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A book review to show the main ideas of the authors.


  1. 1. SWITCHHow to change thingswhen change is hard Bruno Lui
  2. 2. Read the book!
  3. 3. The brain sides nal side EmotioR atio nal side
  4. 4. The ElephantRepresents our emotional side • Lazy • Short-term rewards • Instant gratification
  5. 5. The Rider Represents our rational side• Persistent• Long-term rewards• Think beyond the moment
  6. 6. Change problems• Kinds of change that need short-term sacrifices for long-term payoffs (Elephant’s fault)• When rider and elephant disagree about which way to move• Uncertain decisions prevents you to change the actual behavior
  7. 7. Surprises about change• What looks like a people problem is often a situation problem.• What looks like laziness is often exhaustion.• What looks like resistance is often a lack of clarity.
  8. 8. Steps to make the change• Direct the rider• Motivate the elephant• Shape the path
  9. 9. Direct the riderAny successful change requires a translation of ambiguous goals into concrete behaviors.
  10. 10. Direct the rider Decision paralysis More options, even the good ones, can freeze us and make us retreat to the default plan.“When we face more and more options,we become overloaded.Choice no longer liberates, it debilitates.”
  11. 11. Direct the rider Ambiguity Changes brings new choices that create uncertainty.“It’s not only options that yield decision paralysis, ambiguity does too” Ambiguity is exhausting to the rider. He’s trying to direct the elephant down the new path. But when the road is uncertain, the elephant will insist on taking the most familiar path (returning the default path).
  12. 12. Direct the rider Find the bright spotsFind what is already working and try to replicate it. How can we do more of this? How can we tell other people to continue doing this?
  13. 13. Direct the rider Give the direction, both a start and a finishWhen you describe the de stination, you’re helping to correctone of the Rider’s great wea knesses.The tendency to getlost in analysis.
  14. 14. Direct the rider “We have to script the critical moves”The rider needs a script that explains h ow to act.Something that make sense and avoid paralyzing him.
  15. 15. Motivate the elephant “Knowledge does not change behavior”“It’s emotion that motivates the elephant”
  16. 16. Motivate the elephantA research shows that change is difficult because people arereluctant to change the successful habits of the past. People just proceed on the easiest path. Sometimes we think people act only in response to bribes and punishments.
  17. 17. Motivate the elephantBut it becomes absurd if are going to break outthis attitude for every change you want to makein your workplace.
  18. 18. Motivate the elephant Our brain and our abilities are like muscles, they can bestrengthened with practice. We’re not born a professional, we must learn things. And our inspiration to change ourselves comes from creativity, flexibility and ingenuity.
  19. 19. Motivate the elephantPeople find it more motivating to be partly finished with a longer journey than to be at the starting gate of a shorter one “One way to motivate action, is to make people feel as though they’re already closer to the finish line than they might have thought”
  20. 20. Motivate the elephantIf you are leading with a big task, try to break it into small tasks. Small actions can make big changes. “Small targets lead to small victories, and small victor ies can often trigger a positive spiral of behavior”
  21. 21. Motivate the elephantThe elephant needs motivation, and that motivation comes from feeling and confidence. The elephant has to believe that it’s capable of conquering the change.
  22. 22. Shape the path It isn’t the people who change, it is the situation.Simple tweaks of the path can lead to dramatic changes in behavior.
  23. 23. Shape the path Tweak the environmentTweaking the environment is about making the right behaviors a little bit easier and the bad behaviors a little bit harder. “Simple tweaks of the pathcan lead to dramatic changes in behavior”
  24. 24. Shape the path “Behavior is contagious”Our habits allow a lot of good behaviors happen withoutthe rider taking charge. The habits turn our behavior to something natural.
  25. 25. Shape the path Build habitsHow can we create a habit that supports the change you’retrying to make? 1- The habits needs to be relatively easy to embrace 2- And needs to advance the mission.
  26. 26. Shape the path ChecklistsChecklists educate people about what’s best, showing them the right way to do something. “Checklists are effective at directing the rider”
  27. 27. Shape the path Action triggers They’re mental plans. Decisions you make to execute a certain action when you encounter a certain situational trigger.“Tomorrow morning after I drop Annaat school, I’ll go to the gym”
  28. 28. Shape the path Rally the HerdIn change and unfamiliar situations, we are not totally surehow to behave. What do we do?We watch other people.
  29. 29. Shape the path Rally the HerdFollowing the herd can either guarantee a change effortor doom it.You can rally the support of others who in turn couldinfluence those you hope to change.It’s an attempt to change the culture, and the cultureoften is the key of successful organizational change.
  30. 30. Keep the switch going“A long journey starts with a single step”... But a single step doesn’tguarantee the long journey.“Change is not an event, it is a process.And to lead a process requires persistence”“Small changes can snowball to big changes”
  31. 31. Images!y-car-side-view-mirror-pictures/
  32. 32. Thanks! Bruno Lui@bruno_lui