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Brussels Briefing 54: Gurbir S. Bhullar '' Organic and agro-ecological approaches contributing to SDGs’ implementation''

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The Brussels Policy Briefing n. 54 on ”Sustainable agriculture: where are we on SDGs implementation?” took place on 27th February 2019 (European Commission, Charlemagne Building, Alcide de Gasperi Room, Rue de la Loi 170, 1040 Brussels).

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Brussels Briefing 54: Gurbir S. Bhullar '' Organic and agro-ecological approaches contributing to SDGs’ implementation''

  1. 1. Research Institute of Organic Agriculture FiBL info.suisse@fibl.org, www.fibl.org The contribution of organic agriculture and agroecological approaches to sustainable development in the tropics Gurbir S. Bhullar Noah Adamtey, Laura Armengot, David Bautze, Johan Blockeel, Harun Cicek, Christian Grovermann, Anja Heidenreich, Gian Nicolay, Amritbir Riar, Bernhard Schlatter, Monika Schneider, Brian Ssebunya, Irene Kadzere, Christian Schader, Beate Huber
  2. 2. www.fibl.org Based on Ssebunya et al. 2019 Arabica Conventional Arabica Organic/Fairtrade Robusta Conventional Robusta Organic/Fairtrade Potential contribution of agriculture to SDGs based on a study of coffee farming systems in Uganda
  3. 3. www.fibl.org Global challenges 3  Smallholders (<10 ha) manage 80% of the farmland in Sub- Saharan Africa and Asia, supplying most of the food in these regions. Soil Degradation  Background 01 March 2019
  4. 4. www.fibl.org Focus on research in Global North, eg soil fertility 4  FiBL long-term DOK trial proved higher top soil carbon values for organically farmed soils compared to nonorganic Source: Gattinger et al. 2012. 41 years biodynamic production 41 years integrated production  Background  Meta-study on soil carbon with 74 global comparative studies 01 March 2019
  5. 5. www.fibl.org  What is the contribution of organic agriculture? SysCom India SysCom Bolivia SysCom Kenya 01 March 2019 SysCom Long-term Farming Systems Comparisons Trials in the Tropics ProEcoAfrica/OFSA Productivity, Profitability and Sustainability of Organic and Conventional Farming Systems: comparative analyses in Sub Saharan Africa Maize/ Vegetables Cotton Ugand a Ghana 5  Background Kenya Cocoa
  6. 6. www.fibl.org 01 March 2019 6 On-station trials India  Long-term experiments Treatments: • BT Cotton (GMO) • Conventional • Organic • Biodynamic
  7. 7. www.fibl.org 01 March 2019 7 On-station trials Kenya  Long-term experiments Treatments: • Conventional, high input • Conventional, low input • Organic, high input • Organic, low input
  8. 8. www.fibl.org 01 March 2019 8 On-station trials Bolivia  Long-term experiments Treatments: • Conventional, monoculture • Organic, monoculture • Conventional, agroforestry • Organic, agroforestry • Organic, successional agroforestry • Fallow
  9. 9. www.fibl.org RESULTS FROM LONG-TERM EXPERIMENTS (SYSCOM) 01 March 2019 9
  10. 10. www.fibl.org Soil fertility  Soil organic carbon 01 March 2019 10  Long-term experiments Soil carbon change (2007-2017) Kenya  Soil carbon in organic is higher in High Input systems compared to conventional  Soil carbon is lowest in organic Low Input systems (soil depth 0-20cm)
  11. 11. www.fibl.org Soil fertility  Soil organic carbon 01 March 2019 11  Long-term experiments Soil carbon change (2007-2014) Biodynamic Organic India Conv. BT-Cotton Application of manure: Conv. and BT: application of farm yard manure (conv 5 t every second year, plus NPK ; organic 8 t every year  No significant change in soil carbon in conventional systems  Significant increase of soil carbon in organic systems – higher soil fertility
  12. 12. www.fibl.org Soil fertility  Soil organic carbon 01 March 2019 12  Long-term experiments Soil carbon stocks (2015; after 6 years) Bolivia Soil carbon in agroforestry and in organic systems is higher compared to monocultures / conventional (soil depth 0-10cm) Agrofestr y Monoculture
  13. 13. www.fibl.org 01 March 2019 13 Biodiversity Conservation  Earthworm biomass  Density and biomass of earthworms in organically managed soils much higher.  Earthworms contribute to soil stability and fertility Source: Ledroit et al. (unpublished) Density of earthworms during cotton season (per m2) India  Long-term experiments
  14. 14. www.fibl.org 01 March 2019 14 Biodiversity conservation  Birds  Agroforestry production systems have higher species richness of bird species compared to monocultures.  Agroforestry is lower compared to fallow (secondary forest) of the same age. Species richness of birds Bolivia  Long-term experiments Source: Naoki et al. (2017)
  15. 15. www.fibl.org 01 March 2019 15  Maize yields similar in conventional and organic.  Potatoes and green beans yields are lower in organic ( pest and diseases!) Annual average yields (2007-2017) KenyaYields  Crop yields in high input systems  Long-term experiments Source: Adamtey et al. (2016) & Bautze et al. (unpublished)
  16. 16. www.fibl.org Crop Yield development  Variation over years 01 March 2019 16  Long-term experiments India Crop yield development (2007-2019)  Yields vary substantially over the years  Long-term experiments reflect the more realistic picture
  17. 17. www.fibl.org 01 March 2019 17 Annual average yields (2008-2014) IndiaProductivity & Profitability  Crop yields and economic differences Annual average gross margin (2008-2014)  Long-term experiments  Cotton and wheat yields lower in organic, soybean yields equal  Organic production systems can have equal or higher gross margins Grossmargin(INRha-1yr-1)
  18. 18. www.fibl.org 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Cotton Soybean Wheat Costbenefitratio BD Org Conv Bt-Con  Organic production systems have higher Return on Investment  Organic production is highly relevant for resource poor farmer Return on Investment  Return on investment India Return on investment (2008-2014)  Long-term experiments 1801 March 2019
  19. 19. www.fibl.org 01 March 2019 19  Higher cumulative yields in agroforestry systems.  Organic monocrop systems with lower yield compared to conventional monocrops. Cumulative crop yields (2010-2017) BoliviaYields  Crop yields Monoculture Dynamic Agroforestry Agroforesty Conv Org Conv Org MC MO AC AO SA 0 10000 20000 30000 dryweight(kgha -1 ) cacao plantain and banana avocado achiote araza cassava coffee copazú curcuma ginger hibiscus maiz peach palm pigeon pea pineapple MC MO AC AO SA 0 10000 20000 30000 dryweight(kgha -1 ) cacao plantain and banana avocado achiote araza cassava coffee copazú curcuma ginger hibiscus maiz MC MO AC AO SA 0 10000 20000 30000 cacao plantain and banana avocado achiote araza cassava coffee copazú curcuma ginger hibiscus maiz peach palm pigeon pea pineapple rice tannia MC MO AC AO SA cacao plantain and banana avocado achiote araza cassava coffee copazú curcuma ginger hibiscus maiz peach palm pigeon pea pineapple rice tannia  Long-term experiments MC MO AC AO SA 0 10000 20000 30000 dryweight(kgha -1 ) cacao plantain and banana avocado achiote araza cassava coffee copazú curcuma ginger hibiscus maiz peach palm pigeon pea pineapple rice tannia
  20. 20. www.fibl.org 01 March 2019 20 Nutrition potential  Calories of yields of the different crops Bolivia Average calories per yields (2010-2017) MC MO AC AO SA 0 10000 20000 30000 dryweight(kgha -1 ) cacao plantain and banana avocado achiote araza cassava coffee copazú curcuma ginger hibiscus maiz peach palm pigeon pea pineapple rice tannia  Long-term experiments  Higher calorie production in agroforestry systems  More diverse nutrients in agroforestry systems
  21. 21. www.fibl.org 01 March 2019 21  Revenues from cacao higher in monoculture comparted to agroforestry.  Revenues from by-crops in agroforestry overcompensate lower cocoa yields.  Costs lower in agroforestry and organic systems: less fertilizer, less/no herbicides. Revenues (in US$) BoliviaProductivity & Profitability  Revenues and costs of a young plantation (initial 5 years) A f c A f o M c M o 0 2 5 0 0 5 0 0 0 7 5 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 2 5 0 0 Bsha -1 Agroforesty Conv Org Monoculture Conv Org Costs, without labor (in US$)  Long-term experiments Source: Armengot et al. (2016)
  22. 22. www.fibl.org 01 March 2019 22 Return on labor (US$ per day) BoliviaReturn on Labor  Average of 5 years in young plantation (2010-2014)  Long-term experiments  Higher Return on labor in Agroforestry Systems  Exceeding national poverty line of 1.90 US$ day-1 (World Bank)  But below minimum salary in Bolivia (8.7 $ day-1 ) Source: Armengot et al. (2016)
  23. 23. www.fibl.org 01 March 2019 23  Non-renewable energy inputs substantially higher in the conventional systems Average energy input (2010-1014) BoliviaResource use efficiency  Renewable and non-renewable energy input  Long-term experiments
  24. 24. www.fibl.org 01 March 2019 24 No silver bullet Organic agriculture has large potential to contribute to sustainable development • Soil fertility • Biodiversity Conservation • Productivity & Profitability For full exploitation major efforts are needed to tackle: • Agronomic/ technological challenges (lack of input, pest management) • Capacity development for farmers (technical know how) • Institutional/governance challenges (markets, agri-business) • Policy challenges Conclusions:  Long-term experiments
  25. 25. www.fibl.org Sources  Peer-reviewed publication  Long-term experiments www. systems-comparison.fibl.org www.proecoafrica.net www.fibl.org
  26. 26. www.fibl.org This research could only be realized with support of our donors and partners Farmers and Field Staff in Bolivia, Ghana, India, Kenya, and Uganda
  27. 27. www.fibl.org
  28. 28. www.fibl.org 01 March 2019 28 Thank you very much for your attention!

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