David Little: Overview of the significance of fish-farming sector: challenges and opportunities


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The presentation was part of the Brussels Development Briefing on the topic of fish-farming, organized by the Technical Centre for Agriculture (CTA), the European Commission, and the African, Carribean, and Pacific (ACP) Secretariat on 3rd of July 2013 in Brussels.
More on: http://brusselsbriefings.net/

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David Little: Overview of the significance of fish-farming sector: challenges and opportunities

  1. 1. Brussels Development Briefing n.32 Fish-farming the new driver of the blue economy? 3rd July 2013 http://brusselsbriefings.net Overview of the significance of the fish- farming sector: challenges and opportunities. David Little, University of Stirling
  2. 2. EU FP7 Funded Project No. 222889 (2009-2013) Overview of the significance of the fish-farming sector: challenges and opportunities African, Caribbean and Pacific -ACP- countries David Little Institute of Aquaculture University of Stirling
  3. 3. Farming in water Photo Trevor Telfer Photo Andrew Shinn
  4. 4. CTAs agenda • CTA is committed to sustainable development, increasing prosperity and improving the wellbeing of agricultural and rural populations in ACP countries in a cost- effective and environmentally friendly manner • Small-holders, sustainable intensification
  5. 5. Relative contribution of aquaculture and capture fisheries to food fish consumption Capture Aquaculture FAO, 2012
  6. 6. Overview of global fisheries, including aquaculture http://www.unep.org/dewa/vitalwater/jpg/0314- fishcatch-EN.jpg
  7. 7. Fish consumption in terms of protein http://www.unep.org/dewa/vitalwater/articl e176.html
  8. 8. Production intensity Modified from FAO, 2012Mean data:2008-2010
  9. 9. Contributions to the economy Modified from FAO, 2012Mean data:2008-2010
  10. 10. Sector growth Modified from FAO, 2012Mean data:2008-2010 compared to 2003-2005
  11. 11. Rapid transformation • From domestic demand to global trade • Led by shrimp but now being followed by white fish species, pangasius and tilapia • Exotic or local species? Source FAO, 2010, modified by Zhang et al, 2012 Shrimp and tilapia in China
  12. 12. Export or local? Belton et al, 2011
  13. 13. Seafood –Number 1 exported commodity from developing countries FAO, 2012
  14. 14. A story of cities and deltas… • Rapid growth of urban settlement • Increasing demand for animal source foods • Comparative change to aquatic food as a commodity……….. • Transformation of land and water use on deltas towards value-added products • Growth in national, regional and international trade
  15. 15. ..from production to consumption
  16. 16. Urbanisation PHOTO. P.EDWARDS Aquaculture has often developed and been sustained nearer high centres of population…..
  17. 17. Urban aquaculture -Africa Clarias, Abuja,Nigeria Photo AtandeTunde Tilapia, Lake Volta, Ghana Photo Will Leschen
  18. 18. Aquaculture development or aquaculture for development Belton and Little, 2011
  19. 19. Development and change • Immanent: on-going, undirected • Interventionist: intentional, externally inserted • Returns to ‘small-scale’ typically less than 10-15% of household income • But often multiple, complex benefits – -more than 70% of farming families identified more than ten benefits of rice-fish in NW Bangladesh (Haque et al, 2010) • Incremental rather than transformational • Complexity of social structure and market incentives • Rapid uptake of commercial aquaculture by entrepreneurs rather than farmers
  20. 20. Does size matter- ‘small-scale’ and poverty Belton, Haque and Little, 2012
  21. 21. Commodity aquaculture • ‘Small-scale’ as a term is often misleading and generally not comparable to a small-holder producing a staple crop • Maybe many benefits elsewhere in the value chain • Commodity-orientated aquaculture is not always intensive
  22. 22. Can export be compatible with local food security? Extensive ‘free-range’ shrimp ponds in Southwest Bangladesh
  23. 23. Local food chains and employment • Income from extensive ‘shrimp’ ponds in southeast Bangladesh less than half of income from shrimp • Employment gains for the poorest groups
  24. 24. Local fish for local people Photo:Susan Thompson– Inconsistent quality seed and feed often undermine sustainability post-intervention
  25. 25. Cage aquaculture Cage farming in Ghana • Crystal lakes- overseas investm • Local markets • Site limitations
  26. 26. Limited freshwater sites • Cages Lake Victoria Uganda • Access to sites, exclusion of other users? Photo Will Leschen
  27. 27. Challenges in attaining positive livelihood impacts • Aquatic animals in the diet-coastal, lake or delta living people • Markets-urbanisation, export (not just the West!) • Seed and hatchery • Feed and nutrient management • Markets • Governance • ….and broader development • Benefits not as producers but elsewhere in the value chain (employment, consumption)
  28. 28. ‘Local’ international markets • Regional trade within Asia and between Asia and elsewhere is growing faster than conventional South- North trade • Traditional trade between African states in dried, smoked fish
  29. 29. Input costs, output value FAO, 2012
  30. 30. Jamaica • Beginning in the 1940s • by the late 1990s, >500ha, 100 farms • >3000MT - 85% one company • significant exports Photo Janielle Wallace
  31. 31. 2007-8 • Loss of export markets • Focus on domestic but lack of competitiveness also • Post Hurricane damage interruptions in fry supply • Gradual contraction ; change from intensive to semi-intensive – Local price $4.50/ lb – Imported $2.10/ lb – Failure of ‘eat local tilapia’ campaign
  32. 32. Seed and feed Broodfish selection, Son hatchery Uganda Extruded feeds in Ghana, Raanan Feeds Photo Will Leschen
  33. 33. …not just fish and shellfish • Womens’ cooperative producing seaweed in Tanzania
  34. 34. Linking Asia and Africa
  35. 35. Examples of new projects • Development of insect larvae production to support high quality feed ingredients for fish and livestock production and off-set costs of sanitary waste disposal (Ghana) • Fisheries and aquaculture value chain development in Malawi and Uganda • Developing African Aquaculture Networks Towards Sustainable Innovation
  36. 36. SARNISSA-networking Visit www.sarnissa.org and sign up now
  37. 37. Thanks • CTA for the invitation • Will Leschen for African photographs • Neil Handisyde for graphics • Colleagues on the Sustaining Ethical Aquaculture Trade project • www.seatglobal.eu • Contact me on dcl1@stir.ac.uk