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BB59: Promoting reforestation and agroforestry practices - Mansour Ndiaye

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The Brussels Development Briefing n. 59 on “Agroecology for Sustainable Food Systems” organised by CTA, the European Commission/EuropeAid, the ACP Secretariat, CONCORD and IPES-FOOD was held on Wednesday 15 January 2020 (9h00-13h00) at the ACP Secretariat, Avenue Georges Henri 451, 1200 Brussels.

The briefing brought various perspectives and experiences on agroecological systems to support agricultural transformation. Experts presented trends and prospects for agroecological approaches and what it implies for the future of the food systems. Successes and innovative models in agroecology in different parts of the world and the lessons learned for upscaling them were also discussed.

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BB59: Promoting reforestation and agroforestry practices - Mansour Ndiaye

  1. 1. PROMOTINGAGROFORESTRYTHROUGHTRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE CASEOF APAFIN SENEGAL ASSOCIATION POUR LA PROMOTION DES ARBRES FERTILLITAIRES, DE LA L’AGROFORESTERIE ET LA FORESTERIE (ASSOCIATION FOR THE PROMOTION OF FERTILISER TREES, AGROFORESTRY AND FORESTRY) Executive Director: Mansour Ndiaye Email: mndiaye@ong-apaf.net Personal email: mansour.ndiaye05@gmail.com Tel.: (+ 221) 77 625 38 68 Office tel.: (+221) 33 957 44 04 Site: www. ong-apaf.org
  2. 2. Who are we? The APAF is a network of organisations that, since 1992, has via a European- African network promoted an agro-ecological and agroforestry farming system in Africa that restores soil vitality and biodiversity using fertiliser (soil-fertility) trees. This method enriches biodiversity and brings degraded soils back to life. The agroforestry techniques used combine these inoculated fertiliser trees with a dual symbiosis between bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi for all types of subsistence (maize, sorghum, yam, etc.) and commercial crops (cacao, coffee, etc.). The fertiliser trees enrich, structure and restore soils.
  3. 3. Agricultural context in West Africa The population in sub-Saharan Africa is growing at an uncontrolled rate with an annual increase of 10 million per year, and a fertility rate of 6 to 7% (FAO 2017). The resulting food, economic and social insecurity is affecting a growing number of farming households. Uncontrolled naturally, but I will not put that – it’s too negative. Pressure on natural resources is leading to their degradation and therefore desertification, resulting in food, economic and social insecurity. Villages are destabilised, fuelling urban migration.
  4. 4. Mixed results of reforestation programmes: Senegal case study Since independence, reforestation/afforestation programmes have been carried out regularly by the local forestry service and NGOs, with large amounts of funding mostly granted through multilateral cooperation. Sadly, today, after more than half a century of attempts at forest conservation/restoration, there is an exponential decline in these resources across the majority of the country.
  5. 5. Some data on Senegal  Population growth: higher than growth in agricultural production  Annual rainfall: 30-40% decrease over 40 years  Forests: 45,000 ha destroyed per year, with 123 ha/day in Senegal  Farmland: 2,500,000 (65.7%) degraded out of the 3,805,000 ha of arable land in Senegal (source: CILSS 2009)  Natural pastures: severe depletion of natural pastures (overgrazing, rainfall shortages)  Wildlife reserves: in sharp decline  Global warming: increasingly higher temperatures  Drop in groundwater
  6. 6. Fertiliser tree agroforestry: the solution recommended by the APAF to revegetate arid zones ‘A fertiliser tree is a tree whose activity enriches the topsoil. It improves the texture and promotes structuring of the soil. To perform its function effectively, it must be “friendly”, meaning that it cannot compete strongly with the species cultivated for their domestic or commercial production.’ (Dupriez and De leener, 1993). Fertiliser trees mainly come from the legume family. A. Reminder of definitions
  7. 7. B. Agroforestry system proposed by the APAF (1/9) The proposed agroforestry system is an ancestral African technique that the APAF is seeking to revive and improve. It enables local farmers to abandon slash-and- burn farming and to farm the same plots of land year after year, without the use of costly external inputs (chemical fertilisers and synthetic pesticides), all while reforesting the land around their villages. This agroforestry technique reverses soil and forest degradation processes via the practice of an economically viable and environmentally stable system of practices. Fertiliser tree agroforestry: the solution recommended by the APAF to revegetate arid zones
  8. 8. The system makes it possible to manage available resources (land, water, biomass fuels, organic and inorganic materials, etc.) to ensure the long-term ecological balance of fragile soils. It is designed to increase agricultural productivity while sustainably guaranteeing food and energy security. And to diversify activities, all while... Fertiliser tree agroforestry: the solution recommended by the APAF to revegetate arid zones B. Agroforestry system proposed by the APAF (2/9)
  9. 9. The method of intervention in the villages is based on a participatory and voluntary approach involving farmers in the entire agroforestry process. As such, beneficiary farmers help:  Inform/raise awareness among local populations  Select beneficiary farmers  Train beneficiary farmers  Advocate for the fertiliser tree agroforestry system Fertiliser tree agroforestry: the solution recommended by the APAF to revegetate arid zones 1. Methodology proposed by the APAF (1/2) B. Agroforestry system proposed by the APAF (3/9)
  10. 10. Information/awareness meeting for villagers 1. Methodology proposed by the APAF (2/2) Fertiliser tree agroforestry: the solution recommended by the APAF to revegetate arid zones B. Agroforestry system proposed by the APAF (4/9)
  11. 11. The agroforestry technique promoted by the APAF is based on the introduction of so-called ‘fertiliser’ trees to the individual or collective fields of farmers who farm beneath and around these trees. Activities in the field  Creation of village plant nurseries (production of plants)  Transplantation of trees and their care  Exchange visits between farmers in agroforestry fields  Support and advice for beneficiary farmers  Monitoring and assessment of agroforestry activities Fertiliser tree agroforestry: the solution recommended by the APAF to revegetate arid zones 2. Technique proposed by the APAF (1/5) B. Agroforestry system proposed by the APAF (5/9)
  12. 12. Fertiliser tree nurseries 2. Technique proposed by the APAF (1/5) Fertiliser tree agroforestry: the solution recommended by the APAF to revegetate arid zones B. Agroforestry system proposed by the APAF (6/9)
  13. 13. Vegetable crops planted alongside trees Windbreaks created with fertiliser trees Fertiliser tree agroforestry: the solution recommended by the APAF to revegetate arid zones 2. Technique proposed by the APAF (3/5) B. Agroforestry system proposed by the APAF (7/9)
  14. 14. Transplantation of Artemisia annua: medicinal plant used to treat malaria Rice crops planted alongside fertiliser trees Fertiliser tree agroforestry: the solution recommended by the APAF to revegetate arid zones 2. Technique proposed by the APAF (4/5) B. Agroforestry system proposed by the APAF (8/9)
  15. 15. Transplantation of fertiliser trees by a women’s group Fertiliser tree agroforestry: the solution recommended by the APAF to revegetate arid zones 2. Technique proposed by the APAF (5/5) B. Agroforestry system proposed by the APAF (9/9)
  16. 16. A few services provided by fertiliser trees  Reduction of anthropogenic pressure on natural forests/woodland  Natural regeneration of land  Self-fertilisation of crops  Self-production of feed crops/wood  Protects crops from erosive factors and stray animals  Contribution to water resilience  Repletion of groundwater  Creation of carbon sinks  Regulation of water cycles
  17. 17. A few services provided by fertiliser trees Chilli production Charcoal from fertiliser trees
  18. 18. A few services provided by fertiliser trees Production of sorghum feed Production of rice
  19. 19. APAF Senegal’s achievements between 2013 and 2019

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