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Grammatica inglese per principianti parte i

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Semplici, chiare e colorate note di grammatica inglese per principianti. Simple colourful grammar notes for Italian absolute beginners.

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Grammatica inglese per principianti parte i

  1. 1. INDICE 1. ARTICOLO pag 1 2. PRONOMI pag 1 3. CONIUGAZIONE DEL VERBO BE pag 2 4. SHORT ANSWERS pag 2 5. ESSERVI / ESSERCI – THERE IS / THERE ARE pag 3 6. AGGETTIVI POSSESSIVI pag 3 7. AGGETTIVI E PRONOMI DIMOSTRATIVI pag 4 8. PRONOMI PERSONALI SOGGETTO E COMPLEMENTO pag 5 9. NUMERI CARDINALI pag 6 10. NUMERI ORDINALI pag 7 11. L E D A T E pag 7 12. IL VERBO AVERE pag 8 6 TABELLE – TO HAVE – HAVE GOT pag 11 13. AGGETTIVI pag 12 14. GENITIVO SASSONE pag 13 15. WEEKEND, CIOÈ NOMI COMPOSTI pag 13 16. PLURALI pag 14
  2. 2. 1 1. ARTICOLO THE = IL – LO – LA – I – GLI – LE Si pronuncia the davanti a consonanti e a vocali che abbiano il suono di i; viene pronunciato thi davanti agli altri suoni vocalici e quando si vuol dare risalto alla parola. A – AN = UN, UNO, UNA si usa A davanti a: · sost. che iniziano per consonante (a dog, a cat…) · si usa A anche davanti a W e Y (a war, a year) · davanti al suono di IU (a university, a European) si usa AN davanti a: · sost. che iniziano per vocale (an armchair, …) · parole con h muta, che sono solo quattro: hour, honest, heir, honour. 2. PRONOMI I Io si scrive sempre maiuscolo YOU Tu non è vero, ma per comodità è invalso l’uso di dire che you equivale al nostro tu; il TU esisteva e si diceva THOU, ma è caduto in disuso HE Egli (lui) si usa per nomi indicanti uomini e per gli animali di casa di cui si conosce il sesso SHE Ella (lei) si usa per nomi indicanti donne, per gli animali di cui si conosce il sesso e per le navi IT Esso / essa neutro, si usa per animali, cose e per i bambini piccolissimi WE Noi YOU Voi in inglese non ci si da tutti del tu, come molti sostengono, semmai ci s da tutti del voi THEY Essi / esse (loro) per maschi, femmine e neutri
  3. 3. 2 3. CONIUGAZIONE DEL VERBO BE 1 – La forma negativa di tutti gli ausiliari si fa mettendo il NOT dopo il verbo Affermativo Contratto Negativo 2 – La forma interrogativa si ottiene mettendo il verbo davanti al soggetto 3 – La forma interrogativo-negativa, per comodità, diremo che si ottiene mettendo l’ausiliare con la negazione contratta davanti al verbo: ISN’T HE? AREN’T YOU? MA: AM I NOT? Perché non si può contrarre AM e NOT; se proprio si dovesse fare, esiste la forma AREN’T I che tuttavia è abbastanza rara e che al momento consiglio di tralasciare. 4. SHORT ANSWERS NON MI STANCHERO’ MAI DI SOTTOLINEARE L’IMPORTANZA DELLE SHORT ANSWERS . Rispondere solo con YES o NO è quasi sempre scortese, mentre si può benissimo rispondere con la sola SHORT ANSWER: Are you cold? Yes, I am oppure I am Le short answers si ottengono ripetendo nella risposta il soggetto e l’AUSILIARE contenuti nella domanda; questo vale sempre, si cambierà di volta in volta soltanto l’ausiliare usato. Alla domanda ARE YOU COLD? Si può rispondere: o Yes, I am. o I am. o No, I am not. o I’m not. Contratto I AM I’m I AM NOT I’m not YOU ARE You’re YOU ARE NOT You aren’t HE IS He’s HE IS NOT He isn’t SHE IS She’s SHE IS NOT She isn’t IT IS It’s IT IS NOT It isn’t WE ARE We’re WE ARE NOT We aren’t YOU ARE You’re YOU ARE NOT You aren’t THEY ARE They’re THEY ARE NOT They aren’t AM I? YES, I am NO, I’m not ARE YOU? YES, you are NO, you aren’t IS HE? YES, he is NO, he isn’t IS SHE? YES, she is NO, she isn’t IS IT? YES, it is NO, it isn’t ARE WE? YES, we are NO, we aren’t ARE YOU? YES, you are NO, you aren’t ARE THEY? YES, they are NO, they aren’t
  4. 4. 3 5. ESSERVI / ESSERCI – THERE IS / THERE ARE THERE IS THERE IS NOT THERE ISN’T IS THERE? ISN’T THERE? THERE ARE THERE ARE NOT THERE AREN’T ARE THERE? AREN’T THERE? 6. AGGETTIVI POSSESSIVI Mio - mia - miei - mie MY Tuo - tua - tuoi - tue YOUR Suo - sua - suoi - sue (di lui) HIS Suo - sua - suoi - sue(di lei) HER Suo - sua - suoi - sue (di ogg. O anim.) ITS Nostro - nostra - nostri - nostre OUR Vostro - vostra - vostri - vostre YOUR Loro - di essi - di esse THEIR Proprio ONE'S o In italiano il possessivo per la terza pers. sing. concorda con il genere della cosa posseduta (la sua casa, il suo cane), in inglese invece concorda con il genere del possessore: la sua casa = his house (se il possessore è maschile) her house (se il possessore è femminile) its house (se il possessore è animale o cosa)
  5. 5. 4 o Non si mette MAI l’articolo davanti ad un possessivo La mia casa = MY HOUSE e non: the my house o La forma ONE’S è indefinita e si trova sempre con i verbi all’infinito I propri parenti = one’s relations Fare del proprio meglio = to do one’s best o L’aggettivo possessivo è più usato in inglese che in italiano. Lo si trova, al posto del nostro articolo, davanti ai nomi indicanti parti del corpo, gradi di parentela, vestiario e ogni volta sia sottintesa un’idea di posesso anche vaga. Io non sciupo mai il tempo = I never waste MY time. Non mettere le mani in tasca = Don’t put YOUR hands in YOUR pockets 7. AGGETTIVI E PRONOMI DIMOSTRATIVI Osserva le seguenti espressioni: This is a short description of…. = Questa è una breve descrizione di… that’s a poster of Britney Spears = Quello è un poster di Britney Spears These stars range in size = Queste stelle variano nelle dimensioni This = Questo, questa That = Quello, quella These = Questi, queste Those = Quelli, quelle - This is my pen Questa e' la mia penna - That building is very old Quell'edificio e' molto vecchio - These children are Sue's cousins Questi bambini sono i cugini di Sue - Those are his socks Quelli sono i suoi calzini Inoltre occorre ricordare che si usa "THIS" quando si risponde al telefono. - Hello. This is Alex = Pronto, sono Alex Altre espressioni di uso comune That’s all Questo è tutto That's it! Sì – proprio così
  6. 6. 5 E 8. PRONOMI PERSONALI SOGGETTO E COMPLEMENTO SOGGETTO COMPLEMENTO I ME YOU YOU HE HIM SHE HER IT IT WE US YOU YOU THEY THEM E’ semplice: quando il pronome è soggetto della frase, si usa I, YOU, HE, ecc.; quando il pronome è complemento della frase, si usano quelli della seconda colonna. Alcuni esempi? o Can you show me that ring? o I don’t want to give him my name. o I like her very much. o Can you give us your name? o Can I try them on?
  7. 7. 6 9. NUMERI CARDINALI Sapete già contare a livello di sopravvivenza, vediamo di raffinare la materia. Lo zero si legge come la lettera O, solo nelle scale graduate si legge zero (pronunciato all'inglese) 11 eleven I numeri da 13 a 19 aggiungono TEEN, 12 twelve 13 thirteen le eccezioni e le modificazioni irregolari sono segnate in grassetto 14 fourteen 15 fifteen 16 sixteen 17 seventeen 18 eighteen Da notare che 18 ha una T in meno del dovuto 19 nineteen Le decine da 20 a 90 si formano con l'aggiunta di TY, e qualche piccola modifica che ricalca quelle già viste sopra: 20 twenty 30 thirty 40 forty (qui sparisce la u) 50 fifty 60 sixty 70 seventy 80 eighty (qui sparisce una t) 90 ninety Nella scrittura le unità sono unite alle decine da una lineetta: 21 = twenty-one 32 = thirty-two 43 = forty-three Le unità e le decine sono unite al numero superiore dalla congiunzione and: 204 = two hundred and four 789 = seven hundred and eighty-nine CENTO = HUNDRED MILLE = THOUSAND Non prendono la S del plurale se sono preceduti da un numero, del resto in italiano si dice DUECENTO e non DUECENTI: 2.579 = two thousand five hundred and seventy-nine 10.730 = ten thousand seven hundred and thirty
  8. 8. 7 10. NUMERI ORDINALI I numeri ordinali si formano aggiungendo ai cardinali la desinenza TH, con qualche cambiamento ortografico sennò la vita sarebbe troppo facile; qui di seguito riporto le irregolarità che si riscontrano, tutti i numeri non riportati sono regolari: 1° = first, 2° = second 3° = third 5° = fifth 8° = eighth (come sempre perde una t) 9° = ninth (perde la e) 12° = twelfth 15° = fifteenth 18° = eighteenth (manca la solita t) Le decine che terminano in TY mutano la Y in IE prima di aggiungere TH : 20° = twentieth 30° = thirtieth 40° = fortieth 50° = fiftieth Nei composti è ordinale solo l'ultimo: 21° = twenty-first 32° = thirty-second 56° = fifty-sixth Le frazioni si leggono come in italiano: 2/3 = two thirds 4/5 = four fifths 11. L E D A T E In inglese si usano i numeri ordinali per dire le date. 3rd January 2002 si legge the third of January two thousand two 22nd June 2001 si legge the twenty-second of June two thousand one 1st February 2000 si legge the first of February two thousand 5th March 1999 si legge the fifth of March nineteen ninety-nine Si deve quindi sempre scrivere la desinenza dell'ordinale dopo il numero del giorno: 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th ecc. I mesi si scrivono sempre con l'iniziale maiuscola Gli anni si leggono non come numeri comuni, ma dicendo il numero delle centinaia seguito dal resto: 1815 = eighteen fifteen 1945 = nineteen forty-five
  9. 9. 8 12. IL VERBO AVERE Forma affermativa To have have got I have I've I have got I've got You have You've You have got You've got He has He's He has got He's got She has She's She has got She's got It has It's It has got It's got We have We've We have got We've got You have You've You have got You've got They have They've They have got They've got o Si possono usare indifferentemente il verbo have semplice o il verbo have got, la scelta dipende generalmente dall'area geografica di chi parla. Per lo straniero vanno bene entrambi Es.: my friend has a very big car oppure my friend has got a very big car o Quando però il verbo to have ha significato diverso da possedere, in tal caso si può usare solo to have e non have got Es.: I have a shower every morning faccio la doccia tutte le mattine Have a sandwich! prendi un panino! Have a nice trip! Buon viaggio! o E' importante imparare fin da ora che il verbo to have serve largamente per tradurre il nostro verbo dovere Deve andare dal dentista he has to go to the dentist Dobbiamo finire il lavoro per le tre we have to finish our work by three o'clock Devono andare se non vogliono arrivare in ritardo they have to go if they don't want to arrive late.
  10. 10. 9 o In questa forma sta entrando nell'uso (almeno colloquiale) anche have got Devo proprio andare = I've got to go Forma negativa I don't have I haven't got You don't have You haven't got He doesn't have He hasn't got She doesn't have She hasn't got It doesn't have It hasn't got We don't have We haven't got You don't have You haven't got They don't have They haven't got o Se si usa il verbo to have semplice, la forma negativa è uguale a quella di tutti gli altri verbi non ausiliari, quindi con l'uso di don't - doesn't o Se si sceglie la forma have got, si farà la forma negativa inserendo il solo not tra have e got Es.: I don't have a big house I haven't got a big house Forma interrogativa Do I have? Have I got? Do you have? Have you got? Does he have? Has he got? Does she have? Has she got? Does it have? Has it got? Do we have? Have we got? Do you have? Have you got? Do they have? Have they got? o Quando si usa il verbo have got, questo si comporta come un ausiliare vero e proprio, di conseguenza viene posto davanti al soggetto nella forma interrogativa Es.: does your house have a garden? Has your house got a garden? o Got è il participio passato di to get, in origine questa forma del verbo avere veniva usata se si voleva rafforzare l'idea espressa, oggi non è rimasta alcuna differenza tra le due forme (tranne che per i puristi ovviamente)
  11. 11. 10 Forma interrogativo-negativa Don't I have Haven't I got? Don't you have? Haven't you got? Doesn't he have? Hasn't he got? Doesn't she have? Hasn't she got? Doesn't it have? Hasn't it got? Don't we have? Haven't we got? Don't you have? Haven't you got? Don't they have? Haven't they got? Es.: don't you have a lesson now? haven't you got a lesson now? Short answers Yes, I do No, I don't Yes, I have No, I haven't Yes, you do No, you don't Yes, you have No, you haven't Yes, he does No, he doesn't Yes, he has No, he hasn't Yes, she does No, she doesn't Yes, she has No, she hasn't Yes, it does No, it doesn't Yes, it has No, it hasn't Yes, we do No, we don't Yes, we have No, we haven't Yes, you do No, you don't Yes, you have No, you haven't Yes, they do No, they don't Yes, they have No, they haven't Come si vede nella tabella sopra, le short answers funzionano come sempre, cioè si ripete il soggetto + l'ausiliare contenuti nella domanda
  12. 12. 11 TABELLE – TO HAVE – HAVE GOT I have I've I have got I've got You have You've You have got You've got He has He's He has got He's got She has She's She has got She's got It has It's It has got It's got We have We've We have got We've got You have You've You have got You've got They have They've They have got They've got Forma negativa I don't have I haven't got You don't have You haven't got He doesn't have He hasn't got She doesn't have She hasn't got It doesn't have It hasn't got We don't have We haven't got You don't have You haven't got They don't have They haven't got Forma interrogativa Do I have? Have I got? Do you have? Have you got? Does he have? Has he got? Does she have? Has she got? Does it have? Has it got? Do we have? Have we got? Do you have? Have you got? Do they have? Have they got? Forma interrogativo-negativa Don't I have Haven't I got? Don't you have? Haven't you got? Doesn't he have? Hasn't he got? Doesn't she have? Hasn't she got? Doesn't it have? Hasn't it got? Don't we have? Haven't we got? Don't you have? Haven't you got? Don't they have? Haven't they got? Short answers Yes, I do No, I don't Yes, I have No, I haven't Yes, you do No, you don't Yes, you have No, you haven't Yes, he does No, he doesn't Yes, he has No, he hasn't Yes, she does No, she doesn't Yes, she has No, she hasn't Yes, it does No, it doesn't Yes, it has No, it hasn't Yes, we do No, we don't Yes, we have No, we haven't Yes, you do No, you don't Yes, you have No, you haven't Yes, they do No, they don't Yes, they have No, they haven't
  13. 13. 12 13. AGGETTIVI L’AGGETTIVO RETTO DAL VERBO ESSERE, LO SEGUE COME IN ITALIANO: This house is beautiful L’aggettivo attributivo sta sempre davanti al nome cui si riferisce: This beautiful house is old Non importa quanti siano gli aggettivi attributivi, stanno tutti davanti al nome IN NESSUN CASO GLI AGGETTIVI PRENDONO IL PLURALE Order of adjectives Determiner Observation Physical Description Origin Material Qualifier Noun Size Shape Age Color a beautiful old Italian touring car an expensive antique silver mirror four gorgeous long-stemmed red silk roses her short black hair our big old English sheepdog those square wooden hat boxes that dilapidated little hunting cabin several enormous young American basketball players some delicious Thai food
  14. 14. 13 14. GENITIVO SASSONE Il possesso si può esprimere in due modi: o Con la preposizione OF (the body of the dog) o Con il genitivo sassone: Il cane di Cristina Cristina’s dog Come si vede, si aggiunge ‘S al possessore e lo si mette davanti alla cosa posseduta. Nell’inglese (parlato e scritto) moderno è frequentissimo, anzi è la forma preferita quando il possessore è una persona. o Se il nome del possessore termina con S si aggiunge solo l’apostrofo: le amiche delle tue sorelle your sisters’ friends o Il genitivo sassone è molto usato con le espressioni di tempo, nelle quali non sempre indica possesso: una passeggiata di un’ora an hour’s walk il riposo di una notte a night’s rest la gita di ieri yesterday’s trip o Serve anche per tradurre l’espressione QUELLO DI: questo è il giornale di ieri, non quello di oggi this is yesterday’s paper, not today’s prendi la tua racchetta, non quella di Maria take your racket, not Mary’s o Traduce inoltre l’espressione ESSERE DI: questo computer non è di mio figlio, è di Luca this computer is not my son’s, it is Luca’s 15. WEEKEND, CIOÈ NOMI COMPOSTI Quando in italiano ci sono due sostantivi, il secondo dei quali indica di quale materia è composto il primo, l’uso al quale serve, il tempo o il luogo cui appartiene, la qualita’ ecc., in inglese il secondo sostantivo viene usato come un aggettivo e posto davanti al primo. Weekend e’ un chiaro esempio, infatti: fine di settimana, settimana indica a quale cosa si riferisce la fine, diventa aggettivo del primo e passa davanti
  15. 15. 14 16. PLURALI Regolari = + s Car = cars Apple = apples Dog = dogs Finale cons + y = ies Country = countries Baby = babies Reply = replies Finale vocale + y = ys Play = plays Boy = boys Day = days Finale in S – SS – SH – CH – X – Z – O + ES Bus = buses Glass = glasses Wish = wishes Watch = watches Box = boxes Buzz = buzzes Tomato = tomatoes Una serie di parole terminanti in F al plurale fa VES Wife = wives Life = lives Wolf = wolves Leaf = leaves Knife = knives Thief = thieves Half = halves Loaf = loaves Shelf = shelves Alcuni sono uguali al plurale e al singolare Sheep = sheep Fish = fish Alcuni sono totalmente irregolari Child = children Foot = feet Man = men (e composti) Mouse = mice Tooth = teeth Woman = women Goose = geese
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