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  • Program initiated in February 2002
    Focused on addressing technical, regulatory and institutional challenges
    Government/industry cooperative effort
    Cost-shared projects – Industry provides at least 50% of cost
    Addresses several key barriers to deployment
    Licensing Uncertainties
    High Initial Capital Cost - Greater than $1,400/KWe for initial plants
    - Reduces First of a Kind cost
    - Utilities no longer willing to pay for designs and other first-plant costs in a deregulated market
  • Overview

    1. 1. Lau/Aug07_05 Zantikin.ppt 1 Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology Office of International Nuclear Cooperation North American Security and Prosperity Partnership Nuclear Energy Working Group Meeting Ottawa, Canada Office of Nuclear Energy U.S. Department of Energy June 29, 2006
    2. 2. Lau/Aug07_05 Zantikin.ppt 2 Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology U.S. Nuclear Energy An Atoms for Peace Success Story Other Renewables 3% Nuclear 8% Hydro 3% Energy Consumption Coal 23% Natural Gas 23% Oil 40% (Number of operating units per site shown in parenthesis) Columbia (1) Diablo Canyon (2) San Onofre (2) Palo Verde (3) Monticello (1) Prairie Island (2) Ft. Calhoun (1) Cooper (1) Wolf Creek (1) Duane Arnold (1) Callaway (1) ANO (2) Comanche Peak (2) South Texas (2) River Bend (1) Waterford (1) Turkey Point (2) St. Lucie (2) Farley (2) Hatch (2) Vogtl e (2) Sequoyah (2) Oconee (3) Catawba (2) H. B. Robinson (1) Summer (1) McGuire (2) Harris (1) Brunswick (2) Surry (2) North Anna (2) Calvert Cliffs (2) Hope Creek (1) Salem (2) Oyster Creek (1) Millstone (2) Pilgrim (1) Seabrook (1) Vermont Yankee (1) FitzPatrick (1) Nine Mile Point (2) Ginna (1) Clinton (1) La Salle (2) Kewaunee (1) Point Beach (2) Palisades (1) Cook (2) Fermi (1) Davis - Bess e (1) Per ry (1) (2) Susquehanna Peach Bottom (2) Three Mile Island (1) Limerick (2) Indian Point (2) Quad-Cities (2) Byro n (2) Dresden (2) Braidwoo d (2) Crystal River (1) Grand Gulf (1) Browns Ferry (3) Watts Bar (1) Beaver Valley (2) 103 Nuclear Power Plants Totaling 97,018 MWe Electricity Generation Gas 17% Hydro 7% Coal 51% Oil 3% Other 2%Nuclear 20% Source: EIA
    3. 3. Lau/Aug07_05 Zantikin.ppt 3 Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology Nuclear Energy Continues to Grow Overseas and in the U.S. ♦ There are 440 power reactors in operation world-wide. ♦ Many countries that had previously abandoned the construction of new plants (e.g., United Kingdom) are now revisiting the issue. ♦ Improvements in plant operation and power uprates have enabled utilities to generate more energy from existing plants. ♦ License renewal has been approved for 30 units, with 16 more under review. Essentially all U.S. plants are expected to apply for license renewals. U.S. Generation of Electricity Using Nuclear Power NetGeneration(bkWh) 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1974 1980 1986 1992 1998 2004 China 1 1,000 Finland 1 1,600 India 9 4,092 Islamic Republic of Iran 1 915 Japan 3 3,237 Romania 1 655 Russian Federation 3 2,825 Taiwan 2 2,760 Total 21 17,084 World Nuclear Power Reactors Under Active Construction (2005) Country Units Total MWe Source: NE Analysis
    4. 4. Lau/Aug07_05 Zantikin.ppt 4 Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology Major Challenges to Expanding Nuclear Power in the United States ♦ Permanent Nuclear Waste Disposition -- no new nuclear plants are likely to be ordered unless disposition path for spent nuclear fuel is clear. ♦ Regulatory Uncertainty -- power companies lack confidence that the untested “one-step” licensing process will not lead to excessive delays. ♦ Financial Uncertainty -- financial community and power companies lack confidence in how much new plants will cost and how long they will take to reach operation. ♦ Business Model -- Large light water reactors are better suited to regulated markets. To thrive in increasingly competitive markets, nuclear plants must become smaller, less expensive, and more flexible. This will require new technology. AP-1000
    5. 5. Lau/Aug07_05 Zantikin.ppt 5 Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology What is DOE’s Role? Key Missions of the Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology 1. Development & Deployment of Advanced Technologies Required for a Viable Nuclear Future ♦ Cooperate with the Private Sector to Deploy New Technologies ♦ Cooperate with the International Community to Develop Next Generation Nuclear Technologies 2. Support for U.S. Nuclear Technology Education ♦ Prepare for Oncoming Retirements of Experienced Professionals ♦ Our Energy Future Requires a New Generation of Nuclear Technologists 3. Maintenance and Improvement of the Aging U.S. Infrastructure ♦ Support for Advanced Research and Development ♦ Enable the Private Sector to Support Current Nuclear Plants ♦ Consolidate and Make Appropriate Capital Investments
    6. 6. Lau/Aug07_05 Zantikin.ppt 6 Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology Office of the Director Nuclear Power Technology, Safety and Security Advanced Nuclear Research Deputy Director for Technology Operations & Management/COO Resource Management Space and Defense Power Systems Integrated Safety and Project Management Deputy Director for Nuclear Operations Nuclear Energy Research Advisory Committee (NERAC) NE-2.2 NE-1 NE-2.3 NE-2.4 Nuclear Fuel Supply Security NE-20 NE-30 NE-50 NE-70 NE-10 NE-60 Nuclear Facilities Management NE-40 Idaho Operations Office NE-ID International Nuclear Cooperation NE-80 Policy and Planning Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology
    7. 7. Lau/Aug07_05 Zantikin.ppt 7 Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology Program Overview: Programs to Maintain a Viable Nuclear Energy Option Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative Develop technologies for economic, commercial-scale generation of hydrogen. Nuclear Power 2010 Initiative - Explore new sites - Develop business case - Develop Generation III+ technologies - Demonstrate new NRC process Generation IV Better, safer, more economic nuclear power plant with improvements in - safety & reliability - proliferation resistance & physical protection - economic competitiveness - sustainability Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative - Recovery of energy value from SNF - Reduce the inventory of civilian Pu - Reduce the toxicity & heat of waste - Effective use of geologic disposal - Address issues of safeguards and proliferation resistance
    8. 8. Lau/Aug07_05 Zantikin.ppt 8 Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology Nuclear Power 2010 Working with Industry to Build New Nuclear Plants ♦ Exploring sites for new nuclear plants ♦ Demonstrating key untested regulatory processes • Early Site Permit (ESP) • Combined Construction and Operating License (COL) - “one- step” licensing ♦ Developing new Generation III+ light water reactor designs • Design Certification for new technologies • First-of-a-kind engineering for new standardized nuclear plant designs ♦ Developing concepts to mitigate financing risks
    9. 9. Lau/Aug07_05 Zantikin.ppt 9 Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology Development & Deployment of Advanced Technologies Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Early Prototype Reactors Generation I - Shippingport - Dresden, Fermi I - Magnox Commercial Power Reactors Generation II - LWR-PWR, BWR - CANDU - VVER/RBMK 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 - Highly Economical - Enhanced Safety - Minimize Wastes - Proliferation Resistant Advanced LWRs Generation III - ABWR - System 80+ - AP600 - EPR Gen I Gen II Gen III Gen III+ Gen IV Generation III+ Generation III Evolutionary Designs Offering Improved Economics - AP1000 - ESBWR - ACR700 - IRIS
    10. 10. Lau/Aug07_05 Zantikin.ppt 10 Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology U.S.A. ArgentinaBrazilUnited Kingdom South Korea Japan CanadaFranceSwitzerland South Africa European Union Development & Deployment of Advanced Technologies Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems ♦ This international collaboration began in January 2000 ♦ Its purpose is to bring next-generation nuclear energy system technology to a state of maturity allowing for commercial deployment ♦ Generation IV reactors will offer improvements in: • Reactor safety and reliability • Proliferation resistance and physical protection • Economic competitiveness • Sustainability ♦ Multilateral Agreement signed February 28, 2005, in Washington, D.C. Generation IV is a world-wide initiative led by the United States
    11. 11. Lau/Aug07_05 Zantikin.ppt 11 Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology Development & Deployment of Advanced Technologies Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative Major Goals ♦ Develop fuel cycle technologies that: • Enable recovery of the energy value from spent nuclear fuel (SNF) • Reduce the toxicity and heat generation of SNF bound for geologic disposal • Reduce the inventories of civilian plutonium in the U.S. • Support future Generation IV systems • Enable more effective use of the currently proposed geologic repository and reduce the cost of geologic disposal ♦ Near-term R&D focused on separations and thermal recycle scenarios to inform Secretarial recommendation on need for second repository in 2007-2010 World-Wide Estimated Fuel Reserves 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 2060 2070 2080 2090 2100 2110 2120 2130 2140 2150 WorldReserves(GTOE) Nuclear w/Recycle Coal & Lignite Oil Natural Gas Nuclear w/o Recycle Sources: World Energy Council Survey of Energy Resources, and DOE estimates Nuclear Energy can be a Thousand-Year Energy Resource
    12. 12. Lau/Aug07_05 Zantikin.ppt 12 Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology Enhancing Proliferation Resistance: Incorporate Proliferation Resistance Throughout Facility Design ♦ Goal is to integrate advanced safeguards technology into the facility design from the start ♦ First step is to specify a complete facility concept ♦ Each point in the process is examined as a possible key measurement point • Potential for containment and surveillance evaluated • Safeguard options and technology needs identified ♦ Diversion pathways are analyzed in detail • Design refined to account for problem areas • Accountancy procedures developed accordingly ♦ NE-NNSA joint study complete for a pyroprocessing facility ♦ Joint study being conducted for aqueous (UREX+) treatment facility ♦ Second phase proposed to develop the necessary safeguards technology and demonstrate in current facilities
    13. 13. Lau/Aug07_05 Zantikin.ppt 13 Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology Maintaining the National Nuclear Infrastructure Isotope Program Oak Ridge - Stable Isotopes Inventory: Calcium/Ca-42 - Calcium retention studies -43 - Nutrition -44 - Bone growth -45 - Nucleosynthesis -48 - Nuclear physics Strontium/Sr-88 - Reactor targets for Sr-89 (used in bone cancer therapy and labeling of monoclonal antibodies) Thallium/Tl-203 - Targets for Tl-201 production in accelerators (Ti-201 used in cardiac imaging) High Flux Isotope Reactor/Inventory: Selenium-75 - Industrial nondestructive examination Nickel-63 - Explosives detection Californium-252 - Industrial source Tungsten/Tn-188 - Cancer therapy Actinium/Ac-225 - Cancer therapy Los Alamos - LANSCE: Aluminum/Al-26 - Research: Alzheimers disease Acid rain Copper/Cu-67 - Antibody labeling for cancer therapy and imaging Germanium/Ge-68 - Calibration sources for PET equipment; Antibody labeling Strontium/Sr-82 - Cardiac imaging UC Davis/McClellan: Iodine/I-125 - Prostate cancer therapy Brookhaven - BLIP: Copper/Cu-67 - Antibody labeling for cancer therapy and imaging Germanium/Ge-68 - Calibration sources for PET equipment; Antibody labeling Strontium/Sr-82 - Cardiac imaging Missouri University Research Center: Lutetium-177 - Treatment of ovarian and colon cancer Holmium-166 - Treatment of multiple myeloma and rheumatoid arthritis Phosphorus-32 - Used in SPECT imaging Idaho Iridium/Ir-192 - Industrial nondestructive examination Cobalt-60/Co-60 - Sterilization of surgical equipment and blood Denton Texas: Copper/Cu-67 - cancer therapy DOE Isotope Production Locations
    14. 14. Lau/Aug07_05 Zantikin.ppt 14 Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology Maintaining the National Nuclear Infrastructure Isotope Program Mission ♦ Maintain the infrastructure required to support the national need for a reliable supply of isotope products, services, and related technology used in medicine, homeland security applications, and scientific research. Results ♦ The DOE Isotope Program serves 200-300 customers each year and makes 400-500 shipments, most of which are to universities and hospitals. DOE produces isotopes only where there is no U.S. private sector capability or other production capability available to meet U.S. needs. If we were to cease operating our unique facilities, many isotopes would cease to be available. ♦ The benefits of using these isotopes are improved medical patient diagnostics and treatment, advanced research capabilities, more robust and accurate homeland security procedures, and economic benefits in industrial applications through tighter process controls and extremely precise measurements. Five-Year Focus ♦ Consolidate, maintain and complete limited recapitalization of the isotope production infrastructure. ♦ Pursue financial support from NIH to allow medical researchers to have increased access to isotopes. ♦ Complete the U-233 disposition project in FY 2008, initiate downblending (complete in FY 2010).
    15. 15. Lau/Aug07_05 Zantikin.ppt 15 Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology ♦ Working with international partners on fuel cycle options allows us to positively influence R&D direction ♦ Bilateral Collaborations: • France (CEA)- advanced aqueous and pyroprocessing technology development, advanced fuels research • Japan, South Korea – pyroprocessing only • Joint Japan-US-France transmutation fuel test in MONJU ♦ Generation IV International Forum • Multilateral collaboration on next-generation reactors with proliferation-resistant closed fuel cycles • PRPP Expert Group developing PRPP evaluation methodology framework and metrics for use by “designers” (DOE-NE) and “safeguarders” (NNSA) ♦ International Organizations • Working with IAEA and NEA on nuclear energy technology and policy matters; chair working groups, provide consultants, attend meetings International Involvement: Collaborations on Proliferation-Resistant Fuel Cycles
    16. 16. Lau/Aug07_05 Zantikin.ppt 16 Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Greater Energy Security in a Cleaner, Safer World ♦ In support of the President’s call for the expansion of safe, clean civilian nuclear plants for energy security and to address proliferation risks of the fuel cycle ♦ In January, D/S Clay Sell and U/S Bob Joseph visited several countries (Russia, UK, China, Japan and France) and senior officials in Vienna to provide an advance on the program and determine interest of partners ♦ Formal roll out of program by Energy Secretary Bodman on February 7 ♦ Department is now briefing Congress, Committees and staffers
    17. 17. Lau/Aug07_05 Zantikin.ppt 17 Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Key Elements: ♦ Expand domestic use of nuclear power ♦ Demonstrate more proliferation-resistant recycling ♦ Minimize nuclear waste ♦ Develop advanced burner reactors ♦ Establish reliable fuel services ♦ Demonstrate small-scale reactors ♦ Develop enhanced nuclear safeguards
    18. 18. Lau/Aug07_05 Zantikin.ppt 18 Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology Summary ♦ Nuclear Energy is once again at the forefront of U.S. Energy Policy ♦ The Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology has played a leading role and plans to continue its efforts in developing next-generation nuclear energy technology to serve the energy and environment ♦ Proliferation resistance and physical protection is an integral concept in our R&D programs ♦ DOE-NE and NNSA are collaborating, along with international partners and organizations (e.g. IAEA, NEA) on substantive technical and policy manners ♦ Appropriate collaboration with international partners leverages resources and expertise without increasing proliferation risks ♦ International collaboration and leadership also allows the U.S. to influence international fuel cycle policy, R&D, and technology deployment
    19. 19. Lau/Aug07_05 Zantikin.ppt 19 Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology WWW.NUCLEAR.GOV