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“Tourist expectations – potential
opportunities for agriculture, food and the
tourism industry”
Dawn Gibson, The Universit...
Dawn Gibson, Senior Lecturer
School of Tourism & Hospitality Management,
The University of the South Pacific, 2016
Email: ...
Outline
• Introduction
• Gastronomy’s importance in the development of food tourism
destinations
• Types of food tourists
...
Introduction
• Food expresses local culture & heritage and connect tourists
with a destination’s landscape and unique way ...
Gastronomy's/Foods importance
in the development of food tourism
• Travellers today more experienced, have more leisure
ti...
Types of food tourists
• Gastronomes (Foodies)
– High interest/ involvement
• Indigenous Foodies
– High & Moderate interes...
Foodies
• Mainly educated, more affluent, like communal shared
experiences, actively participate in food blogs and
related...
Interest and opportunities
• While everyone must eat, not everyone is a food tourist
• However, more people interested in ...
Emerging global trend – home
meals on demand
• Internationally online food experience opportunities now
offered through we...
Food safety, hygiene & insurance
• WeFiFo pays for hosts to get their Level 2 food
hygiene certificate.
• VizEat is insure...
Food allergies and
intolerances – Gluten, Lactose
• Increasing numbers of
visitors & locals with
allergies & intolerances
...
Food interpretation – an
educational experience
•To add value to
food/agritourism products
there is a need for
interpretat...
Case study – Cook Islands
(Berno et al., 2016)
What are tourist’s experience and perceptions of
food in the Cook Islands?
...
Secondary data analysis Cook Islands International Visitor Survey
(IVS) - June 2012 to June 2015, covering 10,950 particip...
FINDINGS - IVS
Food a significant part of visitor experience
37% total trip expenditure is on food
Activity Participation ...
VISITOR’S EXPERIENCE WITH
LOCAL FOOD
Key themes (positive)
•Unique – connects visitors to local culture
•Enjoyable – adds ...
VISITOR’S EXPERIENCE WITH
LOCAL FOOD
•Lack of local produce/Cook Islands cuisine – imported foods
•Food overpriced in rest...
• Food not a prominent feature on
websites
• Menu’s featured catered for
‘international cuisine’ with a touch of
the Pacif...
CONCLUSIONS AND
OPPORTUNTIES
• Currently difficult to create an ‘image’ of local Cook
Islands cuisine and to create expect...
Recommendations
• Increase use and cultivation of indigenous products
• Increase local production of exotics (e.g. salads,...
Conclusion
• Potential for increased linkages and economic
development and entrepreneurship between
agriculture and touris...
References
Oliver, R., Berno, T. & Ram, S. (2013). Mea’ai Samoa: Stories and recipes from the heart of Polynesia. Auckland...
New Zealand Tourism Research Institute (NZTRI) (2015). Cook Islands visitor survey data insights: Visitor characteristics
...
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2nd Pacific Agribusiness Forum: Dawn Gibson "Tourist expectations - potential opportunities for agriculture, food and the tourism industry"

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Promoting regional trade and agribusiness development in the Pacific :
2nd PACIFIC AGRIBUSINESS FORUM

"Linking the agrifood sector to the local markets for economic growth and improved food and nutrition security"
Organised by PIPSO, CTA, IFAD, SPC and SPTO
Tanoa Tusitala Hotel, Apia, Samoa, 29th August -1st September 2016

Published in: Health & Medicine
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2nd Pacific Agribusiness Forum: Dawn Gibson "Tourist expectations - potential opportunities for agriculture, food and the tourism industry"

  1. 1. “Tourist expectations – potential opportunities for agriculture, food and the tourism industry” Dawn Gibson, The University of the South Pacific
  2. 2. Dawn Gibson, Senior Lecturer School of Tourism & Hospitality Management, The University of the South Pacific, 2016 Email: gibson_d@usp.ac.fj Phone: (679) 323 2814 Tourist expectations – potential opportunities for agriculture, food and the tourism industry
  3. 3. Outline • Introduction • Gastronomy’s importance in the development of food tourism destinations • Types of food tourists • Emerging global trend – Home meals on demand • Food, safety, hygiene and insurance • Food allergies and intolerances – Gluten, Lactose • Food interpretation – an educational experience • Case study – Cook Islands • References
  4. 4. Introduction • Food expresses local culture & heritage and connect tourists with a destination’s landscape and unique way of life (Ottenbacher & Harrington, 2013) • Is an important destination attribute and fundamental to destination imaging (Hjalager & Richards, 2002). • Food consumption is integral to tourism & can have significant economic effects in the supply chain • Dining is consistently ranked in the top three favourite tourist activities • Approximately 25% - 35% of tourist expenditure is on food • Culinary, gastronomic & food tourists considered high yield
  5. 5. Gastronomy's/Foods importance in the development of food tourism • Travellers today more experienced, have more leisure time and disposable income • Looking for escape and new learning experiences • Cuisine of a destination extremely important to quality of holiday experience • Tourists seek authentic, quality experiences based on local food and cultural heritage • Gastronomy and food a vital element in getting to know a country/communities heritage and culture (UNWTO, 2012)
  6. 6. Types of food tourists • Gastronomes (Foodies) – High interest/ involvement • Indigenous Foodies – High & Moderate interest/ involvement • ‘Tourist’ Foodies – Low interest/ involvement • Familiar foods – Low interest/ involvement (Hall, 2011)
  7. 7. Foodies • Mainly educated, more affluent, like communal shared experiences, actively participate in food blogs and related online food websites • Motivated by unique experiences e.g. destination’s environmental and cultural elements • Participated in a range of food-related experiences including cooking classes, dining out, visiting farmers markets, gourmet food shopping, and attending food festivals (Robinson & Getz, 2016).
  8. 8. Interest and opportunities • While everyone must eat, not everyone is a food tourist • However, more people interested in trying new foods • Even if most tourists will only eat familiar foods still creates opportunity for local food linkages, import substitution and food related products (Hall, 2011) • Opportunities for local economic development and alternative livelihoods e.g. Agritourism, village/farm stays/tours/street markets/food products e.g. ShangriLa Fijian, Fiji – Local women’s jam/chutney/chilli sauce shop using recycled jars & wine bottles
  9. 9. Emerging global trend – home meals on demand • Internationally online food experience opportunities now offered through websites and apps e.g. Airbnb – Pillow to Plate, EatWith, WeFiFo, VizEat, Bonappetour, DishNextDoor, & Travelling Spoon etc. • Visitors want to experience authentic cuisine in local households • Opportunities exist for Pacific entrepreneurs and communities • Smaller set ups may not have adequate hygiene standards so this could be a source of differentiation.
  10. 10. Food safety, hygiene & insurance • WeFiFo pays for hosts to get their Level 2 food hygiene certificate. • VizEat is insured with Lloyds of London, covering hosts and guests for up to £250,000 (e.g. against food poisoning or other problems) • Bonappetour vets households not only for food hygiene but also hosting personality and style. Source: https://www.theguardian.com/small-business-network/2016/jun/03/real-life
  11. 11. Food allergies and intolerances – Gluten, Lactose • Increasing numbers of visitors & locals with allergies & intolerances • Traditional Pacific Island cuisines are gluten and lactose free • Provides opportunities to promote authentic local cuisine • Needs training Seinivalati, Tanoa International, Nadi
  12. 12. Food interpretation – an educational experience •To add value to food/agritourism products there is a need for interpretation e.g. Destination guides which include local stories, culture, customs, and recipes along lines of ‘Recipes for Development’; food blogs etc. •Identify personalities & elders to deliver tours etc.
  13. 13. Case study – Cook Islands (Berno et al., 2016) What are tourist’s experience and perceptions of food in the Cook Islands? Can local food be positioned as a unique and differentiating attribute for the Cooks?
  14. 14. Secondary data analysis Cook Islands International Visitor Survey (IVS) - June 2012 to June 2015, covering 10,950 participants Web audit of Cook Islands websites - 26 Cook Islands specific websites and 14 ‘other’ sites (Lonely Planet, Trip Advisor, Flikr etc) - Content analysis; characteristics, strengths, weaknesses Menu audit (online) of Cook Islands food – 32 restaurants Reviewed visitor satisfaction with: Brewery, food tours, BBQ, other food activities, local market
  15. 15. FINDINGS - IVS Food a significant part of visitor experience 37% total trip expenditure is on food Activity Participation rate Mean satisfaction Restaurant, bars & cafes 98% 4.4 Local markets 85% 4.4 Local produce 72% 4.4 Island night feast & show 67% 4.6 Meal in a Cook Islands home 20% 4.8 Participation in and Satisfaction with Food-related Activities.
  16. 16. VISITOR’S EXPERIENCE WITH LOCAL FOOD Key themes (positive) •Unique – connects visitors to local culture •Enjoyable – adds to the visitor experience “The holiday in Cook Islands was unique as we also did something known as fruit picking. As we wondered round the island we went to gardens of local people and bought fruit like mangoes and coconuts and enjoyed eating them. We found this experience very overwhelming and it was a joy to interact with the locals who are friendliest people on the earth.” “[I] enjoyed the experience of discovering wonderful new foods” Key themes (Positive)
  17. 17. VISITOR’S EXPERIENCE WITH LOCAL FOOD •Lack of local produce/Cook Islands cuisine – imported foods •Food overpriced in restaurants •Lack of fresh fruits and vegetables, meats and fish, eggs “ Most Breakfast Buffets did not have proper fresh fruit during the winter season; we complained at one resort when they served us apples when we did not travel all the way fromAustralia to eat apples” “ The amount of processed NZ foods available, would be great to see more local 'value added' food products available - would be good for visitors to eat, and great for locals to make money from.” “ Over the last few years we have seen a decrease in local produce and cuisine, it would be great to come to Rarotonga and see things unique to the Cook Islands.” (Berno et al., 2016). Key themes (Negative)
  18. 18. • Food not a prominent feature on websites • Menu’s featured catered for ‘international cuisine’ with a touch of the Pacific, images also reflect this • Local products do feature on menus but are subordinate to international/imported products • Very hard to determine what is ‘local Cook Islands food products and dishes’ (Berno et al., 2016) Key themes (Negative)
  19. 19. CONCLUSIONS AND OPPORTUNTIES • Currently difficult to create an ‘image’ of local Cook Islands cuisine and to create expectations • Little information online relating to culture and food • Opportunities to promote food tourism – enhance visual aspects online, offer more local produce at resorts and restaurants and offer local dishes • Opportunities to develop activities relating to food such as agri-food tours, culinary experiences • Promote local food as a differentiating feature of the Cook Islands Findings
  20. 20. Recommendations • Increase use and cultivation of indigenous products • Increase local production of exotics (e.g. salads, micro greens, herbs) • Create a distinctive contemporary “Pacific cuisine” • Broaden presentation of traditional foods and cookery methods • Opportunities to capitalise on broader societal trends towards organic production, “slow food”, interest in “authentic” tourist experiences etc. • Spin-offs such as agri-tourism, value added products, food festivals, “healthy-foods” concept etc and boost agricultural exports • By forging stronger linkages between agriculture and tourism through the development and promotion of sustainable cuisine, a symbiotic relationship between these sectors can be established (Berno, 2011)
  21. 21. Conclusion • Potential for increased linkages and economic development and entrepreneurship between agriculture and tourism exist • Challenges exist for large scale mass tourism multinational hotels but can be minimised with government incentives and orientation of expatriate chefs • Increased opportunities for all including MSMEs to continue to increase use of local produce and recognise value of Pacific Cuisines for tourism
  22. 22. References Oliver, R., Berno, T. & Ram, S. (2013). Mea’ai Samoa: Stories and recipes from the heart of Polynesia. Auckland: Random House. Berno, T. (2011). Sustainability on a plate: Linking agriculture and food in the Fiji Islands tourism industry. Tourism and agriculture: New geographies of consumption, production and rural restructuring, pp. 87 – 103. London: Routledge. Oliver, R., Berno, T. & Ram, S. (2010). Me'a kai: The food and flavours of the South Pacific. Auckland: Random House Cohen, E. & Avieli, N. (2004). Food in tourism: Attraction and impediment. Annals of Tourism Research, 31(4), 755- 778. doi:10.1016/j.annals.2004.02.003 du Rand, G. & Heath, E. (2006). Towards a framework for food tourism as an element of destination marketing. Current Issues in Tourism, 9(3), 206-234. Gonzalez, M. (2013). The role of the internet in enabling linkages between tourism and local food in Vanuatu. (Master’s thesis, AUT University, Auckland, New Zealand). Retrieved from: http://aut.researchgateway.ac.nz/bitstream/handle/10292/5534/GarciaGonzalezM.pdf?sequence=3&isAllowed=y . Government of the Cook Islands (2015). Cook Islands trade policy framework background paper final draft. Retrieved from http://www.mfai.gov.ck/attachments/article/239/Cook%20Islands %20TPF_Final_Draft_Background_Paper_14Aug15.pdf Horng, J. S., & Tsai, C. T. (2012). Exploring marketing strategies for culinary tourism in Hong Kong and Singapore. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 17(3), 277-300. doi:10.1080/10941665.2011.625432 Hjalager, A.-M., & Richards, G. (2002). Tourism and gastronomy. London, England: Routledge. Lin, Y., Pearson, T. & Cai, L. (2011). Food as a form of destination identity: A tourism destination brand perspective. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 11,(1) 30-48. doi: 0.1057/thr.2010.22 Milne, S. (2009). Economic linkages study: NZAID Tonga tourism support programme. Retrieved from http://www.nztri.org/sites/default/files/Tonga%20Linkage%20Final%20report.pdf
  23. 23. New Zealand Tourism Research Institute (NZTRI) (2015). Cook Islands visitor survey data insights: Visitor characteristics by accommodation type and outer island visitor characteristics and impacts. Auckland, New Zealand: NZTRI, AUT University. Oliver, R., Berno, T. & Ram, S. (2010). Me’a kai: The food and flavours of the South Pacific. Auckland: Random House. Ottenbacher, M. C., & Harrington, R. J. (2013). A case study of a culinary tourism campaign in Germany: Implications for strategy making and successful implementation. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 37, 3-28. Phillips, P., Ludvigson, T. & Panoho, J. (2005). Cook Islands tourism: 2005-2015: A geotourism Strategy. Draft v1.0. Retrieved from: http://nztri.aut.ac.nz/planningtoolkit/documents/Cook-Islands-Tourism-2005-15-Draft-pt1.pdf Robinson, R.N., & Gest, D. (2016). Food enthusiasts and tourism: Exploring food involvement dimensions, Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research, 40/4, 432-455. Singh, E. (2012). Linkages between tourism and agriculture in South Pacific SIDS: The case of Niue (Unpublished doctoral Thesis). AUT University, Auckland, New Zealand. Timms, B. F., & Neill, S. (2011). Cracks in the pavement: Conventional constraints and contemporary solutions for linking agriculture and tourism in the Caribbean (pp. 104-116). In M. Torres & J. H. Momsen (Eds.), Tourism and agriculture: New geographies of consumption, production and rural restructuring. New York: Routledge EatWith http://www.bbc.com/travel/story/20140422-dine-with-strangers-in-their-home Big Think http://bigthink.com/traveliq/the-airbnb-of-food References cont’d

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