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Brussels Briefing 45: Josef Kienzle "Smart-farming: trends and new opportunities benefiting small-holders"

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The Brussels Development Briefing n.45 on the subject of “Smart and Affordable farming solutions for Africa: the next driver for agricultural transformation” was held in Brussels at 09:00-13:00 on 13th July 2016 at the Albert Borschette Congress Center, Room 1.A (Rue Froissart 36, 1040 Brussels). This Briefing was organised by the ACP-EU Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA), in collaboration with the European Commission, the the European Commission / DEVCO, the ACP Secretariat, CONCORD, CEMA, Agricord and the PanAfrican Farmer’s Organisation (PAFO).

Published in: Government & Nonprofit
  • Very much insightful presentation which sharply pointed to the need to more inclusive approaches to technology use, adaptation and alike... The matter of the fact is that to date farmers organizations are still illiterate even though they're familiar with new ICT for development... Knowledge management, content selection and adaptation remain still unmet to bring forth epected outcomes ICT is meant to bring on the plate... EU has a whole lot to do in selective Outreach and Communication if Youth is to be factored into the equation!
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Brussels Briefing 45: Josef Kienzle "Smart-farming: trends and new opportunities benefiting small-holders"

  1. 1. Smart and affordable farming solutions for Africa The next driver for agricultural transformation Josef Kienzle, Agricultural Engineer Plant Production and Protection Division Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
  2. 2. Smart and affordable farming solutions for Africa Brussels, July 12, 2016 Content • Context and trends • SMART approaches to intensify agricultural production • The role of mechanization • Conclusions
  3. 3. Smart and affordable farming solutions for Africa Brussels, July 12, 2016 Current trends By 2050, world population will reach 9 billion Declining annual crop yield growth rates: • 1960: 3.2% • Current: 1.5% • 2050: 0.8% Urbanization • Today: 50% • 2050: 70% Changing food habits Undernourished people: • over 795 million • 75% in rural areas in developing countries
  4. 4. Smart and affordable farming solutions for Africa Brussels, July 12, 2016 Context: Climate Change
  5. 5. Smart and affordable farming solutions for Africa Brussels, July 12, 2016 Region Cereal Yield [kg/ha] Fertilizer Use [kg/ha] Irrigation percentage of arable land Tractors per 1000 ha Africa (not including Egypt and Mauritania) 1014 13 5 28 Average of 9 selected countries (Bangladesh, Brazil, China, India, South-Korea, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam) 3348 208 38 241 Source: The World Bank (2007) as cited by FAO and UNIDO (2008) How Africa compares with other developing Regions
  6. 6. Smart and affordable farming solutions for Africa Brussels, July 12, 2016 Source: adapted from Clarke, FAO, 1997, FAO and UNIDO, 2008 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Central Western Eastern Southern Hand Draught Animals Tractor Power source usage in Africa [%]
  7. 7. Smart and affordable farming solutions for Africa Brussels, July 12, 2016 Smallholders in Africa in 2016 Most of the smallholders are women
  8. 8. Smart and affordable farming solutions for Africa Brussels, July 12, 2016 Smart System for smallholders • Sustainable • Mechanization and • Adaptation through • Resilient • Techniques
  9. 9. Smart and affordable farming solutions for Africa Brussels, July 12, 2016 The Green Revolution Paradigm • Impact: Globally the undernourished population declined from 26% to 14% between 1969 and 2002 • Downside: Pollution, reduced efficiency, loss of soil health, and soil erosion as unavoidable side effects
  10. 10. an integrated approach to sustainable production intensification “more with less” FAO’s response to the challenge
  11. 11. Smart and affordable farming solutions for Africa Brussels, July 12, 2016 • Strengthen eco-systems and natural processes • to boost production and environmental services • to avoid waste and use inputs only as required by the system • Focus on soil and ecosystem functions Healthy soils are the basis for sustainable crop production Sustainable Intensification Paradigm
  12. 12. Smart and affordable farming solutions for Africa Brussels, July 12, 2016 Rain Run-off Leaching Soil Structure Organic Matter Soluble elements of organic or synthetic origin Tilled (disturbed soil) Undisturbed soil Destination of Rainwater Water is retained on site
  13. 13. Smart and affordable farming solutions for Africa Brussels, July 12, 2016 Destination of Inputs productive productive productive leaching leaching leaching run off run off run off Actual reduced Undisturbed soil (Sustainable Intensification)
  14. 14. Smart and affordable farming solutions for Africa Brussels, July 12, 2016 Smart System for smallholders • Sustainable • Mechanization and • Adaptation through • Resilient • Techniques
  15. 15. Smart and affordable farming solutions for Africa Brussels, July 12, 2016 Conservation Agriculture (CA) is an approach to manage agro-ecosystems for improved and sustained productivity, increased profits and food security while preserving and enhancing the resource base and the environment. CA is characterized by three linked principles: 1. Continuous minimum mechanical soil disturbance 2. Permanent organic soil cover 3. Diversification of crop species grown in sequences or associations (www.fao.org/ag/ca) Climate resilient (smart) systems
  16. 16. Smart and affordable farming solutions for Africa Brussels, July 12, 2016 Conservation Agriculture Mechanical Tillage Biological Tillage Action of Soil Biota Structure/Porosity ConventionalAgriculture High Soil Organic Matter Low Soil Organic Matter Soil Organic Matter = Drought Resistance
  17. 17. Smart and affordable farming solutions for Africa Brussels, July 12, 2016 The suppression of tillage / ploughing reduces power requirements by 50% allowing the use of smaller machines F. Baudron; CIMMYT
  18. 18. Smart and affordable farming solutions for Africa Brussels, July 12, 2016 Development precision equipment in southern Africa Sprayer, Dragon Engng (SA) Piket DAP planter (SA) Baufi 2-row ripper (Namibia)
  19. 19. Smart and affordable farming solutions for Africa Brussels, July 12, 2016 Mechanization myths: past and present • Creates rural unemployment • Leads to monoculture and industrial farming • It is only for large scale-farmers • It is only about large manufacturing companies • It is only about the public sector • It does not conserve natural resources and is not climate smart
  20. 20. Smart and affordable farming solutions for Africa Brussels, July 12, 2016 Small-scale farmers and mechanization • Increases productivity, timeliness and incomes • Reduces drudgery • Enables improved resource use efficiency • Provides employment opportunities and new skills development • Has the potential to reverse migration • Conserves natural resources • Enables gender transition • Provides opportunities for rural entrepreneurial activities and business models • Encourages local manufacturing and south-south cooperation
  21. 21. Smart and affordable farming solutions for Africa Brussels, July 12, 2016 Mechanization potential Productivity Time efficiency
  22. 22. Smart and affordable farming solutions for Africa Brussels, July 12, 2016 Challenges to mechanization • Affordability • Availability and traceability (accountability) • Lack of farmer skills • Poor extension support • Few appropriate financial services • Environmental protection and pro-poor sustainability • Public-private partnerships • Lack of clear strategies and policies for mechanization at regional and country level • Poor rural infrastructure • Rural youth has no interest in farming with ‘0’ innovations
  23. 23. Smart and affordable farming solutions for Africa Brussels, July 12, 2016 • Using GPS and mobile phone technology to mark farmers’ fields • Using up to 8 geo markers for characterizing a farmer’s field The 8 points
  24. 24. Smart and affordable farming solutions for Africa Brussels, July 12, 2016 • Online tracking of provision of mechanization service • Payment to service provider by E-voucher • Establishment of farmer profiles allow for stepwise approach to subsidized services The area quadrants 5x5 m covered 36 out of 300
  25. 25. Smart and affordable farming solutions for Africa Brussels, July 12, 2016 Sustainable mechanization: Entry points • Vision • Partnerships • Strategies • Systems Tractor and machinery suppliers Technical support and parts Finance provisionTechnical trainingExtension services Maintenance and repair services Stakeholders in the farm machinery support network for smallholder farmers Service Providers and Farmers
  26. 26. Smart and affordable farming solutions for Africa Brussels, July 12, 2016 512050 512100 512150 512200 512250 512300 214300 214350 214400 214450 214500 0.02 to 0.25 0.25 to 0.31 0.31 to 0.37 0.37 to 0.43 0.43 to 0.50 0.50 to 0.71 Vegetative Indices. Showing weed patches Field mapping and precision N and herbicide application • Crop reflectance meters with GPS can be used to map field requirements • Precision applications result in more efficient fertilizer use • Weed seeker technology for selective spot spraying
  27. 27. Smart and affordable farming solutions for Africa Brussels, July 12, 2016 • Intensive soil tillage is not SMART • There are climate smart mechanization technologies available to all farm sizes • Reduced tillage and direct seeding systems are SMART precision farming tools • There is a need for SMART mechanization services • Monitoring of mechanization services is key and GPS and mobile phone technologies provide technology for it (that is smart!) • There is a need to get increased commitment from private and public sector stakeholders for sustainable (SMART) intensification Conclusions
  28. 28. Smart and affordable farming solutions for Africa Brussels, July 12, 2016 2. Reinforce human capacity- building 4. Provide financial support to enhance investment in AM 3. Improve business and enabling policy environment and make us of ICT and GPS technology 1. Promote environmental sustainability with SMART innovations and precision farming for smallholders Conclusions
  29. 29. Smart and affordable farming solutions for Africa Brussels, July 12, 2016 Thank you Josef Kienzle (Josef.Kienzle@fao.org) Agricultural Engineer Plant Production and Protection Division Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

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