NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY
GRADUATE COURSE ACTION FORM
NOTE: Click once on shaded fields to type data. To check boxes...
RECOMMENDED BY:
_______________________________________________________________________
Department Head/Director of Gradua...
Course Justification
BME 560 Medical Imaging: X-ray, CT, and Nuclear Medicine Systems will give graduate students the esse...
4
Syllabus: BME 560 – Medical Imaging: X-ray, CT, and Nuclear Medicine Systems
INSTRUCTOR
David S. Lalush, Ph.D., Assistant ...
• Compare and contrast different scanning geometries in PET and SPECT
• Describe three clinical applications for which eac...
92-<98 A H
90-<92 A- H-
88-<90 B+ P+
82-<88 B P
80-<82 B- P-
78-<80 C+ L+
72-<78 C L
70-<72 C- L-
<70 F
Written Assignment...
TOPICS AND SCHEDULE
Number of class periods per topic, based on two 75-minute periods per week. Order of topics may vary
d...
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  1. 1. NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE COURSE ACTION FORM NOTE: Click once on shaded fields to type data. To check boxes, right click at box, click “Properties”, and click “Checked” under Default Values. DEPARTMENT/PROGRAM Biomedical Engineering COURSE PREFIX/NUMBER BME 560 PREVIOUS PREFIX/NUMBER BME 590I DATE OF LAST ACTION COURSE TITLE Medical Imaging: X-ray, CT, and Nuclear Medicine Systems ABBREVIATED TITLE MED IM XRAY CT NUC SCHEDULING Fall Spring Summer Every Year Alt. Year Odd Alt. Year Even Other COURSE OFFERED BY DISTANCE EDUCATION ONLY ON CAMPUS ONLY BOTH ON CAMPUS AND BY DISTANCE EDUCATION CREDIT HOURS 3 CONTACT HOURS Lecture/Recitation 3 Seminar       Laboratory       Problem       Studio       Independent Study/Research       Internship/Practicum/Field Work       GRADING ABCDF S/U INSTRUCTOR (NAME/RANK) David Lalush, Assistant Professor Graduate Faculty Status Associate Full ANTICIPATED ENROLLMENT Per semester 10 Max.Section 15 Multiple sections Yes No PREREQUISITE(S) BME 311, ST370, PY208 COREQUISITE(S) PRE/COREQUISITE FOR RESTRICTIVE STATEMENT CURRICULA/MINORS Required Qualified Elective BME graduate minor PROPOSED EFFECTIVE DATE 8/15/2007 APPROVED EFFECTIVE DATE __________________________ CATALOG DESCRIPTION (limit to 80 words): Overview of medical imaging systems using ionizing radiation. Interaction of radiation with matter. Radiation production and detection. Radiography systems and applications. Tomography. PET and SPECT systems and applications. TYPE OF PROPOSAL New Course Drop Course Course Revision Dual-Level Course REVISION Content Prefix/Number Title Abbreviated Title Credit Hours Contact Hours Grading Method Pre-Corequisites Restrictive Statement Description Scheduling
  2. 2. RECOMMENDED BY: _______________________________________________________________________ Department Head/Director of Graduate Programs Date ENDORSED BY: _______________________________________________________________________ Chair, College Graduate Studies Committee Date ________________________________________________________________________ College Dean(s) Date APPROVED: _______________________________________________________________________ Dean of the Graduate School Date DOCUMENTATION AS REQUIRED Please number all document pages Course Justification Proposed Revision(s) with Justification Student Learning Objectives Enrollment for Last 5 Years New Resources Statement Consultation with other Departments Syllabus (Old and New) Explanation of differences in requirements of dual- level courses 2
  3. 3. Course Justification BME 560 Medical Imaging: X-ray, CT, and Nuclear Medicine Systems will give graduate students the essential background in modern medical imaging technologies using ionizing radiation. The BME department offers this course simultaneously at NC State and UNC-Chapel Hill (as BMME 560) using teleclassroom technologies. There is no other course on either campus that covers the physics, mathematics, instrumentation, and biomedical applications of these technologies. The course is available to well-prepared graduate students from all departments and is expected to attract students from ECE, NE, and possibly CSC. Further, this course will become one of the engineering core topic courses in the joint BME program, from which all BME graduate students must choose. Student Learning Objectives After completing this course, students will be able to: • List essential features of medical imaging systems; • Describe mechanisms by which electromagnetic ionizing radiation interacts with matter; • Discuss the health risks of radiation exposure and practical methods for reducing exposure; • Describe and compute the radioactive decay of a material; • Diagram components of medical imaging systems and describe their operation: X-ray sources, X-ray detection systems, X-ray CT systems, SPECT and PET systems; • Compute the attenuation of X-rays and gamma rays in a material, and compute CT number given appropriate quantities; • List physical factors that determine the contrast, spatial resolution, presence of artifacts, and noise performance of X-ray radiography systems, X-ray CT systems, and PET and SPECT systems; • Compare the performance requirements of radiography systems used for chest radiography, mammography, and fluoroscopy; • State the Fourier slice theorem of tomography and describe how it is applied to CT data; • Describe the process of filtered backprojection reconstruction; • Describe the process of image reconstruction in PET and SPECT; • Explain the relationship between photon detection and image noise; • Compare and contrast different scanning geometries in PET and SPECT • Describe three clinical applications for which each imaging modality (X-ray radiography, X-ray CT, PET, and SPECT) is commonly used; • Use appropriate units to describe image intensity, spatial resolution, detection sensitivity, activity, flux, exposure, and dose. Catalog Description Overview of medical imaging systems using ionizing radiation. Interaction of radiation with matter. Radiation production and detection. Radiography systems and applications. Tomography. PET and SPECT systems and applications. Enrollment for Last Five Years Fall, 2006: BMME 560 (UNC) 14, BME 590I (NCSU) 2 Resources This course is offered simultaneously at UNC via teleclassroom technology. Adequate lecture space for a class of 20 will be needed, and an instructor computer with access to Internet and Power Point. The room must also be equipped with a camera on instructor and on students to enable interactions. 3
  4. 4. 4
  5. 5. Syllabus: BME 560 – Medical Imaging: X-ray, CT, and Nuclear Medicine Systems INSTRUCTOR David S. Lalush, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of Biomedical Engineering Email: david_lalush@ncsu.edu Frequent guest lecturers include: Sha Chang, Ph.D., Department of Radiation Oncology, UNC Marijana Ivanovic, Ph.D., Department of Radiology, UNC Hany Abdel-Khalik, Ph.D., Department of Nuclear Engineering, NCSU Tony Pease, DVM, Department of Radiology, CVM, NCSU OFFICE HOURS After class or by appointment CLASS HOURS to be determined REQUIRED TEXTBOOK J. L. Prince and J. M. Links, Medical Imaging Signals and Systems, Pearson Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2006. (price: $100) COURSE PREREQUISITES BME 311, ST 370, PY 208 COURSE DESCRIPTION Overview of medical imaging systems using ionizing radiation. Interaction of radiation with matter. Radiation production and detection. Radiography systems and applications. Tomography. PET and SPECT systems and applications. STUDENT LEARNING OBJECTIVES After completing this course, students will be able to: • List essential features of medical imaging systems; • Describe mechanisms by which electromagnetic ionizing radiation interacts with matter; • Discuss the health risks of radiation exposure and practical methods for reducing exposure; • Describe and compute the radioactive decay of a material; • Diagram components of medical imaging systems and describe their operation: X-ray sources, X-ray detection systems, X-ray CT systems, SPECT and PET systems; • Compute the attenuation of X-rays and gamma rays in a material, and compute CT number given appropriate quantities; • List physical factors that determine the contrast, spatial resolution, presence of artifacts, and noise performance of X-ray radiography systems, X-ray CT systems, and PET and SPECT systems; • Compare the performance requirements of radiography systems used for chest radiography, mammography, and fluoroscopy; • State the Fourier slice theorem of tomography and describe how it is applied to CT data; • Describe the process of filtered backprojection reconstruction; • Describe the process of image reconstruction in PET and SPECT; • Explain the relationship between photon detection and image noise; 5
  6. 6. • Compare and contrast different scanning geometries in PET and SPECT • Describe three clinical applications for which each imaging modality (X-ray radiography, X-ray CT, PET, and SPECT) is commonly used; • Use appropriate units to describe image intensity, spatial resolution, detection sensitivity, activity, flux, exposure, and dose. POLICIES AND PROCEDURES 1. Attendance is expected at each class period. 2. All assignments are to be done individually unless specifically indicated in the assignment. Students are encouraged to discuss assignments with each other, but all submitted assignments must be the work of the individual student. 3. Policy on late assignments: Assignments are due on or before the time and date indicated on the assignment. Due dates can be extended for students with valid reasons as defined by the NCSU attendance policy (http://www.ncsu.edu/policies/academic_affairs/pols_regs/REG02.20.3.php). In cases where the conflict can be anticipated, prior arrangements must be made with the instructor to receive an extension. In cases of illness or family emergency, the student may be required to present documentation or other proof to receive an extension. Late assignments without a valid excuse will not be accepted and will receive a score of zero. 4. Exam policy: Only verified illness or family emergencies are acceptable excuses for missing an exam. The student is required to contact the instructor before or on the day of the exam if an illness or emergency prevents the student from taking the exam. Arrangements for a makeup exam must be made at that time. When the student is able to return to class, the student will be required to present documentation or other proof for the absence to be excused. Unexcused absences from exams will result in a score of zero for the exam. 5. Students are expected to adhere to the policies for academic integrity as outlined in the NCSU Code of Student Conduct (http://www.ncsu.edu/policies/student_services/student_discipline/POL11.35.1.php). Cases of misconduct will be addressed according to the procedures outlined in the NCSU Code of Student Conduct (http://www.ncsu.edu/policies/student_services/student_discipline/POL11.35.1.php). 6. Reasonable accommodations will be made for students with verifiable disabilities. In order to take advantage of available accommodations, students must register with Disability Services for Students at 1900 Student Health Center, Campus Box 7509, 515-7653. See Disability Services for Students (http://www.ncsu.edu/provost/offices/affirm_action/dss) for more information. For additional information on NC State's policy on working with students with disabilities, please see Regulation 02.20.1, Academic Accommodations for Students with Disabilities (http://www.ncsu.edu/policies/academic_affairs/courses_undergrad/REG02.20.1.php). GRADING Grading will be based on the results of weekly homework assignments, exams (two in-class exams and a final exam), and a research paper due at the end of the semester. Final grades will be computed on the following basis: 40% homework 50% exams (each exam is one-third of this total) 10% final paper The following minimum grading scale will be used. This gives the minimum grade you will receive if your total course score falls in the range given. However, students who show outstanding initiative and participation will have their grades raised above the minimum. Note that, at UNC, + and – grades are not recorded on the transcript. Range Grade 98-100 A+ H+ 6
  7. 7. 92-<98 A H 90-<92 A- H- 88-<90 B+ P+ 82-<88 B P 80-<82 B- P- 78-<80 C+ L+ 72-<78 C L 70-<72 C- L- <70 F Written Assignments: Written assignments will include problems from the book or other sources that students solve on paper. They may also include short answer or short essay. They may be submitted handwritten or typed. Grading will be based on correctness of methods and soundness of reasoning and somewhat less on correctness of answers. It is essential that methods used be clearly stated in order to receive full credit. Due Dates: All assignments are due AT THE BEGINNING OF THE CLASS PERIOD for the date indicated, unless a due time is specifically indicated on the assignment. Assignments turned in after the due time (including middle or end of class) may be considered late at the instructor’s discretion. Exams: Exams will cover material specified by the Instructional Objectives documents. The two in-class exams may or may not be open-book, open-note; the allowed materials will be specified at least one week prior to the exams. The final exam will cover the entire course but will be weighted toward the final topics of the course. Any written or published paper resources may be used on the final exam; permitted electronic tools will be specified. 7
  8. 8. TOPICS AND SCHEDULE Number of class periods per topic, based on two 75-minute periods per week. Order of topics may vary depending on availability of guest lecturers. • Linear systems and Fourier analysis in multidimensions (1) • Imaging concepts: contrast and spatial resolution (1) • Radiation Physics: X-rays, gamma rays, particles (1) • Interaction of radiation with matter (1) • Biological effects of radiation and dosimetry (2) • X-ray radiography (5) o X-ray sources (1) o X-ray detectors (1) o Absorption contrast (1) o Energy spectra, scatter, and noise (1) o Clinical applications (1) • Tomographic reconstruction (4) o Radon transform (1) o Fourier slice theorem (1) o Simple backprojection and filtered backprojection (1) o Spatial and angular sampling (1) • X-ray CT (3) o System configurations (1) o Processing and interpretation (1) o Clinical applications (1) • Nuclear medicine (6) o SPECT and PET radioisotopes (1) o SPECT and PET system design (2) o Image reconstruction methods (1) o Physical limitations (1) o Clinical applications (1) 8

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