 28 Member States(on July 4, 2013)Africa (6)AlgeriaBurkina FasoCongoGabonTogoTunisiaAsia (4)GeorgiaIslamic Rep. of IranIsraelDPR of KoreaAmerica (6)Costa RicaCubaHaitiMexicoNicaraguaPeruEurope (12)Bosnia and HerzegovinaBulgariaCzech Rep.FranceHungaryItalyMoldovaMontenegroPortugalSerbiaSlovakiaThe FYR of MacedoniaThe Lisbon Agreement
  10. 10. France 509Czech Rep. 76Bulgaria 51Italy 33Hungary 28Georgia 20Cuba 19Mexico 14Peru 8Algeria 7Portugal 7Tunisia 7DPR of Korea 6Slovakia 6FYR of Macedonia 4Serbia 3Montenegro 2Costa Rica 1Israel 1Moldova 1908 registrations – 803 in force
  11. 11. Establishes an international register for appellations of origin and aprocedure for their registrationProvides a definition of appellation of origin(Art. 2(1)):“the geographical denomination of a country, region orlocality which serves to designate a product originatingtherein, the quality/characteristics of which are dueexclusively or essentially to the geographical environment,including natural and human factors.”The Lisbon AgreementPrinciples
  12. 12. Flexibility:in practice traditional appellations that have the “quality link”have been assimilated to appellations of origin: e.g.MUSCADET (Nº 279, wine, France)REBLOCHON (Nº 458, cheese, France)VINHO VERDE (Nº 564, wine, Portugal)The Lisbon AgreementPrinciples
  13. 13. Any sort of product may be designated by an AO:- natural products (e.g. mineral water, marble)Karlovarska Voda, Marble Lepenica- manufactured products (e.g. crystalware, porcelain)Joblonec, Herend- agricultural, food and handicraft productsFontina, Huile d’olive de Nyons, Bordeaux, OlinaláThe Lisbon Agreement
  14. 14. INTERNATIONALBUREAURecords in the International RegisterPublishes in Bulletin Appellations of originNotifies other membersOTHER MEMBERS examine12monthsREFUSAL12monthsNO REFUSAL = protectionThe Lisbon Agreement: General view of the procedurecountry of origin Appellation protected as such
  15. 15. States that have not refused a notified AO within 12 months fromreceipt of the notificationmust ensure protection of the appellation against usurpationor imitation, even if the true origin of the product is stated, or ifthe appellation is used in translated form or accompanied by adisclaimer or a delocalizer (“type”, “method”, “system”)cannot deem that the appellation has become generic as longas it remains protected as an appellation of origin in its countryof originThe Lisbon AgreementEffects of international registration
  16. 16. Term: Protection of the appellation of origin in each membercountry that has not refused protection continues withoutrenewal as long as the appellation is protected as such in itscountry of originNo renewal is required to maintain the international registrationThe Lisbon Agreement
  17. 17. Single instrument covering AOs and Gis: twodefinitionsSingle,high level of protectionSubstantive provisions applicable to bothAccession Possibility for IGOs (e.g., EU)Revision of the Lisbon System
  18. 18. Development of the Lisbon systemThe work ahead:Diplomatic Conference for the adoption of a revisedLisbon Agreement in 2015?
  19. 19. Rule 9(4)(x) of the Common Regulation expressly provides forregistration of collective or certification marks1247 collective or certification marks registered500 in classes 29 to 33Madrid System
  20. 20. Madrid Union1 Agreement only34 Protocol only (including EU)55 Agreement and Protocol90 Members
  21. 21. basic registrationPrecondition orbasic applicationOFFICE OFORIGINchecks correspondencewith the basic application/registrationINTERNATIONALBUREAUchecks formalitiesrecords in the International Registerpublishes in the International Gazettenotifies the designated Contracting PartiesOFFICE OFDESIGNATEDCPsubstantive examination12/18monthsprov.refusal12/18monthsno refusal = effect of a nationalregistrationGeneral Overview of the Procedure
  22. 22. Madrid SystemNAPA VALLEY
  23. 23. ConclusionCollective signs indicating geographical origin:Multi-functionalityPotentialReadily available emotionEmotion is the basis for reputationReputation needs stewardshipReputation = Intangible Asset = (collective) IntellectualPropertyDifferent concepts, different modes of protection
  24. 24. WorldIntellectualPropertyOrganizationTHANK YOU!Mariepaule.rizo@wipo.int