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Brussels Briefing 50: Henk de Zeeuw "What do we know about urban agriculture?"


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The Brussels Development Briefing no. 50 on “Growing food in the cities: Successes and new opportunities” took place on 10 April 2018 from 09h00 to 13h00, ACP Secretariat, Brussels 451 Avenue Georges Henri, 1200 Brussels. This Briefing was organised by the ACP-EU Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA), in collaboration with the European Commission / DEVCO, the ACP Secretariat, and CONCORD.

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Brussels Briefing 50: Henk de Zeeuw "What do we know about urban agriculture?"

  1. 1. What do we know about urban agriculture? Ir. Henk de Zeeuw RUAF Foundation - Global Partnership on Sustainable Urban Agriculture and City Region Food Systems Presentation at the Policy Briefing “Growing food in the cities: Successes and new opportunities”, organized by CTA, European Commission, the ACP group and other partners, 10th April 2018, Brussels
  2. 2. I. Urban agriculture?  Agriculture within the city (intra-urban) and in the peri-urban area: UPA  On agricultural land as well as on hard surfaces, rooftops and indoors  From micro/low tech to larger scale/high tech
  3. 3. • Socially oriented initiatives as well as commercial enterprises (and mixed forms) • Production as well as local processing, distribution and food waste management • Producing food as well as providing social and ecological services
  4. 4. II. Prevalence of UPA  Population involved in UPA (various surveys 2006-2013): - 21 cities in West Africa: 20-80% of urban households - 5 cities/towns in East-Africa: 30 - 90 % of urban h.h’s - 11 cities in 9 SADC countries: 22% of poor urban h.h.’s Hence: at least 20-30% of population involved in UPA  Land used by UPA (IWMI 2014): - The global area of urban crop lands is estimated at about 11.0 % of all irrigated croplands and 4.7 % of all rainfed croplands - Within 20 km of urban boundaries this is 60 % and 35 % respectively
  5. 5. III. Can urban agriculture play a role in answering key urban challenges?  Growing food insecurity and malnutrition in cities  Growing urban poverty and social exclusion  Increasing impacts of climate change on cities and population  Growing fresh water scarcity  Growing waste management problems
  6. 6. A. UPA, urban food security and nutrition  UPA is very important in the city supply of fresh, nutritious food especially: green vegetables, milk, eggs, poultry meat and pork (link)  UPA contributes 5 - 15% of total urban food consumption (FAO, 2010)  UPA enhances the access of the urban poor to affordable and nutritious food and improves their dietary quality (IFPRI 2017)  UPA reduces the vulnerability of the city to problems in the supply of food from rural areas (e.g. droughts, floods) and imports (e.g. damaged infrastructure, price hikes)
  7. 7. B. UPA, jobs and income generation B1. Jobs and income generated in UPA production:  Over 30% of urban population in 4 cities in Africa earn 26-70 % of their income in UPA (FAO 2010)  Incomes from peri-urban horticulture are in general above minimum wage level (link)  World bank (2011): peri-urban horticulture and dairy are amongst the fastest growing economic sectors in Africa
  8. 8. B2. Jobs and income in food related enterprises (compost production, transport, food processing, marketing)  Each 1 $ in urban and peri- urban food production generates $ 1.4 - 2.6 income (and jobs) in food related enterprises in the city region (multiplier effect)
  9. 9. C1. Urban agriculture helps to reduce urban GHG emissions  By producing fresh food close to the city (hence less energy use in transport, cooling, packaging of food (Almere)  By enhancing vegetation cover and green roofs: less energy required for cooling; more CO2 captured (Durban; Kesbewa)  By using composted urban organic wastes in agriculture: less methane emissions from landfills and less energy use for production and transport of fertilizers (Dhaka) C. UPA and the urban environment
  10. 10. C2. UPA helps to reduce the impacts of climate change by:  Reducing runoff and enhance storage & infiltration of excess storm water (New York)  Keeping low lying zones free from construction so that floods have less impact and land slides are prevented (Freetown)  (Agro-)forestry on steep slopes helps to reduce erosion and prevent land slides (Lima)
  11. 11. C3. UPA helps to reduce the pressure on fresh water sources by reusing urban wastewater (Amman) C4. Cleaning of contaminated water and land • Wetlands in/around the city can purify urban (waste-) water streams through bio- filtration (Kampala) • Urban (agro-)forestry can bio- remediate polluted urban areas (Hazelwood)
  12. 12. D. UPA and social development  Social inclusion of vulnerable groups  Community development  Food as part of culture and identity of different socio-cultural groups.  Green spaces for recreation
  13. 13. IV. What cities can do: some lessons learnt
  14. 14. 1. Create an enabling policy environment  Create an institutional home for UPA: a coordinating department; an Interdepartmental Working Group  Establish a Multi-stakeholder Forum on Urban Food & Agriculture to involve key actors in the planning process (formal & informal)  Mapping & analysis of the agri-food system in the city region  Develop a shared vision on the desired development of the local food system  Define a multi-annual action plan with feasible & cost effective strategies  Remove ungrounded legal limitations on UPA
  15. 15. 2. Enhance access to land for UPA  Recognize UPA as a legitimate urban land use  Develop a spatial vision on urban agriculture: which types of UPA to promote where in and around the city (Nairobi); Integrate UPA into master- and , land use plans (Dar es Salaam)  Protect prime agricultural and agro-ecological land within and around the city against encroachment (Antananarivo)  Map vacant open spaces for UPA (Quito)  Lease of vacant municipal land (Lima)  Reuse of abandoned factories (Amsterdam)  Include space for UPA in social housing or slum upgrading projects (Kampala, Colombo)
  16. 16. 3. Enhance the productive and economic viability of UPA  Stimulate organization of urban farmers (Lima) and provide training (Cape Town)  Enhance UPA producers’ access to water, seed, compost, tools, (Bulawayo) and enhance their access to credit (Rosario)  Facilitate direct marketing (Belo Horizonte) and provide facilities and licenses for farmers’ markets (Brasilia FD)  Support SME start ups in food processing and marketing (Minneapolis)  Preferential food procurement by city agencies (Malmo)  Support research into appropriate technologies for UPA (Havana)
  17. 17. 4. Stimulate resource recovery and recycling  Recovery of nutrients from organic wastes (Accra) and urine (Kathmandu) to replace chemical fertilizers  Recovery of methane from landfills to generate energy and heat for greenhouses (Washington)  Use in UPA of excess heat, CO2, cooling water and by-products from industry and other urban sources (Amsterdam)  Collection of storm water from surrounding roofs for use in UPA
  18. 18. 5. Reduce health and environmental risks associated with UPA  Improved coordination between health, agricultural and environmental departments (Phnom Penh)  Adequate zoning of urban agriculture (Freetown)  Education of farmers, food vendors and consumers re. safe forms of food production, handling & preparation (Bangkok, Accra)  Preventing land-/water- pollution by industry; separation of waste /wastewater streams; pollution control (Hanoi)
  19. 19. V. You don’t walk alone  Wide recognition that agriculture is crucial part of the urban policy agenda and a means to various policy objectives e.g. UN New Urban Agenda 2016  There is already a wealth of experiences to learn from: approaches, tools, policies, monitoring frameworks, training opportunities
  20. 20.  The Milan Urban Food Policy Pact (MUFP): a global Framework for Action signed by 165 Mayors committed to make urban food systems sustainable and to guarantee food for all.  FAO Food for the Cities programme: supports countries/cities to improve the urban food system programme  ICLEI-RUAF CITYFOOD is a network of –so far- 17 cities and regions that share their experiences on building resilient urban food systems and obtain –on demand- technical support from RUAF and ICLEI.
  21. 21. RUAF Foundation   Urban Agriculture Magazine  Guidelines and Tools  Research results  Examples of policies on UPA / city food system  Local project experiences (Gov., SME’s, NGO’s, Coop’s)
  22. 22. Thank you !
  23. 23. City Vegetables Eggs Poultry meat Milk Pork La Paz 30 Dakar 70-80 65-70 Dar Es Salaam 90 60 Accra 90 Shanghai 60 90 50 90-100 50 Hanoi 0-75 (season) 40 50 50 % of urban consumption met by UPA Data from surveys 2000-2008 link
  24. 24. City Monthly income generated (US$) in peri-urban horticulture Accra 40-50 Rosario 40-150 Brazzaville 140-170 (producers) 120 (food sellers) Cameroon 70 Lagos 120 Ouagadougou 25-100 Yaoundé 35-70 Ho Chi Minh City 40-125 Yakarta 30-50 Data from surveys 2000-2008 link
  25. 25. VI. Some success factors  City government acting as a catalyst/enabler of the development of the local food system; Active multi-actor participation in planning and implementation; Apply subsidiarity principle  Early implementation  No single best methodology: Recognize local specific conditions  Innovative and multi-source financing of UPA projects  Inclusion of UPA in sectoral policies & programmes  Realistic annual planning, clear targets, effective monitoring
  26. 26. ECOLOGICAL (Healthy City) SOCIAL (Inclusive City) Multi-functional urban agriculture  Reduction of GHG emissions  Reuse of urban organic wastes & wastewater  Reduction of impacts of climate change  Improved urban landscape, microclimate and biodiversity Subsistence oriented urban agriculture  Food security and nutrition  Poverty alleviation and Social inclusion  Community building  Relaxation / physical exercise  Income generation  Employment generation  Enterprise development  Market chain development ECONOMIC (Productive City) Market oriented urban agriculture Three policy perspectives on UPA