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Grammatica inglese beginners and elementary parte ii

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appunti di grammatica per studenti italiani livello principianti ed elementare. questa è la seconda parte

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Grammatica inglese beginners and elementary parte ii

  1. 1. INDICE VERBI 1. INFINITO PAG 1 2. IMPERATIVO PAG 1 3. IL PRESENTE INDICANTIVO PAG 2 VERBI – FORME NEGATIVE 4. INFINITO PAG 3 5. IMPERATIVO PAG 3 6. PRESENTE INDICATIVO PAG 4 VERBI NON AUSILIARI – FORME INTERROGATIVE 7. PRESENTE INDICATIVO PAG 5 8. SHORT ANSWERS PAG 5 IL VERBO POTERE C A N PAG 6 9. SIGNIFICATI DI CAN PAG 6 COUNTABLE AND UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS 10. SOME PAG 7 11. ANY PAG 7 PREPOSIZIONI 12. PREPOSIZIONI DI STATO IN LUOGO : AT IN ON PAG 8 13. PREPOSIZIONI DI MOTO A LUOGO: TO INTO PAG 9 14. PREPOSIZIONI CON QUESTION WORDS PAG 9 15. ALTRE PREPOSIZIONI DI LUOGO PAG 10 IL PASSATO DEI VERBI 16. IL PASSATO DEL VERBO TO BE PAG 11 17. IL PAST SIMPLE E IL PARTICIPIO PASSATO DEI VERBI PAG 12 18. I VERBI IRREGOLARI PAG 13 Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
  2. 2. 19. IL PAST SIMPLE – FORMA NEGATIVA PAG 14 20. IL PAST SIMPLE – FORMA INTERROGATIVA PAG 15 21. SIGNIFICATO DEL SIMPLE PAST PAG 15 VERBI – FORMA IN –ING PAG 16 22. IL PRESENTE PROGRESSIVO (PRESENT CONTINUOUS) PAG 17  VERBI – FORMA IN –ING – riepilogo PAG 18 23. USO DEL PRESENTE PROGRESSIVO PAG 19 FUTURO CON IL PRESENT CONTINUOUS PAG 20 VERBI – IL CONDIZIONALE (CONDITIONAL TENSE) PAG 21 Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
  3. 3. 1 VERBI 1. INFINITO  Udite, udite! In inglese non esistono le coniugazioni!!  L’infinito dei verbi inglesi NON HA DESINENZA ma è preceduto dalla PARTICELLA TO To come to go to read to wish (venire) (andare) (leggere) (desiderare, augurare)  Le preposizioni di, a, da, per non si traducono davanti all’infinito: spero di vederti in città = I hope to see you in town ho una lezione lunga da studiare = I have a long lesson to study abbiamo molte lettere da scrivere = we have many letters to write 2. IMPERATIVO L’imperativo di seconda persona singolare e plurale (tu e voi) è uguale all’infinito del verbo, senza il TO: STUDIA! = STUDY! ANDATE A CASA! = GO HOME! Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
  4. 4. 2 3. IL PRESENTE INDICANTIVO Questo PRESENTE INDICATIVO non serve per indicare ciò che si sta facendo, ma solo azioni abituali o ripetute. TO COME TO GO TO READ I come I go I read You come You go You read He/she/it comeS He/she/it goES He/she/it readS We come We go We read You come You go You read They come They go They read  Il presente si coniuga togliendo il TO all’infinito ed aggiungendo una S alle terze persone singolari  Modificazioni ortografiche:  Se l’infinito termina in s - ss - sh - ch - x - z - o, si aggiunge ES To cross = he crosses To wish = he wishes To watch = he watches To box = he boxes To go = he goes To buzz = he buzzes  Se l’infinito termina in Y preceduta da consonante si cambia la Y in IE prima di aggiungere la S; se invece la Y è preceduta vocale, si aggiunge solo la S To study = he studies To reply = he replies To play = he plays  Gli avverbi di tempo indeterminato, nei tempi semplici, devono essere posti tra il soggetto e il verbo; nei tempi composti vanno dopo il primo ausiliare (fa eccezione il verbo TO BE che li vuole dopo) : always (sempre) often (spesso) seldom (raramente) never (mai) generally (generalmente) usually (di solito) Io vado sempre in città al mattino = I always go to town in the morning Tu dici spesso delle stupidaggini = You often talk nonsense Egli esce raramente = He seldom goes out Noi generalmente siamo a casa di pomeriggio = We are generally at home in the afternoon. Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
  5. 5. 3 VERBI – FORME NEGATIVE 4. INFINITO La forma negativa dell'infinito si ottiene mettendo il NOT davanti all'infinito:  Essere o non essere = to be or NOT to be  Spero di non vederlo domani = I hope NOT to see him tomorrow 5. IMPERATIVO La forma negativa dell'imperativo si fa mettendo DO NOT (DON'T) davanti all'infinito senza il TO:  Sii, siate = be! Non essere, non siate = DON'T BE  Non mangiate troppo! = DON'T EAT too much! Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
  6. 6. 4 6. PRESENTE INDICATIVO I verbi ausiliari (TO BE), prendono la negazione NOT dopo il verbo. Soltanto pochissimi altri verbi costruiscono la forma negativa in questo modo. La quasi totalità dei verbi inglesi ha bisogno di un ausiliare per ottenere la forma negativa. Tale ausiliare è il verbo TO DO, che è anche usato normalmente con il significato di FARE. Lo schema della frase negativa di un verbo non ausiliare è quindi: SOGGETTO + DO/DOES + NOT + INFINITO SENZA IL TO WE DO NOT WORK on Saturdays SHE DOES NOT WORK on Saturdays  Notare che alla terza persona singolare l'ausiliare è DOES ma il verbo non ha più la S: she DOES not KNOW your telephone number  Naturalmente le forme negative si contraggono alla grande: DO NOT = DON'T DOES NOT = DOESN'T  Gli avverbi ALWAYS, NEVER, GENERALLY, USUALLY ecc. vanno posti tra l'ausiliare e il verbo: NON USCIAMO SPESSO DI SERA = WE DO NOT OFTEN GO OUT IN THE EVENINGS  In inglese (almeno nella lingua corretta e decente) NON ci possono essere DUE NEGAZIONI nella stessa frase, quindi in presenza di parole con senso negativo il verbo va alla forma affermativa: NON LAVORIAMO MAI DI SABATO = WE NEVER WORK ON SATURDAYS NESSUNO LAVORA DI SABATO = NOBODY WORKS ON SATURDAYS Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
  7. 7. 5 VERBI NON AUSILIARI – FORME INTERROGATIVE 7. PRESENTE INDICATIVO Il verbo DO accompagna i verbi inglesi (tranne BE e alcuni altri che vedremo) anche nella forma interrogativa del presente. La struttura della frase interrogativa è quindi la seguente: DO + SOGGETTO + VERBO ALL'INFINITO SENZA IL TO DO YOU SPEAK English? DOES HE SPEAK English? Gli avverbi di tempo (never, always ecc.), nelle frasi interrogative, vanno posti dopo il soggetto: DO YOU OFTEN SPEAK English? Anche qui, in presenza di altra parola negativa nella frase, il verbo rimane affermativo: DO YOU NEVER SPEAK English? DOES NOBODY SPEAK English? Esistono, ahimè, anche le interrogativo-negative, che si fanno mettendo DON'T / DOESN'T davanti al soggetto: DON'T YOU OFTEN SPEAK ENGLISH? DOESN'T HE OFTEN SPEAK ENGLISH? Anche qui, in presenza di altra parola negativa nella frase, il verbo rimane affermativo: DO YOU NEVER SPEAK English? DOES NOBODY SPEAK English? 8. SHORT ANSWERS Poiché la struttura della short answer è YES / NO + SOGGETTO + AUSILIARE, la stessa si modifica in base all'ausiliare usato nella domanda: ARE YOU always on time? Yes, I AM / No, I'M NOT DO YOU speak English? Yes, I DO / No, I DON'T DOES HE speak English? Yes, HE DOES / No, HE DOESN'T Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
  8. 8. 6 IL VERBO POTERE C A N AFFERMATIVO NEGATIVO INTERROGATIVO I CAN I CANNOT CAN I? you CAN you CANNOT CAN you? he/she/it CAN he / she / it CANNOT CAN he / she / it? we CAN we CANNOT CAN we? you CAN CAN you? they CAN you CANNOT they CANNOT CAN they? o Gli mancano molti tempi verbali o Non possiede infinito con il to, si chiama can e basta, non to can o Non prende la S alla terza singolare: Daniele può venire solo dopo le 5.00 = Daniel can come only after 5.00 pm o L'infinito che lo segue perde il to: Posso farlo domani = I can do it tomorrow o Per fare la forma negativa di can, si aggiunge solamente il not dopo il verbo stesso. Si può contrarre in n't oppure non contrarre, ma lo si deve scrivere attaccato al verbo. Non posso venire al concerto con te = I can't / cannot come to the concert with you o La forma interrogativa di can è identica a quella di TO BE, cioè con il verbo davanti al soggetto. Non si usa il do. Posso venire con te? = Can I come with you? Non puoi chiudere la bocca? = Can't you shut up? 9. SIGNIFICATI DI CAN CAN significa potere, ma non in senso totalmente uguale all'italiano. Si usa per esprimere: o Essere in grado di fare: We can come only after 5 o Chiedere e dare permessi in linguaggio informale: o Supposizione negativa: o Saper fare: o Non riuscire a: Can I go out, please? – Yes, you can. Non può essere il suo ragazzo! È troppo giovane = He can't be her boyfriend! He's too young. Sai suonare la batteria?= Can you play the drums? Non riesco a trovare l'orologio = I can't find my watch Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
  9. 9. 7 COUNTABLE AND UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS In inglese come in italiano ci sono dei nomi numerabili (countable) e dei nomi non numerabili (uncountable). I nomi numerabili hanno sia la forma singolare che la plurale. Quelli non numerabili invece hanno solo la forma singolare Countable Uncountable An egg = 2 eggs A flat = 2 flats A cake = 3 cakes A banana = some bananas A dog = many dogs A carrot = a few carrots Flour Oil Cheese Bread Sugar Butter 10. SOME Il partitivo italiano del, dello, della, degli ecc. con senso di “un po’, alcuni, ne” e simili si traduce con some o con any. Some nelle frasi affermative e delle frasi interrogative quando non si tratta di una vera domanda ma di una richiesta o si offre qualche cosa:  ci sono delle mele sul tavolo = there are some apples on the table  dammi dei libri da leggere = give me some books to read  ho dei CD per te = I have some CD’s for you  abbiamo delle foto da farvi vedere = we have some photos to show you  vuoi del caffè? = do you want some coffee? (non è una domanda vera e propria, è un’offerta)  puoi darmi dei libri? = can you give me some books? (è una richiesta di qualche cosa) 11. ANY any si usa nelle frasi negative e nelle domande vere e proprie  hai dei libri sull’Inghilterra? = Do you have any books on England?  Ci sono delle lettere per me? = Are there any letters for me?  Non ha comprato dei fiori questa mattina = He didn’t buy any flowers this morning Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
  10. 10. 8 PREPOSIZIONI Le preposizioni sono piccole parole, ma è difficile impararne l’uso corretto. Elencarle in una tabella è di poco aiuto, quindi preferisco riportare una serie di esempi 12. PREPOSIZIONI DI STATO IN LUOGO : AT IN ON AT indica un luogo in generale, come punto di riferimento 1. We always meet at the airport, when he comes to Italy 2. She’s at the window 3. You can buy stamps at the post office 4. John isn’t at school. He’s at home 5. Mr King isn’t at work today 6. There’s a cafè at the end of the street 7. Do you sit at the front or at the back of the class? IN è solo per STATO IN LUOGO. Viene usata per luoghi grandi o per indicare l’interno di un luogo. 1. Harry is not IN at the moment 2. My parents are IN Canada at the moment. 3. My sister lives IN Madrid 4. Jack lives IN Garden Avenue, AT number 20 5. Tony can see his face IN the mirror 6. There is a hole IN my shoe 7. Ellen has a bunch of flowers IN one hand 8. She sits IN an armchair 9. Paul and Mary live IN the country 10.Sally is ill, and is in hospital 11.You look gorgeous IN that dress ON significa SU, SOPRA 1. The book is on the shelf 2. The cat is on the roof 3. Put that pen on my desk! Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
  11. 11. 9 13. PREPOSIZIONI DI MOTO A LUOGO: TO INTO TO indica direzione 1. I go to school 2. You go to the USA ma: we go home 3. He goes to Milan INTO indica il moto dall’esterno verso l’interno di un luogo chiuso 1. He always walks INTO the station when the train is already arriving. 2. He went INTO the castle. 14. PREPOSIZIONI CON QUESTION WORDS Tutti noi sappiamo dire: Where are you from? Ma spesso non ci rendiamo conto che ciò che facciamo è: mettere la preposizione in fondo alla domanda In inglese si fa sempre così. Non si può iniziare una domanda con la preposizione. Quindi: with Who are you going with ? about Which party are you talking about? to What are you listening to? from Where do you come from? Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
  12. 12. 10 15. ALTRE PREPOSIZIONI DI LUOGO  VICINO = NEAR  ACCANTO = NEXT TO (è più vicino di NEAR)  DIETRO = BEHIND  DAVANTI = IN FRONT OF  SOPRA = ON / ON TOP OF  AL DI SOPRA (senza contatto) = ABOVE OVER  SOTTO = UNDER  AL DI SOTTO (senza contatto) = BELOW  A SINISTRA = ON THE LEFT OF  A DESTRA = ON THE RIGHT OF  TRA (tra due singole persone, animali, cose o tra due gruppi delle medesime) = BETWEEN  TRA (fra più persone, animali, cose o più gruppi delle medesime) = AMONG  DI FRONTE = OPPOSITE  DENTRO = IN Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
  13. 13. 11 IL PASSATO DEI VERBI 16. IL VERBO TO BE  Il tempo inglese chiamato SIMPLE PAST può corrispondere a diversi tempi italiani: passato remoto, imperfetto, passato prossimo.  Con la pratica si imparerà ad usare i vari tipi di passato.  Il simple past del verbo TO BE ha due forme: WAS per le persone singolari e WERE per le persone plurali. Da ricordare che YOU non è, in origine, considerato singolare: ecco perché il suo passato è WERE.  La forma negativa si fa aggiungendo il NOT dopo il verbo, perché TO BE è un ausiliare e quindi non fa uso del DO.  La forma interrogativa si fa mettendo il passato di TO BE davanti al soggetto, come si vede queste sono le stesse regole delle forme negativa ed interrogativa del presente di TO BE.  Le contrazioni sono indicate in tabella. Da notare che non si contrae la forma affermativa. PRESENT SIMPLE SIMPLE PAST Affermative Affermative Negative Interrogative I am ('m) I was I was not (wasn't) Was I? You are ('re) You were You were not (weren't) Were you? He is ('s) He was He was not (wasn't) Was he? She is ('s) She was She was not (wasn't) Was she? It is ('s) It was It was not (wasn't) Was it? We are ('re) We were We were not (weren't) Were we? You are ('re) You were You were not (weren't) Were you? They are ('re) They were They were not (weren't) Were they? Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
  14. 14. 12 17. IL PAST SIMPLE E IL PARTICIPIO PASSATO DEI VERBI  I verbi regolari formano il past simple aggiungendo la desinenza ED alla forma base dell’infinito  Come si può vedere, il passato è uguale per tutte le persone TO INVITE TO VISIT TO TOUR TO LOVE TO LIKE TO WATCH I invited I visited I toured I loved I liked I watched You invited You visited You toured You loved You liked You watched He/she/it invited He / she / it visited He / she / it toured He / she / it loved He / she / it liked He / she / it watched We invited We visited We toured We loved We liked We watched You invited You visited You toured You loved You liked You watched They invited They visited They toured They loved They liked They watched REGOLE ORTOGRAFICHE  Se l’infinito termina in E muta, si aggiunge solo la D: To like = liked to love = loved to live = lived  Se l’infinito termina in Y preceduta da consonante, la Y si cambia in I; se Y è preceduta da vocale si segue la regola generale To study = studied to reply = replied to comply = complied To stay = stayed to play = played  I verbi monosillabi che terminano in consonante semplice preceduta da vocale semplice, raddoppiano la consonante finale To stop = stopped to fit = fitted to chop = chopped  Lo stesso vale per i verbi bisillabi che terminano in consonante semplice preceduta da vocale semplice, purchè l’accento cada sulla seconda sillaba To prefer = preferred to refer = referred  La L finale raddoppia sempre (nel British English) purché preceduta da vocale semplice To travel = travelled to compel = compelled Ma: to cool = cooled to peel = peeled to fool = fooled to veil = veiled Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
  15. 15. 13 18. I VERBI IRREGOLARI  Se il verbo è irregolare, non esiste altro modo che studiare a memoria il paradigma, cioè le tre voci principali: infinito, simple past, participio passato Ecco qui di seguito un breve elenco dei principali verbi irregolari INFINITO SIMPLE PAST PARTIC. PASSATO To be Was Been To have Had Had To come Came Come To go Went Gone To bring Brought Brought To take Took Taken To tell Told Told To say Said Said To do Did Done To make Made Made To speak Spoke Spoken To read Read Read To write Wrote Written To see Saw Seen To spend Spent Spent To send Sent Sent To leave Left Left To give Gave given Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
  16. 16. 14 19. IL PAST SIMPLE – FORMA NEGATIVA 1. La forma negativa del simple past, per i verbi non ausiliari, si fa usando DID Valgono le stesse regole usate per la forma negativa del simple present. 2. Did è il passato di do. L’inglese è una lingua semplice, se si mette l’ausiliare al passato non occorre più coniugare il verbo, che rimane quindi all’infinito.  I did not drive a car.  We did not enjoy the party  They did not go to London 3. Alla terza persona singolare non ci sono differenze, l’ausiliare è did, non si fanno cambiamenti poiché il passato è uguale per tutte le persone.  He did not like spaghetti DID + NOT + infinito del verbo senza il TO Io non parlo I do not (don’t) speak Io non parlai I did not (didn’t) speak Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
  17. 17. 15 20. IL PAST SIMPLE – FORMA INTERROGATIVA Do you speak English? Did you speak English? Stesse regole usate per le domande al simple present, solo si cambia l’ausiliare do con il suo passato che è did, quindi si mette il soggetto e poi l’infinito del verbo senza il to  Did you ride a bicycle?  Did he like pizza?  Did we go to London?  Did they read a book? 21. SIGNIFICATO DEL SIMPLE PAST  Il simple past può corrispondere al passato remoto, all’imperfetto o al passato prossimo italiani: I WAS può voler dire io fui, io ero, io sono stato YOU HAD può voler dire tu avesti, tu avevi, tu hai avuto HE CAME può voler dire egli venne, egli veniva, egli è venuto  Qual è allora la differenza?  Il simple past inglese indica un’azione avvenuta in un momento di tempo completamente trascorso, anche se non remoto.  Come regola generale si può dire che si usa il simple past ogni volta che nella frase c’è un complemento di tempo determinato: cinque minuti fa, questa mattina (se si è nel pomeriggio), ieri, un’ora fa, vent’anni fa, un secolo fa.  Non è importante quanto lontana sia l’azione nel passato, importa quanto determinato è il momento della stessa. Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
  18. 18. 16 VERBI – FORMA IN -ING  La forma in -ing corrisponde sia al gerundio che al participio presente italiani (lavorando – lavorante)  Si costruisce aggiungendo la terminazione -ing all'infinito del verbo senza il to (to work = working)  La forma in –ing è frequentissima in inglese, spesso la si trova dove in italiano usiamo l'infinito Leggere è il mio passatempo preferito Reading is my favourite hobby MODIFICAZIONI ORTOGRAFICHE Se l'infinito termina in E muta, questa cade To have = having To come = coming To give = giving La consonante finale si raddoppia se preceduta da vocale semplice To stop = stopping To run = running To prefer = preferring La L si raddoppia se preceduta da vocale semplice To travel = travelling To compel = compelling To rebel = rebelling La Y non si cambia mai To study = studying To play = playing To comply = complying Il gruppo IE finale si cambia in Y prima di aggiungere la –ing To lie = lying To die = dying Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
  19. 19. 17 22. IL PRESENTE PROGRESSIVO (PRESENT CONTINUOUS) Essendo la forma continuous costruita con il verbo TO BE + la forma in ING, varranno le regole per la coniugazione di TO BE  La forma affermativa del verbo si coniuga utilizzando il verbo essere + la forma –ing del verbo interessato.  La forma negativa si fa con l'aggiunta del not dopo il verbo essere. NEGATIVO I AM NOT WORKING I'M NOT STUDYING YOU ARE NOT WORKING YOU AREN'T STUDYING HE/SHE/IT IS NOT WORKING SHE ISN'T STUDYING WE ARE NOT WORKING WE AREN'T STUDYING YOU ARE NOT WORKING YOU AREN'T STUDYING THEY ARE NOT WORKING THEY AREN'T STUDYING  La forma interrogativa si fa mettendo il verbo TO BE davanti al soggetto.  Stessa cosa per la forma interro-negativa. INTERROGATIVO INTERROGATIVO-NEGATIVO AM I WORKING? AM I NOT STUDYING? ARE YOU WORKING? AREN'T YOU STUDYING? IS HE / SHE / IT WORKING? ISN'T HE / SHE / IT STUDYING? AREN'T WE STUDYING? ARE WE WORKING? ARE YOU WORKING? AREN'T YOU STUDYING? ARE THEY WORKING? AREN'T THEY STUDYING? AFFERMATIVO I AM WORKING I'M STUDYING YOU ARE WORKING YOU'RE STUDYING HE/SHE/IT IS WORKING HE 'S STUDYING WE ARE WORKING WE'RE STUDYING YOU ARE WORKING YOU'RE STUDYING THEY ARE WORKING THEY'RE STUDYING Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
  20. 20. 18  VERBI – FORMA IN –ING - riepilogo  La forma in -ing corrisponde sia al gerundio che al participio presente italiani (lavorando – lavorante)  Si costruisce aggiungendo la terminazione -ing all'infinito del verbo senza il to (to work = working)  La forma in –ing è frequentissima in inglese, spesso la si trova dove in italiano usiamo l'infinito Leggere è il mio passatempo preferito Reading is my favourite hobby MODIFICAZIONI ORTOGRAFICHE Se l'infinito termina in E muta, questa cade To have = having To come = coming To give = giving La consonante finale si raddoppia se preceduta da vocale semplice To stop = stopping To run = running To prefer = preferring La L si raddoppia se preceduta da vocale semplice To travel = travelling To compel = compelling To rebel = rebelling La Y non si cambia mai To study = studying To play = playing To comply = complying Il gruppo IE finale si cambia in Y prima di aggiungere la –ing To lie = lying To die = dying IL PRESENTE PROGRESSIVO (present conuous)  La forma progressiva del verbo si coniuga utilizzando il verbo essere + la forma –ing del verbo interessato. AFFERMATIVO Negativo interrogativo I AM WORKING I'M STUDYING I AM NOT WORKING I'M NOT STUDYING AM I WORKING? YOU ARE WORKING YOU'RE STUDYING YOU ARE NOT WORKING YOU AREN'T STUDYING ARE YOU WORKING? HE/SHE/IT IS WORKING HE 'S STUDYING HE/SHE/IT IS NOT WORKING SHE ISN'T STUDYING IS HE / SHE / IT WORKING? WE ARE WORKING WE'RE STUDYING WE ARE NOT WORKING WE AREN'T STUDYING ARE WE WORKING? YOU ARE WORKING YOU'RE STUDYING YOU ARE NOT WORKING YOU AREN'T STUDYING ARE YOU WORKING? THEY ARE WORKING THEY'RE STUDYING THEY ARE NOT WORKING THEY AREN'T STUDYING ARE THEY WORKING? Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
  21. 21. 19 23. USO DEL PRESENTE PROGRESSIVO 1. In italiano si possono usare indifferentemente le due forme (io lavoro, io sto lavorando), in inglese non è possibile fare altrettanto. Ci sono regole precise sulla scelta di un presente o dell'altro. 2. La forma progressiva indica un'azione in corso, non terminata, NON INDICA un'azione abituale o ripetuta: PRESENT SIMPLE PRESENT CONTINUOUS 1. Water boils at 100 degrees Celsius 1. The water is boiling. Can you turn it off? 2. Excuse me, do you speak English? 2. Listen to those people. What language are they speaking? 3. It doesn't rain very much in summer 3. It isn't raining now. 4. What do you usually do at weekends? 4. Don't disturb me. I'm busy - Why? What are you doing? 5. I always go to bed before midnight. 5. I'm going to bed now. Good night! 6. Most people learn to swim when they are children. 6. Maria is in Britain at the moment. She's learning English. 7. My parents live in London. They have a nice flat. 7. I'm living with some friends until I find a flat. 8. John isn't lazy. He works very hard most of the time. 8. You're working hard today! – Yes, I've got a lot do to. Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
  22. 22. 20 FUTURO CON IL PRESENT CONTINUOUS Abbiamo già visto che il present continuous indica un’azione che si sta svolgendo nel momento in cui si parla. Questa forma verbale può anche indicare azioni e fatti FUTURI. PRESENT MEANING FUTURE MEANING I can’t come. I’m doing my homework We’re having a party tomorrow Dad’s digging in the garden We’re going to London next month She’s watching television Are you playing football at the weekend? She’s cooking dinner We’re doing exams next week o Come distinguere i due significati? Non è difficile. Quando il tempo continuous ha significato futuro, c’è sempre anche il complemento di tempo che ci dice quando avverrà l’azione futura. Questo tipo di futuro serve per parlare di azioni che si è già combinato di fare, non serve per parlare di semplici previsioni, né per esprimere intenzioni. Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
  23. 23. 21 VERBI – IL CONDIZIONALE (CONDITIONAL TENSE)  Il condizionale presente in italiano si forma aggiungendo le desinenze del condizionale al tema del verbo: in inglese no. Il present conditional inglese si forma con WOULD + la forma base del verbo (cioè infinito senza to) Io andrei = I WOULD GO Il verbo non prende mai la S alla terza persona Egli andrebbe = He WOULD GO Attenzione: la forma contratta affermativa è 'D Io andrei = I'D GO Egli andrebbe = HE'D GO We would go = WE'D GO La FORMA NEGATIVA si fa mettendo NOT dopo l'ausiliare. Quindi: would not + verbo forma base Io non andrei = I would not go Egli non andrebbe = He would not go Ovviamente si contrae: would not = WOULDN'T Io non andrei = I wouldn't go Egli non andrebbe = He wouldn't go La FORMA INTERROGATIVA si fa mettendo l'ausiliare davanti al soggetto. Quindi: WOULD + soggetto + verbo forma base Tu andresti? = WOULD you GO? Eccolo coniugato per intero AFFERMATIVO NEGATIVO INTERROGATIVO I would go I'd go I would not go I wouldn't go Would I go? You would go You'd go You would not go You wouldn't go Would you go? He would go He'd go He would not go He wouldn't go Would he go? She would go She'd go She would not go She wouldn't go Would she go? It would go It'd go It would not go It wouldn't go Would it go? We would go We'd go We would not go We wouldn't go Would we go? You would go You'd go You would not go You wouldn't go Would you go? They would go They'd go They would not go They wouldn't go Would they go? Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

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