Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

WHAT IS RADIATION?

1,333 views

Published on

  • Be the first to comment

WHAT IS RADIATION?

  1. 1. WHAT IS RADIATION? Radiation is the transmission of energy by means of: Waves Particles William Hill American Nuclear Society
  2. 2. ATOMIC STRUCTURE OF HELIUM He Mass Number: the total number of protons and neutrons Atomic Number: the total number of protons 4 2
  3. 3. Proton, Neutron, Electrons • Protons: large mass, positive charge. The number of protons identifies an element • Neutrons: large mass, approx. equal to proton mass. No charge • Electrons: small mass, negative charge. Electrons travel outside of nucleus.
  4. 4. Classification of RADIATION Non-Ionizing Visible Light Microwaves Radio Waves Ionizing High energy UV X-rays Energetic Atoms
  5. 5. WHAT IS IONIZATION + + Removes Electrons Ionizing Radiation In the form of particles and waves
  6. 6. Types of Ionizing Radiation Alpha Particles α Gamma rays γ Beta Particles β + + e- n n
  7. 7. Ionizing Radiation α β γ Paper Aluminum Foil Lead
  8. 8. What is RADIOACTIVITY? Energy Release Emits radiation in the form of particles and waves
  9. 9. Units of “Activity” • Activity - RATE - number of emissions (of radiation) per unit time • dps - disintegrations per second • Bequerel = 1 dps • Curie = 37,000,000,000 dps • picocurie = 0.037 dps
  10. 10. HALF-LIFE Number of Half Lives 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 %ofRadioactivity 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Initial Activity Decrease in Amount of Radiation with Time
  11. 11. Source and Doses of Radiation 3% 15% 11% 8% 63% Rocks and Soil (228 mrem) Cosmic (27) Body (40) Medical (53) Consumer (10)
  12. 12. Personal Radiation Dose • Elevation –Up to 1000 ft Add 2 mrem –2-3000 ft Add 9 mrem –4-5000 ft Add 21 mrem –6-7000 ft Add 40 mrem –8-9000 ft Add 70 mrem
  13. 13. Personal Radiation Dose • Cosmic Radiation 26 mrem • Food and Water 40 mrem • Radon 200 mrem • Elevation xxxx • TOTAL ~350 mrem
  14. 14. Geiger Counter
  15. 15. Geiger Counters • Detects Ionizing Radiation • Check Batteries • 0-0.5 mr/hr (x 1 scale) • 0-5 mr/hr (x10 scale) • 0-50 mr/hr (x100scale) • Beta Shield
  16. 16. Nuclear Power Worldwide • US 103 • France 59 • Japan 53 • UK 35 • Russia 29 • Germany 20 • Ukraine 16 • Canada 14 • France 75% • Lithuania 73% • Belgium 57% • Bulgaria 47% • Slovak 47% • Sweden 47% • Ukraine 44% • South Korea 43%
  17. 17. Nuclear Medicine • An estimated 10-12 million nuclear medicine imaging and thearpeutic procedures are performed each year in the US • Nuclear medicine is safe and cost- effective and Saves Lives
  18. 18. Nuclear Medicine • There are 100 different nuclear medicine procedures available • The amount of radiation received is comparable to that received during a diagnostic x-ray • Painless
  19. 19. Nuclear Medicine • Neurological –Diagnose stroke, Alzheimer’s Disease • Oncology –Tumor Location, metastatic sites, response to therapy • Orthopedics –Identify occult bone trauma, evaluate arthritis changes and extent
  20. 20. Nuclear Medicine • Cardiac –Corornary artery disease, identify shunts, diagnose and localize acute heart attacks before enzyme changes • Pulmonary –Quantify lung ventilation and profusion

×